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Labour Unions: Employee Relations Case Study

The decline in union representation is not only a phenomenon affecting the United Auto Workers (UAW) of the United States, but it also affects many other workers’ unions in developed countries. Part of the decline is attributed to generational differences among most union members, their leaders, and new potential recruits who are looking for a different kind of engagement with employers and other stakeholder entities (Cregan and Brown 334). As unions decline in size, special interest groups that hold activist agenda are increasing in number. While a special interest group can actually have less registered members than a typical labour union, its influence is not restricted to particular company regulations and workers. Special interest groups have broader appeal and the ability to increase affiliation rapidly. In this regard, the decline of unions is not a loss to society, but an eventual evolution process that gives in to new forms of individual worker representation in a collective way that does not require actual membership. The UAW got into this position because it all along championed for better wages and benefits for workers without working on mechanisms to increase the competitiveness of the firm (Kristal 362). An unfortunate thing with trade unions and other worker representation groups is that they view the employer as the only factor worth manipulating to gain better work arrangements and compensation. A union fails to look at business environments and their underlying competitive needs. They fail to analyse the competition and the overall factors affecting the activities of the firms externally. For example, they fail to consider the political, environmental, social, technology, legal, and economic features that shape the external business environment (Kristal 385). It is inherently difficult for unions to assume a proactive role of helping employers remain competitive, earn more revenue as a result of increased market share, and be able to foot the wage and benefits bill, as a result of the blinded focus of unions. Another causative factor that led to the current position of the UAW is the overall decline in the competitiveness of the United States economy. Industry-wide subsidies and laws that protect workers, irrespective of their labour input, make it difficult for employers to run lean companies. As an example, the auto industry consisted of companies that were facing the same problems, despite the fact that these companies had different owners and business leaders. The collective running of the industry by government policy on job protection and industry competitiveness failed to consider the changing global outlook of the auto industry; where emerging economies are becoming more attractive manufacturing destinations, while most developed countries like the United States are losing their competitive edge because of sustained high wages and slow growth rates of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Kristal 370). Labour unions in the private sector can do a number of things to increase their influence. One of the things to do would be to get into contractual agreements with employers so that unions become shareholders of their respective companies. As shareholders, unions will have union rights as protected by the law. They will also have shareholder rights as recognized by the company to influence the decisions of the board and the directors of the company about its labour policies. They can also become proactive and prevent leadership misconduct and implementation of wrong strategies that may jeopardize a company’s growth prospects, causing a decline in its ability to honour labour union demands. Another strategy would be to get younger workers signing up for union membership. This would entail a review of union policies and marketing objectives to increase relevancy of unions to the younger population of workers. Union representation is losing its appeal to young workers because of generational differences between workers and the majority of union leaderships. Young workers face different generational challenges that may not be currently addressed by unions. Additionally, young workers may not see job security as more lucrative than contracts that have guaranteed benefits and compensation (Kristal 362). Such workers would opt for certainty when negotiating for employment terms than to rely on the potential benefits that unions may negotiate when companies and economies are doing well. Therefore, unions have to change their way of doing business and incorporate strategies that ensure their members benefits, especially the collective bargaining remaining relevant to a new generation of workers (Cregan and Brown 340). The decline of UAW and private sector unionism is a good thing when viewed as a consequence of organisational change. Private companies need to remain agile to change the status of their competitiveness. At the same time, they need to be able to run lean operations. Saving on costs is a universally applicable form of increasing competitiveness; however, costs can only be saved to a given point, after which cost-saving no longer becomes viable. As private companies, the cost of labour and its associated benefits costs vary, but it follows a general industry trend (Mehta and Theodore 3). Meanwhile, the decline of unions does not signify a loss of the employee relationship, but merely signifies a societal change. Employee relationships with companies will continue to thrive through other forms of representation, such as legal ones, where employees are protected by contracts and laws on individual labour rights. On the other hand, there is a growing influence of stakeholder groups on the affairs of private companies. The stakeholder groups stand for various social, economic, and environmental interests and they direct their attention to any company or industry, irrespective of its union affiliation. In this regard, the actual decline in union membership in the United States will not result in a total loss of worker representation, as any violations of labour rights could be taken up by stakeholder interest groups. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The decline in union membership is a good thing if it persists because while unions are often vocal about working conditions and compensation, their influence is only at an industry level. At a national level, they rely on the joint representation of several unions with mixed interests. A collective union representation for a country is not as effective as the clout of special interest groups that can grow affiliation rapidly from any member of the public. This happens because of the mixed interests in unions (Anzia 425). Yes, non-union workers should care about what happens to unions. Non-union workers are affected by industry trends that arise out of union activities (Welch and Bernstein 653). A decrease in the competitiveness of industries due to a relentless pursuit of higher wages and more benefits by unions may not affect new workers in the short run, but it eventually leads to reduced abilities for firms to employ more workers or increase their wages. Union lobbying to the government can also cause the enactment of laws that affect non-union workers, thus the need to care about what happens to unions. Works Cited Anzia, Sarah F. “Election Timing and the Electoral Influence of Interest Groups.” The Journal of Politics 73.2 (2011): 412-427. Print. Cregan, Christina and Michelle Brown. “The Influence of Union Membership Status on Workers’ Willingness to Participate in Joint Consultation.” Human Relations 63.3 (2010): 331-348. Print. Kristal, Tali. “The Capitalist Machine: Computerization, Workers’ Power, and the Decline in Labor’s Share within U.S. Industries.” American Sociological Review 78.3 (2013): 361-389. Print. Mehta, Chirad and Nik Theodore. Undermining the Right to Organize: Employer Behavior during Union Representation Campaigns. Illinois: Center for Urban Economic Development, 2005. Print. Welch, D and A Bernstein. “Twilight of the UAW.” Business Week 10 April 2006: 62-64. Print. We will write a custom Case Study on Labour Unions: Employee Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
ENG 1102 Ashford To Build A Fire Explication and Analysis.

use Jack London “To Build a Fire” Your paper is an explication and analysis of the story, not a simple summary of the events in the text.First, develop a thesis that clearly states your interpretation of the story you have chosen. Then provide a thorough explication that illuminates how the evidence in the text supports that thesis. As part of your explication, select one aspect of a story from our text, and write an analysis of how that element of the story works to convey meaning, support the understanding of a character, or emphasize theme. You might consider a literary element or technique such as setting, characterization, or symbolism in the stories we’ve read so far. You may choose any story that we have read in the first part of the course. However, you should not merely parrot a discussion we have already had during a class session. The intent of this assignment is to get you to think carefully and independently about a very specific aspect of how stories work – and then convey that thinking and understanding to your reader.Remember to create a clear thesis. Remember to focus narrowly on one aspect or element of the story in your analysis. Remember to explain yourself fully and to illustrate with quotes and references from the story. This is an explication and analysis only, so focus on the text itself rather than outside research.Remember also that your purpose is not to summarize the story.Length: At least 3 full pages.Format: MLA. You should include proper citation to our text at the end of the paper.
ENG 1102 Ashford To Build A Fire Explication and Analysis

I have already written the report with my group but i have to fix my part , i need Essay. I have already written the report with my group but i have to fix my part , i need you to fix my part which my name is Abdullah Alajmi and my part is ( location) just fix it and send it separately as same building, also i will send to you an attached for drawings and all i need to do column protection, i only have one column , see the attached that also i will send the brief course workI have already written the report with my group but i have to fix my part , i need Essay

Problem-solving practicum essay for around 25 pages! and formal deep outline to it

Problem-solving practicum essay for around 25 pages! and formal deep outline to it.

Problem-solving practicum essayNO PLAGIARISM!!!!!!OWN UNIQUE WORK!!!Deep thoughts and APA 6th format,GREAT GRAMMAR!i would like you to write a problem solving essay on something about getting us citizenship (naturalized )and problem about it ( it can be that a lot of people do not know english well but still getting us passport. the citizenship test its too also need to find 3 ways to solve this problem,choose 1 and explain why)please help me with the name of topic,essay and outline to essayalso the structure of essay is must be this way:-Introduction1)identify and discuss the problem or issues to talk about (5-6 pages) (about getting us naturalized citizenship problem ,test is too easy on English language part people with no language can memorize answers and easily pass it)2)3 ways of solving this problem(i mean alternative solutions 3 options)(10 pages) (for ex. change test questions every year, add more oral interviews,every time change structure of the interview or before getting us citizenship requirement can be to pass esl classes at city colleges of people do not know what to expect because people retelling to each other so even do not know english well they can memorize and pass tests)3)choose one way of solving to your opinion what is the best to solve the problem and why.( ex. requirement to pass esl course so person who apply for citizenship know english well.-ConclusionAPA format,good grammar,deep own work
Problem-solving practicum essay for around 25 pages! and formal deep outline to it

Car Sharing Scheme To Encourage Sustainable Transportation Tourism Essay

assignment helper We have an increase of population size and people will have different needs to have successful healthy and happy lives. For example, a family staying with their aged parents may regard a car as a necessity to ferry his aged parents to their medical appointment. Due to growing need, without a car to provide the mobility they need, many are force to travel in a less desirable manner. Hence, we could see that the majority of mode of transportation used by most of people in Singapore is car. Car however has led to a series of problems including air pollution, congestion and growing greenhouse gas emission because a running car’s engine produces large amount of carbon dioxide being emitted into the atmosphere every day. According to Katzev (2003), automobiles are also a major source of carbon dioxide, the so-called green-house gas, which many claim is the principle source of global warming. As such, we need to start as a group of community thinking about more sustainable form of transport in Singapore. One potential alternative to removing cars on the road is through car-sharing scheme. This research will focuses on the opportunities to present to Singapore through this car sharing scheme in our transportations. This is the more sustainable option in the long-run. In 2012, there were more than 520,000 private cars registered in Singapore. The motor vehicle population in Singapore which include private and company cars, rental cars, taxis, buses, motorcycles, goods and other vehicles were increased by 1.45% from 951,307 in 2011 to 965,192 in 2012 (Singapore Police Force, 2013). Such a large number of private cars reduce the efficiency of the transport system by taking up road space that is needed by public transport and commercial vehicles. The government had tried a series of measures to reduce car overpopulation and traffic congestion by heavily taxing the purchase and use of cars as well as with recently announced that COE prices increase to reach more than S$95,000. However, this had the unintended effect of pricing out people who are in need of a car as does not table the problem of overpopulation. This is because as the population grows, the numbers of cars on Singapore growth will continue to grow. The need of Singapore transportation become more sustainable In Singapore, despite there are a lot cars on the road, we need to decrease cars on the road to make the transport more sustainable, one potential ways by doing this is through car-sharing scheme. Singapore is a small island city-state country whereby we cannot afford to ignore the effects that transport that has on health and the environment. The environment is our priority and Singapore needs to keep the environment as pristine as possible. Our economy depends on an efficient transport system to delivery smoothly a flow of goods and personnel to where they are needed. Our limited supply of land also means that we have to allocate resources to transport system very carefully. Hence, it’s important to adopt a greener form of transport. Nevertheless, we understand that no matter how efficient Singapore public transport system are, can never fully meet every mobility need. Despite of an excellent MRT system and efficient taxi system, alternatives are required to allow for Singaporean to make different choices about going around on the island. Car-sharing scheme is such a choice for such opportunities to remove cars on the road while still allowing people to get around as they need to. Car-sharing scheme, a new approach to sustainable transportation in Singapore Car-sharing is a pay-as-you-drive transportation service introduced in many modern cities to build a sustainable urban transportation strategy and environment-friendly urban community. This amazing green business idea works because people save money, and lose the hassles of ownership, yet still able to access to a car when they need one. The car-sharing growth in Singapore is mainly boosted by the rise of COE price. Higher COE prices are driving people to look for cheaper and more flexible options and therefore would able to push people towards using public transport, or opt for car-sharing. Car-sharing allows individual to gain the benefits of using a private car without the costs of responsibility of owning a car. The benefits of car-sharing can include – more careful consideration of the necessity, duration, and distance of automobile trips, resulting in decreased vehicle use and ownership, and reduced parking demand and traffic congestion. Besides, car-sharing will be greater consideration given to alternative mode, resulting in increase of MRT passengers. Car-sharing also provide cost saving to individual and employers, energy savings and air quality benefits as well as reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Despite to its many potential benefits, car-sharing may gain in popularity in Singapore as demonstrated by increasing North American membership. Through car-sharing scheme, we are able to reduce cars on the road which led to less congestion, less pollution, less dependence on oil, and cleaner, fresher air to breath. Car-sharing Operators in Singapore There are about 300 car-sharing vehicles located in over 100 locations in Singapore. Land Transport Authority (LTA) is working closely with HDB and car-sharing operators to provide more locations across the island to make it more convenient for users to access a car-sharing service in the near future. In Singapore, currently have a few car-sharing service providers: Car Club, Whizzcar and Kah Share. Clean Mobility Singapore, an environmental start-up company that provides electric cars for hire launched in Buona Vista-Ayer Rajah area and have designated parking lots in Pixel Building, Biopolis, Fusionpolis, Insead Campus and Block 71 Ayer Rajah Crescent. Clean Mobility is part of the Energy Market Authority and Land Transport Authority’s three-year, electric-vehicle trial costing $20 million (The Straits Times, 2011). The Straits Times (2013) had reported that more than 150 people have plugged into a year-old electric car-sharing sharing scheme operated under the brand name Smove. Meantime, Kah Share, Whizz Car and Car Club have reported an increase of between 15 per cent and 35 per cent each in membership numbers (The Straits Times, 2011). Government Intervention Like many other cities, Singapore faces the challenge of managing traffic congestion. With a fixed quantity of road space, each additional vehicle adds to the demand of road space and increases congestions for every other vehicle and pollutes the environment. Singapore is a land of scarcity, the country does not have the luxury to allow everyone to own a car and that car ownership cannot be put under the same category as basic necessity such as housing (Channelnewsasia, 2013). As part of effort to reduce carbon emission from car, the Singapore government implemented the Vehicle Quota System (VQS) which allows the government to control the amount of cars on the road. Vehicle quota system – The VQS is controlled by the Certificate of Entitlement. The purpose is to limiting the number of newly purchase vehicles and aims for sustainable growth in vehicle population. The buyer has to bid to purchase a COE which is valid for 10 years before the vehicle can be use on road. The government had decided to reduce the allowable vehicle growth rate from 3 per cent per annum which was the rate since vehicle quota system introduced in 1990, to 1.5 per cent per annum in 2009, and further reduced it to one percent per annum in 2012 and 0.5 per cent per annum in February 2013. The COE premiums for small cars (up to 1,600cc) breached the $90,000 mark, finishing the year’s first bidding session at $92,100 on January 2013. This is up 12.4 per cent from last month’s bidding where prices ended at $81,889. Prices for big cars in Cat B (above 1,600 cc) also reached a new high, ending at $96,210. The previous record-breaking price was $94,502 in August 2012 (icarsclub, 2013). Figure .1: COE Open Bidding Result (Source:, 2013) Taxes and fees on vehicles – Every car in Singapore is taxed by an import (Customs) duty, registration fee, an additional registration fee, and road tax which make owning a car in Singapore very expensive. The import duty is 31% of the import value of the car, on top of that, a Registration Fee is charged for private cars and on top of that, an Additional Registration Fee (ARF) is charged. The (ARF) is 100% of the Open Market Value (OMV) of the vehicle. Public parking charges have been raised and also additional surcharges were levied to discourage car use. Others cost such as insurance, Electronic Road Pricing (ERP), petrol and maintenance cost which are extremely costly for an average earning individual and thus it helps to control car population. Hence, implementation of government regulations with soaring premiums for COEs, taxes and fees or charges, it had directly boosted the use of car-sharing for the people who need to travel around the island. For a successful car sharing scheme in Singapore, Singapore government has to play its part in addressing the problems of climate change and looking at ways and measures to reduce our emission. Research Question Our research will focus on the primary and secondary question in view of the solution to road congestion, pollution and other environmental and resource consequences of automobile dependence through car-sharing. 1.2.1 Primary Research Question Our research question is what are the benefits and opportunities for using car-sharing scheme to make Singapore transports system become more sustainable. 1.2.2 Secondary Research Questions The scopes that this research is focusing on: What is car-sharing scheme and how does Car-sharing works; What are the benefits of car-sharing scheme; Who benefits from car-sharing scheme; Which countries have already develop car-sharing scheme The Scope of the Research The study will focuses on the benefits of car sharing scheme in our transportation option for many people in meeting the transportation needs in an economically and environmentally responsible manner in Singapore. Research Method The research method we will be using is both qualitative and quantitative research approach. The quantitative method will be based on the research question analyses based on the current situation and analyses through literature review. The qualitative method shall be gathering information through sets of questionnaire on a focus group of employees, employers and retirees at a few point of location in Singapore. Research Objective The main objective of the research is to understand the problems of increasing car population which led to a serious problem of air pollution, congestion and growing of greenhouse gas emission and to identify the opportunities and benefits of car-sharing scheme as an alternative transportation mode towards sustainable form of transport in Singapore. Limitation This research will be discussing the benefits of car-sharing scheme using normal car and only within Singapore based on the knowledge and understanding gather from collected information sources and data. There will be limitation to forecast whether of the impact and growth car-sharing scheme by using electric car. It may impractical at this moment although electric car have the potential to reduce our carbon emission significantly if adopted on a large scale and government play its part promoting green vehicle by provide a range of incentives or rebates. However, the technology is still in the early stages of development. Beside, in order for electric car to have a positive impact on reducing emission, the energy grid empowering these cars need be from a sustainable source like solar or wind. Due to the cost of buying a hybrid vehicle is much higher than of a normal car, users, limited range of electric vehicle as well as the charging time. The information and data will be obtained from published news and journals except the information from questionnaires. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Definition and explanation of car-sharing scheme Car sharing is a revolution in personal transportation – urban mobility for the 21st century. Carsharing is designed to replace car ownership for people who do not need to drive to work every day, and to significantly reduce road congestion and greenhouse gas emissions. It is a service that provides 24/7 self-serve access to a network of cars stationed around the city (and increasingly, cities world-wide), which can be reserved by the hour or day via smart phones, Internet and call centres (Carsharing, 2013). Automobile, despite its numerous benefits, is largely responsible for many of the environmental and social problems in the world today (Katzev, 2003), which Singapore is one of such countries. The dependence on automobile has contributed traffic congestion and pollution to the air of Singapore. Therefore, in order to reduce traffic congestion and reduce the environmental impact contributed by automobile in Singapore, numerous efforts have been made by the government to reduce vehicle population growth rate by increasing the Car of Entitlement (COE) prices for cars or reducing the quota for COE. Car-sharing is first introduced in Singapore by NTUC Income in 1997 since the rise of COE prices and over the years, the interest in car-sharing has risen as car-sharing is the ticket for drivers who cannot afford or do not want to own a car (The Strait Times, 2012). Differ from car-pooling, car-sharing is a process whereby people share or rent a car without having to bear the responsibilities of car ownership and costs. Whereas in car-pooling, it is a group of individuals taking the same car together to get to a common destination at the same time. In car-sharing scheme, the car-sharing companies pay all of the costs of vehicle maintenance, service, and repairs. This includes insurance coverage, parking, and the cost of fuel (Katzev, 2003). Also differ from conventional car rentals, car-sharing companies operate by placing cars near to member’s home or office when the needs to use the cars arise. (Martin

Airport and aviation assignments (3000 words)

Airport and aviation assignments (3000 words).

Guidelines:All material, examples, internet and relevant books on the industry would be useful references. Trends and ideas drawn can also be based on expert opinion. Must reference all your sources using APA style.To gain good marks it is quite essential by relating examples used with business strategies adopted by the airlines and airports, including indicators. To that extent, you must also research the airline industry and draw conclusions on performance and best practices of the carriers.The report should include a comprehensive table of content, professional format and layout, use of proper citations and adding a reference list. Also, you should follow the required sequence of the three Parts and sub-Parts.The assignment length is expected to be approx. 3000 words.Please follow the attached file exactly.
Airport and aviation assignments (3000 words)

SDSU The Social Construction of Gender & Gender Performativity Discussion

SDSU The Social Construction of Gender & Gender Performativity Discussion.

As a way of reviewing and synthesizing the main course themes, you will complete 5 synthesis think pieces, one at the end of each unit. Remember that these are the culminating assignments for each unit, which means that they are our way of assessing whether you have read, understood, and processed all of the material from the unit. They are like a mini-midterm or final for each unit. Due dates are listed in the syllabus and on Canvas. Choose a tweet (or series of tweets, no longer than 3); instagram post, OR meme that explains/reflects/synthesizes at least 2 of the keywords for the unit. Write a 2-3 sentence analysis of the tweet, instagram post, or meme that unpacks its meaning in relation to the unit themes and keywords. Include parenthetical references to the course readings that relate. Late submissions will be docked one full later grade for every day they are late.Rubric1 2 Tweet/meme/instagram post chosen for analysis is relevant to course unit.1 2 Think piece successfully engages at least 2 keywords from relevant course unit.1 2 Demonstrates understanding of course readings from the relevant unit by specifically referencing at least 2, at least one of which must be connected to akeyword and a class prep (a pdf, not an online article).1 2 Shows an integrated understanding of the unit’s main themes.Example——The social construction of gender is a concept that refers to the way that social norms collectively shape the meaning of gender; they do so by creating a shared set of “meanings and symbols” enforced by the “rules, privileges, and punishments” associated with either upholding or transgressing these meanings and symbols (Wilchins 25). This meme makes the common mistake of assuming that “social construction” means that something is not real. On the contrary: the social construction of gender and sex as binary are such powerful social realities that, as Cheryl Chase says, to fall outside of these binaries is “humanly possible, but socially unthinkable” (207).…1st Keyword Male Gaze^^…2nd keyword female machismo^^
SDSU The Social Construction of Gender & Gender Performativity Discussion