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Lab Report on the Synthesis and Recrystallization of Aspirin

Lab Report on the Synthesis and Recrystallization of Aspirin. Synopsis The objective of this experiment is to enable us to conduct the synthesis of aspirin, reinforce the skills of recrystallisation and reinforce the technique of melting point determination. It is carried out to form ester from an acid and an alcohol. The main procedures are preparation of aspirin, recrystallisation of aspirin and lastly determining the melting point of the aspirin. For preparation of Aspirin, acetic anhydride is added to the measured amount of salicylic acid. Sulphuric acid is added and heated for a short period to complete reaction. Water is added once removed from heat with addition of cold water and suction filtration is carried out. As for recrystallisation of aspirin, collected crude product prepared in preparation of aspirin which is impure is dissolved in ethanol and hot distilled water is added to the solution. Once solid dissolved, weigh the watch glass and filter paper, use the filter paper to carry out suction filtration, place crystals on watch glass, weigh the dried crystal and calculate the weight of the aspirin. Then, determine the melting point of aspirin using necessary apparatus. The percent yield was about 76.7% whereas the temperature range is between 134.2 to 136.1 ÌŠÌŠC. Introduction Felix Hoffmann, a German chemist, produced a stable form of acetylsalicylic acid, more commonly known as aspirin; in 1897. Aspirin is a derivative of salicylic acid that is a mild, nonnarcotic analgesic useful in the relief of headache and muscle and joint aches. Esterification is a chemical reaction used for making esters. The reaction in which a Carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst (commonly concentrated sulphuric acid) to form an ester [CH3COOC2H5] is called Esterification reaction. It is reversible reaction and they product sweet smelling products. Esters are widely used in fragrance and flavour industry. .It is also useful in organic chemistry for the test of alcohols and carboxylic acid. It is used in polymer industry. Esterification reaction is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, lacquers, medicines, dyes, soaps and synthetic rubber. Theory Aspirin is a drug that is usually used to relieve minor aches and pain and other medical uses such as anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin is an ester that has high molecular weight and it not soluble in water hence the solid can be separated by crystallization process. Synthesis of Aspirin is known as esterification. Acetic anhydride is uses as it is cheap and forms a by-product, acetic acid which is not corrosive and can be recovered to make more acetic anhydride unlike other acetylating agents that also can be used. All addition of chemicals to aspirin is done in the fumehood. Fumehood is a local ventilation device that is designed to limit exposure to hazardous or noxious fumes, vapours and dust. A fume hood is a large piece of equipment five enclosed sides of a work area, the bottom of which is most commonly located at a standing work height. The three main purpose of the fumehood are as follows: Protect the user carrying out the experiment Protect the product and experiment from undesired reactions. Protect the environment from emission of harmful products. In the results, we calculate the percent yield and the melting temperature. Percent yield is calculated by (Mass of dried, recrystallised aspirin) ÷ (Expected mass of aspirin). In this experiment, the percent yield is 76.7% yield which shows that it is almost fully pure and contains lesser impurities. The temperature is set to 100 ÌŠC and then gradually heated up to determine the melting point. The theory melting point is 140 ÌŠC and the experiment melting point range is 134.2 ÌŠC to 136.1 ÌŠC. Procedure Preparation of Aspirin 2.4g of salicylic acid is measured in a 100ml conical flask and is recorded. 6mL of acetic anhydride is added to the salicylic acid to the flask in the fumehood. 3 to 4 drops of conc. Sulphuric acid is added to the mixture and is swirled. Mixture is heated for 10 to 15 min to complete reactions. Suction filtration is carried out and the collected crude product after washing it a little with cold water. Additional 40mL of cold water is added. Stir and rub mixture to induce crystallisation. After removing from heat, 1 mL of distilled water is cautiously added to the mixture while it is hot to decompose the excess acetic anhydride. Recrystallisation of Aspirin Crude product collected was dissolved in approx 5mL of ethanol in a 100mL conical flask. Warmed. Approx 30mL of hot distilled water is added to the solution. If solid separates, warm till solid dissolved completely. Solution allowed to cool down. The dried crystal is weighed together with the filter paper and watch glass. Weight is recorded. Suction filtration is carried out to obtain the recrystallised product using the weighed filter paper. A clean and dry watch glass is measured together with a filter paper and the weight is measured and recorded. Weight of the dried, recrystallised aspirin, the expected yield of aspirin from the amount of salicylic acid, the percentage yield of dried, recrystalllised aspirin is measured. Melting point is determined by using the optimelt melting apparatus. Results and Calculations Preparation and recrystallisation of Aspirin Mass Mass of salicylic acid (a) = 2.40g Mass of filter paperLab Report on the Synthesis and Recrystallization of Aspirin
MIT Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Discussion.

I’m working on a biology multi-part question and need an explanation to help me learn.

OVERVIEWThis week we learnt about central dogma of gene expression: “one gene–one protein” hypothesis, which means one Gene makes one protein (Polypeptide). This is two-step process, in the first step genetic code stored in DNA transcribed into RNA. In the second steps message transcribed in RNA is translated into amino acids by Ribosomes. The rules for translation of the coded message into amino acids are contained in the genetic code. This chain of events is full of glitches in the form of errors in both the incorporation of nucleotides into RNA and amino acid incorporation in proteins. Errors in protein synthesis disrupt cellular fitness, cause disease phenotypes, and shape gene and genome evolution. Gene editing may help to repair errors.undefinedThe 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has gone to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing.” That method, formally known as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing but often called simply CRISPR, allows scientists to precisely cut any strand of DNA they wish and repair it. Thus, the new gene-editing tool CRISPR — can make heritable changes in human embryos. Good part of CRISPR is that it may give us the cure to HIV, genetic diseases, and some cancers, and will help address the world’s hunger crisis. Yet even the most minuscule changes to DNA could have numerous unexpected ethical and societal consequences and may even have unimaginable power to control evolution.Watch the video and read the suggested reference to answer the following questions:What does CRISPR stand for?Which type of organism’s harbor/contain this system? And what is the CRISPR-Cas9 system function in those organisms?For medical applications, provide a guide how the CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to fix gene errors in cystic fibrosis or any other genetic disorders. (use the video and reference listed below).Basic mechanism of evolution is gene mutation. Discuss how CRISPR can control evolution process?Gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 is not without ethical dilemma, can you provide an example where the clinical application of CRISPR-Cas9 can lead to ethical issues? Provide one example.Suggested references for this discussion:
MIT Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Discussion

MTH 215 Troy University Discrete Math Questions.

You would be able to do this after the material on functions (in particular, the mod function). Consider the affine cipher f(p) = 3p+4 (mod 26), where p is the plaintext representation of the character under consideration. For example the plaintext of the letter A is 0, B is 1, C is 2, … Z is 25. Use this cipher to encrypt the first four letters of your last name (changing the numbers back to letters at the end. Just email me or Canvas message me your answers. my last name in BRYE Affine cipher You would be able to do this after the material on functions (in particular, the mod function). Consider the affine cipher f(p) = 3p+4 (mod 26), where p is the plaintext representation of the character under consideration. For example the plaintext of the letter A is 0, B is 1, C is 2, … Z is 25. Use this cipher to encrypt the first four letters of your last name (changing the numbers back to letters at the end.
MTH 215 Troy University Discrete Math Questions

San Jose State University Neural Network Project Paper

San Jose State University Neural Network Project Paper.

Please a topic from the below list and create a one-page essay answering the question noted below. Please use at least one reference and ensure it’s in APA format (as well as the in-text citation). Also, ensure to NOT COPY DIRECTLY from any source (student or online source), rather rephrase the author’s work and use in-text citations were necessary.Name the basic constructs of an ensemble model. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ensemble models?List and briefly describe the nine-step process in conducting a neural network project.What is the main difference between classification and clustering? Explain using concrete examples.What are the privacy issues with data mining? Do you think they are substantiated?** Please note you have minimal space and time to complete the assignment, do NOT write an introduction, rather just answer the question noted above **Note: The essay should be one-page at most (double spaced) and should include an APA cover page and at least one reference in APA format.
San Jose State University Neural Network Project Paper

Interviewing a Hiring Manager Discussion Paper

online dissertation writing Interviewing a Hiring Manager Discussion Paper.

In this assignment you are to connect with a leader whom you admire, either the same leader you observed in Week 3 or a different leader. The main requirement for this assignment is that the leader you interview should have experience hiring employees.After reading the materials for Week 3, you should have a good idea of questions to ask your leader (be sure to have several written questions prepared in advance of your interview). Be prepared to take notes during your interview, which should last about an hour. A good question to get the conversation started is “tell me how you got to where you are today?” Don’t ask yes/no questions… use open-ended questions that allow the leader to elaborate.Once you have completed your interview and are ready to write your paper, using the field notes you collected during your interview, reflect upon the following questions:What did you learn from the hiring leader/manager?What challenges do they face?Based upon what you have learned from readings, what suggestions would you make to the manager you interviewed?How did your interview shape your thoughts about your future career goals?How might you change your own job searching approach given what you learned from the hiring leader/manager?Three key ideas drawn from this week’s readings3-4 page paper, double-spacedPlease format your paper per APA requirements including a title page, proper page numbering, appropriate font and font sizes, and 1” margins. Be sure to include a brief abstract explaining the purpose of the paper.Your paper should comply with all APA requirements, including but not limited to proper citations and references, page numbering, margins, and use of a title page, abstract, and reference page. The body of your paper alone should meet the page requirements listed above. Please consult your APA Manual for specific information on how to prepare your paper.Setting Up for the Interview:You’ll want the interviewee to talk expansively on the topics, so you want to develop open-ended questions that encourage that. Conducting an ethnographic research interview typically begins with a “grand tour” question, which is a good way to launch the interview and encourages your subject to open up. For this interview, your grand tour question might be, “How did you get to where you are today?” The grand tour question is usually followed by more detailed question, so essentially the interview follows a funnel shape. A good interview will mean that your subject is speaking more than you. You’ll want to avoid yes/no questions. Another mistake is to ask multiple questions at one time.Some more detailed questions you may consider based on our readings and your posts over the past few weeks:How do you recruit employees who align with the organizational mission and vision?What traits are good predictors of job performance?How do you identify those traits in prospective employees?What is the most important quality you look for in a prospective employee?What do you look for in the applicant’s job history?How do you spot ambition in an applicant?What clues do you pay attention to in order to determine an applicant’s character?Are they having trouble identifying successful applicants for open positions in their organization?Again, these are only suggestions and asking all of these would likely be far too many for an hour interview. You’ll want to be careful not to rapid-fire questions; your interviewee will feel they’re being interrogated. You should let your interviewee know that the interview will take about an hour so they’re comfortable in providing you with more extensive answers.Be prepared to take notes during your interview. Your interviewee may ask to see your final write-up before you draft your paper. A copy of your interview notes is fine. You do not need to share your analysis.Be sure to act interested and to thank your subject. They are doing you a favor.Analyzing Your Data:Once you’ve concluded the interview, you’ll do an analysis of the data before sitting down to draft your paper. This typically follows five steps:Transcription – reviewing your notes for clarity in this case. In a larger research manuscript with multiple interviews, transcription would take on a much greater role.Description – coding; looking for themes emerging in your notes.Analysis – look for the relationship in the data and the relationship between the data and the key ideas and theoretical dimensions of the readings.Interpretation – this is the opportunity for you to compare and contrast your results (what you heard in your interview) with at least three of the key ideas from the readings.Display – as you write your paper you may choose to use verbatim quotes from your subject or a mini-case study they shared during the interview.Constructing Your Paper:Once you have completed your analysis and are ready to draft your paper, reflect upon the following questions:What did you learn from the leader/hiring manager?What challenges do they face?Based upon what you have learned from readings, what suggestions would you make to the manager you interviewed or other hiring managers you may advise?How did your interview shape your thoughts about your future career goals?How might you change your own job searching approach given what you learned from the hiring leader/manager?In your paper, you should connect to at least three key ideas, concepts or theories from the readings to your findings and/or recommendations.Your paper should be at least three pages and not to exceed five. I will stop reading at page five and grade based on whether above questions have been answered. Papers should follow APA guidelines, be double-spaced, 1 inch margins and 12-point font. Cover page, abstract, and reference list are not part of the three to five page count.Please review the included assignment details. If you prefer you can just make up a person who would be a hiring manager to conduct the interview. I will attach some of the class readings as well.
Interviewing a Hiring Manager Discussion Paper

Internal and External Analysis

Internal and External Analysis.

Course Project: Adidas (Continued)Creating an effective strategic management plan relies heavily on analysis of both your existing company and factors in the business environment that impact decision making. This is an essential part of the business process because it allows management to keep informed on changes and the information gathered is used to set goals and determine the future for the company. This assignment will require you to analyze the internal and external environment of your company and then use the information you’ve gathered to set strategic goals for the business.For the assignment this week, write a paper that’s at least two pages in length and completes the following:Create a SWOT analysis for you company that is specific and explains choices thoroughly. Avoid being generic with your choices. Relate them directly to the industry and business that you’ve chosen. A minimum of four points should be present under each heading.The internal portion of the SWOT could include quality of human capital, product lines, employee relations, and current internal business processes. Outside research is recommended.The external portion of the SWOT could consider sociocultural factors, competitors, technology trends, suppliers’ potential legal issues, and even changes in the economy. Again, outside research is recommended.Based off of the information that you’ve gathered, create three strategic goals for your chosen company.The strategic goals that you create here will set the stage for all of the course project assignments ahead. It’s extremely important to choose long-term goals that fit with where you think the company should be headed and make use of the information you’ve gathered. Feel free to reach out to your instructor for guidance about creating the strategic goals, since they’re essential to the ongoing course project.
Internal and External Analysis

The Liberal Position of Democrats and Republicans Essay (Critical Writing)

Table of Contents Introduction Democrats Republicans The Immigration Issue Conclusion Reference Introduction The United States of America has majorly been a liberal society where the will of people is given priority. It is believed that people should be left free to work and enjoy the fruits of their labor. In addition, individuals come first than society and therefore any government should place the people first. In this regard, the right to own property and the principles of capitalism are given great emphasis whenever leaders stand to speak to the public. However, agreement is not unanimous and there has been arguments regarding the role of the state. The republicans and the democrats have different views regarding where the principles of “Minimal State” and “Active State” should apply. Democrats Democrats believe that it is the role of the government to protect its people from exploitation by others. As a result, they usually propose implementation of tax that would in turn be used to give vital services to the less privileged. On the same note, democrats believe that economic inequality is a social evil and thus advocate for government intervention to ensure equality is attained (Rossides, 1998). They are also accommodative and believe that over time, the principles of governance will have to change. Consequently, democrats tend to be “Active State” liberals as far as the economy is concerned but advocate for a moderate state in social freedom. Republicans On the other hand, republicans are conservatives who believe that there are some issues in society that cannot change. They are very strict in matters of social morality and thus oppose in totality issues like gay marriages. Conversely, they have special regard in property rights and less government interference in economic affairs of the nation (Rossides, 1998). In other words, republicans stand for less social freedom and increased economic freedom. Therefore, they are known to advocate for minimal state in economic matters but active state in issues affecting morality, national defense and crime. The Immigration Issue An example of an issue that can depict how differently the republicans and democrats look at issues is the immigration debate. The American government has made significant strides in ensuring that its border, especially with Mexico, is impervious. However, people still illegally find their way into the U.S. In this regard, the Dream Act was proposed to put into check these issues. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Democrats support this Act which seeks to provide legal status, education and jobs to individuals who came to the United States when under sixteen years of age but are yet to attain the age of 30. On the contrary, republicans propose stiff measures like sending all illegal immigrants back to their home countries (Rossides, 1998). On this issue, democrats are depicted as “Minimal State” liberals and republicans as “Active State” liberals. Libertarians on the other hand argue that those already in the U.S. whether illegally or not should be left while measures should be taken to curtail illegal immigration in future. Conclusion Each party has different thoughts on different issues. While one party supports freedom in economic issues, the other encourages social freedom. Therefore, one cannot conclusively say that a given party qualifies to be called “Minimal State” or “Active State” liberals. In this regard, depending on the nature of the issue being addressed democrats or republicans can fit either description. Nonetheless, both parties believe in protecting private property and some freedom for people. Reference Rossides, D. W. (1998). Social Theory: It’s Origins, History, and Contemporary Relevance. Lanham: Rowman

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