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L2 – PCs2.1-5

L2 – PCs2.1-5. I’m working on a Javascript question and need guidance to help me study.

L2 – PCs2.1-5
L2 – PCs2.1-5
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Do the following programming challenges on pp. 149-150:

Programming Challenges 1,
Programming Challenges 2,
Programming Challenges 3,
Programming Challenges 4,
Programming Challenges 5

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IF NEEDED, put your solutions in a folder LAB_2. zip it and submit it
L2 – PCs2.1-5

SOWK 6090 Schizophrenia Over Time: Experiences Living With the Illness. I need help with a Psychology question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Submit a 3- to 4-page paper, supported by at least 4 scholarly resources (not including DSM-5), in which you address the following:

Describe Saks’s or McGough’s experiences with schizophrenia. Identify onset, associated features (specifically referencing the positive and negative symptoms), development, and course.
Explain how you would use the Clinician Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity measure and the WHODAS to help confirm your diagnosis.
Explain how you would plan treatment and individualize it for Saks or McGough. Support your response with references to scholarly resources. In your explanation, consider the following questions:

What are the long-term challenges for someone living with the illness?
What social, family, vocational, and medical supports are needed for long-term stabilization?

Briefly explain how race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, religion, or other identity characteristics may influence an individual’s experience with schizophrenia.

Experiences of schizophrenia are not homogeneous; there is wide variety in onset, course of illness, and combinations of symptoms. Social workers need to be able to understand the different manifestations and pathways of the illness to plan interventions. Social work services play a key role in stabilizing crises, supporting family coping, and influencing overall quality of life and outcomes of individuals with schizophrenia. In this Assignment, you practice applying this necessary individualization.
To prepare: In the Learning Resources, focus on the associated features, development, and course of the illnesses in the schizophrenia spectrum. Also focus on descriptions of the disorder and the way it develops for different individuals.
Choose two articles from the list in the Learning Resources that apply to treatment support and interventions for the schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders chapter in the DSM 5. Choose either Saks or McGough to focus on for this assignment.
The ted talk for McGough is this:
SOWK 6090 Schizophrenia Over Time: Experiences Living With the Illness

Should the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility Be Replaced?. Should the voluntary approach to corporate social responsibility be replaced? A critical review of Volkswagen and the automotive industry Many would argue that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a critical aspect for large multinational companies especially those that are consumer orientated organisations whereby stakeholders expect businesses to actively incorporate social and environmental concerns throughout their decision-making processes (Giovannucci et al, 2014.) However, the term CSR is often used as a broad concept and does not have one universally accepted definition. Consequently, it can be used to describe business activity that does not necessarily reflect the important aspects of CSR. An accurate definition of CSR should be when a company is conscious of their impact on society and actively takes on the responsibility to contribute towards sustainability across all communities. The four key aspects of which a CSR report can comprise of are sustainability / environment which describes how businesses are working towards being sustainable and usually includes energy usage, efficiency and future targets. Sourcing / supply chain which is how companies work with suppliers to address various issues with responsible sourcing and labour conditions. Community which is how businesses are involved in giving back to the community whether it be investing in local schools, charitable causes or disaster relief. Finally, employee/workplace describes the core values of the company and how they are integrated into achieving employee satisfaction (Bockisch, 2015.) This essay reviews the use of CSR in the automotive industry and primarily focuses on sustainability and environmental aspects of CSR. Commitment to CSR in the automotive industry is of high importance because of the unsurprisingly destructive nature to the environment caused during the manufacturing processes and obviously from the cars themselves. Consumers are dependent on the automotive manufacturers’ products to function in day-to-day activities which then puts pressure on the companies to not only comply with the minimum legal requirements but to take the initiative to engage in further activities whether it be social, environmental or simply charitable donations. As a result, CSR can be used as a very powerful model for businesses to enhance their reputation, gain market share and increase profits (Zhakypova, 2016.) However, producing these reports does not necessarily mean they are always a reliable source of information on socially responsible behaviour which will become apparent when case studies on Volkswagen, Ford and BMW are discussed and analysed in depth. Volkswagen are renowned industry leaders when it comes to the automotive industry and have always been associated with German quality and reliability. At least that was until September 2015 when the Volkswagen badge became known to one of the biggest scandals in automotive history, the so called “diesel gate”. However, only a week prior to the rigged emission tests coming to public light Volkswagen were selected as the global leader in the automotive industry for their commitment to the environment by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index and were ranked 11th in the world for their work in CSR according to the Reputation Institute (Kaye, 2014.) This all started around 2009 when Volkswagen had a dominant share in the European market but little presence in the US market and so to achieve their aim of being top of the global market it made sense to expand within the US market. Volkswagen used the unique selling point from their European diesel engines, low carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and high fuel efficiency, miles per gallon, to market their cars to the US market (Armstrong, 2017.) However, emission testing standards in the US are different to the European standards and at the time the requirement for the Euro 5 regulation was that diesel emissions for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) had to be less than 0.180 and 0.005 g/km respectively. Whereas the maximum acceptable level of NOx in the US is 0.04 g/km. (European Parliament, 2016.) Tests conducted by a non-governmental organisation prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to act which led to Volkswagen admitting to using “defeat devices” to rig emission tests (Rifkhan, 2017.) These devices were not physical devices but rather software built into the cars that could detect when a test was being carried out and subsequently alter the performance to improve emissions. This meant that the actual emissions produced were as much as 40 times the acceptable level and it was estimated that 11 million cars had been fitted with this software (Channel 4 News, 2014.) A possible solution to achieving reduced NOx and air pollutants from exhaust fumes is for the all governing bodies to come together and meet with the car manufacturers to set standardised tests and have one acceptable emission level that applies throughout the world. Then continue to refine the upper allowable limits with advancement in technology to set realistic targets. As part of Volkswagen’s Strategy 2018 documented in the sustainability report from the year preceding the emission scandal their goal was “to be the world’s most successful, fascinating and sustainable automobile manufacturer” (Volkswagen, 2014.) From reading through the report it’s easy to see not only why Volkswagen were ranked so highly regarding CSR behaviour but also that statement was convincingly achievable. Volkswagen’s approach to CSR was broken up into three main sections economy, people and environment, as shown in Figure 1, and support over 100 projects across these sections. Figure 1: Volkswagen sustainability action areas taken from (Volkswagen, 2015.). It is now known that data provided in the 2014 sustainability report claiming to meet emission targets was false which can be used as proof that voluntary CSR does not always portray the truth. This allows businesses to “greenwash” stakeholders into buying into their businesses leading them to believe they are acting socially responsible which was the case for Volkswagen and since has exposed questions to the whole of the automotive industry. This is possibly the biggest problem with voluntary approach to CSR as it works on the basis that data is self-reported and therefore any major issues will not be addressed since they want to positively influence stakeholders. An obvious answer is to include an external audit to question the CSR activity of each business, but this takes time and money, so it could have negative impact as businesses may not choose to commit to CSR at all. Naturally, it would be easy to assume a mandatory approach in the automotive industry to overcome the flawed voluntary system but even then, the issues would not be solved. For instance, a law could be created stating that a minimum percentage of net profit has to be allocated to CSR but this allows businesses to participate in the same activities year upon year, like most are currently doing, and not deal with the crucial social and environmental matters that they should be working towards improving such as sustainability in the supply chain, reducing overall CO2 emissions etc. To get around this loophole legislation or a governing body could be created specifically for certain industries, in this case automotive, that evaluates the most critical matters in sustainability and sets minimum targets which must be achieved. Less important issues could still be addressed but would not be compulsory. The advantages of this method are that each industry will have different aspects of CSR that are mandatory therefore all aspects of CSR will be covered across all industries. Just because the voluntary approach was exploited by Volkswagen does not make it a bad concept as both BMW and Ford have shown in recent years. In 2010 Ford set a goal to reduce factory CO2 emissions per vehicle produced by 30% in 2025 and by 2017 this was achieved reaching a reduction of 32%. Not only that but they are working towards minimising manufacturing waste by focusing on reducing single use plastics and incorporating more recyclable materials to achieve zero waste to landfill (Ford, 2017.) BMW have set targets to reduce the average CO2 emissions across the whole of their European car fleet by 50% in 2020 compared to 1995. BMW are on track to meet this target as they have reduced CO­2 emissions from 212 to 122 g/km in 2017, a reduction of 42% (BMW, 2018.) The detail that is important to note is that this is the average level of CO2 produced from their car fleet, so it fails to state that there are cars produced by all manufacturers, Volkswagen, Ford and BMW, which will be well above this value and due to the introduction of smaller hybrid and electric cars this level can be reduced accordingly. This is apparent when looking at Ford as their F-series pickup truck is the bestselling car in 2018 which is not fuel efficient compared to say the Fiesta. To overcome this issue realistic targets could be set for manufacturers to shift to fully electric fleet by a certain date which is like the current European regulations where the average fleet CO2 emissions must reduce to 95 g/km by 2021 (European Commission, n.d.) However, shifting to fully electric cars right now is also not the answer as there are implications with the infrastructure in that there are not nearly enough charging points, issues with battery mileage and even generating enough electricity to charge them. In addition, the increase of production of electric cars puts a demand for cobalt, a material used in the production of lithium ion batteries which poses severe sustainability and supply chain issues as almost 60% of cobalt is mined in the Democratic Republic of Congo and there are not only poor labour conditions, but children are also used (Mehta, 2018.) Whilst CSR has the potential to become a decisive aid to achieve social and environmental sustainability, it is currently misused as a marketing tool to improve reputation and public image to increase share and profits. The voluntary approach has at times only benefitted businesses rather than the society but even the other extreme approach of mandatory CSR has implications associated with it. For the automotive industry a compromise between the two approaches would be best as it still allows manufacturers to voluntarily contribute to causes they believe in whilst meeting standards for certain crucial subjects. Bibliography Armstrong, R. (2017). The Volkswagen scandal shows that corporate culture matters. [online] Financial Times. Available at: [Accessed 23 Sep. 2018]. BMW. (2018). BMW Sustainable Value Report. [online] Available at:–EN.pdf [Accessed 5 Oct. 2018]. Bockisch, C. (2015). 4 Main Sections of a Corporate Social Responsibility Report. [online] LinkedIn. Available at: [Accessed 23 Sep. 2018]. Channel 4 News. (2015). Volkswagen scandal: is this the tip of the iceberg?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Oct. 2018]. Corporate Watch. (2006). What’s wrong with corporate social responsibility?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Sep. 2018]. European Commission. (no date.). Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars – Climate Action – European Commission. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Oct. 2018]. European Parliament. (2016). Comparison of EU and US car emissions legislation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Oct. 2018]. Ford. (2018). Sustainability Report 2017/18: Ford Motor Company. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Oct. 2018]. Giovannucci, D., von Hagen, O. and Wozniak, J. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility and the Role of Voluntary Sustainability Standards. Voluntary Standard Systems, pp.359-384. Greer, L. (2015). Volkswagen takes down corporate social responsibility in its plunge to the bottom of the sea. [online] NRDC. Available at: [Accessed 2 Oct. 2018]. Kaye, L. (2014). VW Scandal a Jolt to ‘CSR’ That Reaches Far Beyond the Auto Industry. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Oct. 2018]. Mehta, A. (2018). Electric car makers in drive to remove human rights stain from cobalt | Ethical Corporation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Oct. 2018]. Rifkhan, M. (2017). View of Corporate Social Responsibility: Does it Really Matter? Case study on Emission Scandals of Volkswagen and Mitsubishi. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Sep. 2018]. Volkswagen. (2015). Volkswagen Sustainability Report 2014. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Oct. 2018]. Volkswagen. (2018). Volkswagen Sustainability Report 2017. [online] Available at: [Accessed 1 Oct. 2018]. Zhakypova, A. (2016). Dissecting Corporate Sustainability Reporting: VW Emissions Scandal case. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Sep. 2018]. Should the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility Be Replaced?
The Art Institute of Tampa Building Arch Design Requirements Discussion.

I’m working on a engineering case study and need a sample draft to help me study.

This week we will look at Chapter 3: Building Blocks from the 2010 ADA document. Page 104You will carefully go through all the sections of this chapter -301 General 141302 Floor or Ground Surfaces 141303 Changes in Level 142304 Turning Space 143305 Clear Floor or Ground Space 144306 Knee and Toe Clearance 146307 Protruding Objects 148308 Reach Ranges 150309 Operable PartsThe assignment includes a presentation and case study for each section of this chapter. Your case study MUST HAVE the following -1- Image of an example for section 302 – 3092- Hand-drawn diagrams/ sketches for section 302 – 3093- The floor plan/ sections of your case study buildings. You will mark each section’s requirements in the case study building you are studying. is a youtube video that can be helpful for this week’s content –
The Art Institute of Tampa Building Arch Design Requirements Discussion

Judicial Review in a Democracy

The three main branches of the government are the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary. The Judiciary branch of the government acts as a law enforcement authority, also it has powers to make or strike down a law if it violates the constitution. Aside from that the judicial branch also has a well-known power which is recommended by the Supreme courts called “The Judicial Review”. In simple words it is a legal process with different branches in which high courts deals with the performance and effectiveness of the other two branches of the government (Legislative and Executive) if they are violating the constitution. This process is carried out by exceptional court and not by the regular courts in many countries e.g. Germany, Australia (Masilamani, 2014). This ideology was established in the case of (Marbury vs. Madison) by court in 1803. This topic is explained further more in detail of what is judicial review, its role, controversies, its limits and accountability of decision maker to the electorates also how it is important in democracy. In our democratic society people’s voice and justice is given more importance and to bring it into reality government has been formed of three branches which all have equal importance. One of them which is to be discussed about is the Judicial system and one of its main process of Judicial Review. Judicial Review is very significant process used to rectify the role of courts played in administrative decisions for fair procedures and the powers granted by the parliament (Masilamani, 2014). To make sure that the courts are not biased and free of any kind of influence from public or any political institution it is important for the judicial system to be independent to make rational decisions, the courts are made independent to lay down the principle of all people treated fairly and equally under the law (Masilamani, 2014). The court system is hierarchical in nature and there is different type of courts for different cases and nowadays the most used legal system is the common law. Perhaps the judicial system plays an important role in some democratic society and in others it is the parliament sovereignty e.g. UK which means the parliament is the supreme lawmaker body and courts cannot nullify acts of it (Masilamani, 2014). The courts are active to a certain degree depending on the type of government, the Judicial Activism is an e.g. from USA in which courts overrule legislative and government actions if they violate the constitution one e.g. is Roe vs. Wade (1973) the decision made in judicial activism did not allow the restricted laws on abortion which violated the constitutional rights (Masilamani, 2014). Although, Judicial Review and Judicial Activism are different but they are used in the same context. The main purpose for setting a separate court, a higher authority for judicial review is for it to evaluate the actions made by the public bodies to be within the lawful boundary and they do not misuse their power. Hence, the decision makers in Supreme Court are impartial and independent and are provided with incentives from the government so that they cannot be corrupted. JR is used when all the other plans have failed and as its name it’s a review of decision making under the rule of law. The Judicial Review’s role in a democratic society is to provide the structure of norms written in the constitution and its meaning and not the rights (Stone, 2008). Somehow it is a complex process and has restrictions in particular matters which is applied on decision makers and it effects their ability to make right decisions (McKay, 1983). The author has mentioned three types of restrictions on decision makers in judicial review; first is the problem of interpretation which is different from ordinary legislation, second is the courts are administered to decide the compatibility of one law with another, as well as the agreement of regulations, rules and executive actions with explanation of legislative will and the third is when constitution or courts are regularly required to choose matters that involve critical judgments about the kind of society in which we live in. This shows every judge is bounded by the rules of precedent and stare decisis which is that a high court decision is legally binding over lower court, the judge has to follow the decision made in higher court in a previous case with same context for same case in present (McKay, 1983). The stare decisis describes the process of it. On the other hand, there are some controversies on the role of judicial review in courts which is described The Undemocratic Character of Judicial Review, it is a limitation in powers of JR (McKay, 1983). The author explained that judicial review did not mean judicial supremacy its just to review the what constitution states about the authority, power and its limits for the government in public welfare (McKay, 1983). There are some controversies regarding the judges over JR as some can be bold and can overturn the decisions but most do not, the rights of JR are debatable in countries like Canada and Australia with complex government systems the structural view of judicial review comes in light (Stone, 2008). In the article the author describes the judicial review of two types structural and rights based judicial review however, structural reviews are the subject of dispute and thus typically generate big and difficult piles of case (Stone, 2008). The structural judicial review is about methods of how government is operated but it divides the power between constituent parts of the government, one e.g. would be complex body of the Australian government which has divided its power in different branches including for judicial review. Also, countries like Canada, Australia and USA have different roles for judicial review (Stone, 2008). The Australian government has same or close constitutional structure to Canada and USA, so in the case of Australian government the judicial branch is a separate set up and is ultimate and assertive power (Stone, 2008). The controversy rising upon the legitimacy given to judicial system to exercise its power freely may have been resulted in them crossing their legitimate boundaries a few times (Stone, 2008). The author also stated about the right based judicial review or democracy-based objections to legal rights which narrow downs to three points which are; firstly, the moral nature of rights topic increases the trouble of logical disagreement. Secondly are the constitutional rights are stated usually in general language and in the unavailability of textual guidance, judges applying constitutional rights have more options to decide among competing conceptions of hypothetically expressed moral principles in the view of on-going dispute (Stone, 2008). It could be that when they make a decision on a case, they are striking their own views. Thirdly, the objections set aside the idea of political insulation of judges makes them superior protectors of minorities and refuse that judicial enforcement of rights involves the reinforcement of democratic moral standards (Stone, 2008). One can say that the constitution is full of concepts stated in abstract and general terms for which judges are needed to throw light on the specific content (Stone, 2008). Afterall the judges clear out the legislative intent to make the statutes easily available for the society to understand the constitution better. But the constant pressure to clarify the legislative intent at a higher degree cannot always guarantee specific meaning for the constitutional language due to some vagueness in the text which may sometimes require them to focus on the natural interpretation of the text (Stone, 2008). The natural interpretation can also be said as the unwritten text that is needed some times when the written constitutional text does not include principles required. The Australian government has a limited notion for the rule of law but they still identify it along with minority rights in the unwritten text of constitutional principles (Stone, 2008). The textual vagueness and inference of the principles from the text always will need judicial discretion and one can point out the structural sphere with interpretation of constitutional rights (Stone, 2008). At last the author has further described and argued about the structural based and rights based judicial review in detail and how it works in different countries as she has mainly focused on the federal judicial review and narrow downs for the need of constitutional balance and right distribution of power among the government bodies to function accordingly to the given principles. As the government cannot always provide the perfect solution always and perhaps courts have to step in. The judicial role is reasonable because they are particularly fitting to provide a balanced interpretation of the constitution as they aim to protect the rights of individuals (Stone, 2008). The other article on the controversy about the judicial review as the role of courts states is though the judges in JR help individuals to protect their rights by their position and power they get but there is some procedural objection to JR by critics in the article is; first is majoritarian through which judicial review could be said as illegitimate, second is participatory in which claims are that JR only focuses on important controversial political cases rather than ordinary cases, third is disagreement based on out come assessments and last is the methodological which questions the legitimacy of whether the part of institutional framework is of well-maintained society (Doherty

MU Organizations Responsible for Funding with Financial Aid Discussion

essay writer free MU Organizations Responsible for Funding with Financial Aid Discussion.

I’d love to hear your thoughts on all things related to finance in this discussion! You can choose from ONE of the suggested topics below and write a short paragraph in response:How did you do in the Financial Literacy quiz and Investor Knowledge quiz (链接到外部网站。)? Do you think this week’s lesson is helpful if you were to take the quizzes again? Explain briefly.Read this article (链接到外部网站。) from the Wall Street Journal. Do you agree with what’s in the article? What is your take on the market’s rebound? Explain briefly.Do you have any experience trading stocks, bonds, bitcoins, currencies or any other tradables? Share with us your strategy, advice, future plans etc.Do you have any knowledge and/or experience in the latest development in the financial system such as crowdfunding and FinTech? Share with us!
MU Organizations Responsible for Funding with Financial Aid Discussion

Addressing the Problem of Staff Shortage Report (Assessment)

Introduction High rates of staff turnover affect a range of companies functioning in the global business setting. Without proper control over retention and turnover rates of staff members within an organization, the threat of a drop in productivity rates and overall performance emerged. The factors underlying the phenomenon of staff shortage are highly variable in their nature, being associated with personal issues, organizational concerns, and internal and external influences. To improve the quality of employees’ organizational performance and reduce the levels of staff shortage, as well as boost the rates of employee retention, an HR manager will need to insp4ect the issues associated with the organizational environment, career prospects for staff members, and other concerns. To address the problem of staff shortage, one will need to embrace multidisciplinary strategies and analyze the existing factors as the multiple elements of a single system within which employees function. As a result, a coherent solution will be produced. Due to the necessity to alter employee perception, companies will have to reconsider their organizational values and philosophies as the platform for constructing a dialogue with their employees. As a result, changes in employees’ perception of their roles and responsibilities within the firm will change, and their levels of loyalty toward a company will rise gradually. Therefore, the approach based on talent management and investment in staff members’ professional and personal development should be seen as the vectors for further progress. By applying the suggested techniques Ito the contemporary corporate setting, one will increase employee retention rates, whereas the problem of high staff turnover levels will be resolved. Analysis Employee Retention as a Complex HRM Issue The problem of employee retention has been affecting a wide range of industries over the past decade. Ahammad and Al-Habil attribute the observed concern to the inability of HR managers to handle diversity in the workplace (66). Causing cultural distance, the lack of skills in meeting the needs of culturally diverse staff has detrimental effects on the rates of retention and increases staff turnover levels drastically. The process of knowledge transfer within an organization is affected heavily by the “national cultural distance” (Ahammad and Al-Habil 66). Therefore, introducing changes to the corporate culture and the approaches toward managing diversity is an imperative step for further HRM-related improvements. Since Ahammad and Al-Habil analyze the problem of employee shortage in depth and discuss sociocultural factors impacting it, the article was considered an important addition to the list of references. Moreover, the research methods chosen by Ahammad and Al-Habil are characterized by high levels of trustworthiness and credibility. Thus, the article was deemed as suitable for the analysis. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Factors Affecting Employee Turnover Rates Job satisfaction The range of issues that may affect an employee’s choice to quit are numerous and pertaining to both personal issues and external factors. However, among the strongest influences on the levels of employee retention and the threat of staff turnover increase, job satisfaction takes the first place (Terera and Ngirande 484). According to the study performed by Terera and Ngirande, the presence of rewards increases the possibility of building staff retention rates high (488). The study also points to the need to introduce incentives that could encourage employees to excel in their performance, although keeping the salary rates high is also a crucial aspect to consider. Particularly, the authors ate that “most employees stay in the same institution for a long time because of the economic gains they receive from that institution” (Terera and Ngirande 486). Therefore, the research implies that building a corporate culture based on a reward system is likely to lead to a rise in loyalty levels among employees. Due to the use of the structured questionnaire as the main data collection tool, Terera and Ngirande have managed to perform a well put-together research. The adoption of the quantitative analysis seems legitimate in the specified case since it allows defining the link between job satisfaction and financial incentives. While the application of the quantitative analysis has limited the possibility of representing the target population fully and the application of a questionnaire has reduced the amount of data, the study has delivered comprehensive and important results. Organizational commitment As sown in the study discussed above, enhancing loyalty among employees is a critical step in improving retention rates and reducing the threat of high turnover rates in an organization. However, the need for loyalty enhancement begs the question of whether a change of an HRM practice will lead to a drop in turnover rates. In order to create the setting in which organizational commitment is possible, one should introduce the philosophy of talent management and investing in staff members, especially as far as their health is concerned. Creating the environment in which employees will feel psychologically and physically comfortable is a crucial component of a positive HRM practice (Hassan and Mahmood 23). The promotion of organizational commitment through the creation of a more inviting setting for staff members to work in will lead to a change in employees’ attitudes toward their roles and responsibilities within an organization. For instance, by offering wellness policies and courses for increasing the range of employees’ competencies, HR managers can reduce the levels of absenteeism among staff members (Hassan and Mahmood 24). The study by Hassan and Mahmood should be incorporated into the analysis since it offers a unique perspective on the issue of employee commitment and connects it to both internal and external factors, including organizational environment and the system of beliefs that staff members uphold. Experience and competence Another important aspect of reducing staff turnover rates and increasing their retention involves providing them with a chance for professional and individual growth. Therefore, the HRM practices that a company should consider when addressing the concerns of high turnover and low retention should include the focus on investing in the staff’s growth. The ability to gain new experiences and grow as experts has been proven to have a profound impact on the staff’s willingness to remain committed to their companies (Ekrot et al. 154). Since the study by Ekrot et al. employed a well-developed analytical method and used a wide range of resources to support its claim, it was deemed as an important and credible source. Adding to the discussion about the factors that affect employees’ choices and retention levels, in general, the study helped to determine the approaches that HR managers could use to manage high turnover rates. Therefore, the study by Ekrot et al. should be seen as an important addition to the analysis. We will write a custom Assessment on Addressing the Problem of Staff Shortage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Career prospects The absence of opportunities for career development is another issue that defines low retention rates among staff members. Without an HRM framework that would allow employees to advance in their career, the levels of staff retention are likely to drop, according to the existing research on the subject matter (Deery and Jago 456). Deery and Jago extrapolate that providing decent career opportunities for employees is likely to cause a positive shift in retention rates (454). The methodology of the article can be seen as its key asset since the authors utilize the qualitative research method that allows exploring the connection between a wide array of factors and eliciting a significant amount of information. However, being supported mostly by the evidence provided through interviews, the data collection method is the key weakness of this source. Nonetheless, the authors manage to draw meaningful conclusions about the importance of providing career prospects for employees. Strategies for Increasing Employee Retention Competitive benefits As shown above, the HR-related factors that affect retention levels among staff members mostly concern the lack of emphasis on corporate values and the inability to consider employee-specific needs. Therefore, an HRM framework that will utilize a resource-based perspective and view its staff members as a valuable asset will be required. In their study, Busse et al. claim that, to introduce a sustainable competitive advantage into a company’s HRM potential, one needs to regard human resources as rare and non-substitutable (151). The resulting rise in the levels of loyalty among the staff members, as well as their willingness to accept the corporate ethics and standards, will help ensure that employee retention levels remain high. Thus, the focus on competitive benefits that a firm offers to its staff members should be seen as a tool for raising employee retention rates and preventing the instances of a turnover increase. The selected article by Busse et al. is based on a well-developed study of the key contributors to the staff retention rates, which makes it a valuable reference to include when exploring the subject matter. Workplace environment Shaping the workplace environments to accommodate the needs of a highly diverse team of employees is another HR strategy that will help reduce the rates of employee turnover and build the premises for enhancing retention levels. To address the problem of staff retention and the drastic rise in turnover rates, creating the setting in which the probability of conflict is minimized will not be enough. Instead, it is the task of the HR manager to shape employees’ attitudes toward disagreements in the business setting. For example, an HR manager may need to introduce the target demographic to the idea of using conflicts as learning points, as Benn et al. posit (498). Instead of focusing on the negative emotions that disagreements cause, staff members will be asked to define the causes of conflicts and use their emotional intelligence to learn what these conflicts say about them and their coworkers. The key strength of the article is in its ability to embrace a vast amount of evidence. Due to the application of a qualitative approach, the authors create the setting in which different issues can be explored. Although the use of the qualitative analysis does not provide statistically accurate results, it defines the further direction of the analysis. Thus, the research by Benn et al., which suggests an objective approach toward conflict management in the workplace is credible and worthy of being influxes into the list of references since it represents original research and provides an insightful look into the nature of a workplace environment. Roles and placement The reason for choosing the article by Ulrich and Dulebohn concerns primarily the quality of research and the unique argument that the author provides (197). The quantitative methodology, which the authors utilize to investigate the case, produces rather accurate results, which can be used to construct a unique framework for addressing the retention issue. The methodological strategy that the authors of the study use contains both advantages and disadvantages since, on the one hand, it expands the scope to a range of different situations, yet, on the other hand, it reduces the precision of the results. According to the results of the study, it is crucial to ensure that all staff members are aware of their roles and responsibilities within an organization to reduce the probability of their resignation. Not sure if you can write a paper on Addressing the Problem of Staff Shortage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Staff education Promoting the idea of their workplace being the source of important knowledge and experiences is another HR device that can be utilized to improve employee retention rates within a firm. According to the report produced by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, it is critical for an HRM manager to create the environment in which the idea of staff education will be deemed as one of the crucial steps toward promoting employee retention and reducing the levels of turnover (para. 2-3). By investing in the education of employees and providing them with additional opportunities for professional growth, an HR manager is likely to attain a rise in retention rates among employees. For this purpose, the education process should be unceasing and ongoing, with important milestones marking each achievement of employees (U.S. Office of Personnel Management para. 2). According to the report, the described approach toward managing retention rates is likely to lead to a steep increase in the levels of loyalty toward the company in the target audiences (U.S. Office of Personnel Management para. 3). Thus, the further growth of the intellectual property within the organization will ensue. The report by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management is considered credible and worthy of inclining into the analysis since it offers a unique way of considering the phenomenon of talent management within an organization. The proposed strategy helps to address the problem of staff education, which makes it particularly valuable for the described setting. Issued by a trustworthy organization and supported by an extensive amount of research, the specified resource opens new possibilities for addressing the problem of an employee retention drop from an HR perspective. Building an initiative Encouraging the active involvement into corporate issues and concerns among staff members is also likely to cause a significant increase in employee retention rates within a corporate environment. As the study conducted by Liao et al. posits, it is imperative to ensure employees that they7 play an important role in the company’s development and define the further directions of its progress (11). Incorporating the elements of qualitative and quantitative approach, the specified study has contributed to building a framework for managing retention rates within an organization. The authors of the study do not provide different types of initiatives that could be utilized to enhance retention rates, which is a problem of the research. However, among its advantages, one should mention an all-embracive assessment of the current situation in the corporate workplace setting and the challenges that HR managers face when addressing high turnover levels. Therefore, the analysis factors into the exploration of the employee retention problem and the creation of sustainable methods of addressing it. Conclusion The lack of focus on the needs of diverse staff members has affected the current level of employee retention rates, reducing them considerably and causing an impressive increase in staff turnover levels. Therefore, the application of a twofold approach toward managing the issue is needed. By embracing both internal and external factors affecting employees’ decisions, an organization will be able to provide a setting in which every staff member will feel inspired to contribute to the company’s development. Moreover, by encouraging the unceasing professional and personal growth among staff members through talent management, one will boost the levels of loyalty among the staff, which will, in turn, reduce employee turnover rates significantly. Finally, the assessment of the existing studies has indicated that the creation of a comprehensive framework for a corporate employee initiative will lead to a rise in employee retention levels. The selected sources are highly credible, being either the research published in peer-reviewed articles or reports published at official government sites. Therefore, the general evaluation of the problem indicates that a shift toward talent management and the enhancement of employee initiative are likely to become the platform for an HRM framework for increasing employee retention. Works Cited Benn, Suzanne, et al. “Employee Participation and Engagement in Working for the Environment.” Personnel Review, vol. 44, no.4, 2015, pp. 492-510. Busse, Christian, et al. “The ABC for studying the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect: A competitive mediation framework linking antecedents, benefits, and costs.” Organizational Research Methods, vol. 19, no. 1, 2016, pp. 131-153. Deery, Margaret, and Leo Jago. “Revisiting Talent Management, Work-Life Balance and Retention Strategies.” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27, no.3, 2015, pp. 453-472. Ekrot, Bastian, et al. “Retaining Project Management Competence – Antecedents and Consequences.” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 34, no.2 2016, pp. 145-157. Hassan, Saira, and Babak Mahmood. “Relationship between HRM Practices and Organizational Commitment of $mployees: An Empirical Study of Textile Sector in Pakistan.” International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, 2016, pp. 23-28. Liao, Chenwei, et al. “Idiosyncratic Deals in Contemporary Organizations: A Qualitative and Meta‐Analytical Review.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 37, no. 1, 2016, pp. 9-29. Shehadah, Abed Allah Momhammed, and Wasim I. Al-Habil. “Factors Affecting the Employees’ Turnover at the Ministry of High Education in Gaza Governorates.” Arts and Social Sciences Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, 2017, pp. 304-312. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. “Performance Management.”, n.d. Web. Ulrich, Dave, and James H. Dulebohn. “Are We There Yet? What’s Next for HR?” Human Resource Management Review, vol. 25. no. 2, 2015, pp. 188-204.

The Sociological Aspects of Poverty

The Sociological Aspects of Poverty. Abstract Poverty is defined as the deprivation of basic needs that comprises of foods, shelter. Poverty is known as an exceptional complex social phenomenon whereby trying to discover its causes might be equally complicated. Certain class of theorists has tried to characterize the poor as fatalists who have resigned themselves to a philosophy of poverty in which there is nothing that might be undertaken in order to alter their economic outcomes. Currently, more than 35 million U.S citizens, approximately 14% of the entire population live in poverty. Social norms in customarily rural-based cultures normally support the value of big families. The aspect of immigration has greatly worsened the issue of poverty. Despite poverty allowing society’s dirty work to be done, assisting the affluent employees in reaching their career goals and objectives thereby creating a number of jobs, the social causes of poverty outweigh the positive impacts. The neoclassical economic theory is based on the denial of the Marxian concept of exploitation. The monetary approach assumes the income is reliant on the peripheral productivity. The housing is the asset which is valuable and it is less liquid thus ineffective in the event of coming across income shock. People experiencing poverty requires that they are provided with access to low-cost credit markets which is capable of protecting them against the income shock. Introduction Poverty is defined as the deprivation of basic needs that comprises of foods, shelter, sufficient cloth, pure drinking water, adequate health care, education, as well as proper sanitation facilities. Notably, poverty has been known as a global phenomenon. Additionally, there are a number of reasons that are behind the aspect of poverty. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), if an individual’s daily income is less than 2 dollars; such an individual is considered as poor. Globally, many people usually live under the poverty line. Poverty is known as an exceptional complex social phenomenon whereby trying to discover its causes might be equally complicated. There is the existence of stereotypic explanation that the deprived usually cause their own poverty. This is basically founded on the perception that everything is possible in some countries such as the United States of America. In some occasions, several theorists have blamed the deprived of having little or no concern for their future but prefer living for the time being. In some other situations, a great number of theorists have accused the poor of engaging in self-defeating behavior. Moreover, another class of theorists has tried to characterize the poor as fatalists who have resigned themselves to a philosophy of poverty in which there is nothing that might be undertaken in order to alter their economic outcomes. The research paper would critically analyze the aspect of poverty; examine social factors that cause poverty by examining various aspects attributed to it among other facets. The Sociological Aspect of Poverty Poverty is known as a global phenomenon that greatly affects individuals’ lifestyles. Recently, many sociologists have emphasized on several other poverty theories. One of the theories concerns the fight of the mid class, comprising of employers, from the metropolises as well as into its environs. This aspect has restricted the prominent opportunities associated with inner-city deprived to be capable of finding adequate jobs. Another theory highlights that the poor would prefer receiving welfare payments instead of working in demeaning positions in fast-food hotels or as maids (Mavrich, 2017). Due to this perception, the welfare system has come under increasing attack in current years. Any discussion regarding social class and mobility will definitely be incomplete without discussing the issue of poverty. Poverty is demarcated as the lack of minimum shelter and food that is essential for maintenance of life. Such a condition is known to be absolute poverty. Currently, more than 35 million U.S citizens, approximately 14% of the entire population live in poverty. In America, other estimates in regard to poverty range from 10% to 21%. This is why numerous sociologists prefer a relative rather than an absolute connotation of poverty. Notably, relative poverty is a situation where the poor are the persons lacking what is required by a great number of America citizens to live decorously since they receive less than 1/2 of the state’s median revenue. Despite the fact that a number of individuals blame poverty on the poor, social attributes have increased this aspect significantly. According to Alex, relative poverty is a condition of deprivation that results from having less compared to what the majority of persons have. Various social factors have contributed to poverty among many nations globally. According to Anup Shah, almost half of the children in the world are living in poverty. Evidently, single-parent families tend to be more likely compared to two-parent families to be living under the poverty line. Certain studies carried out by Haskins indicated that the rate of poverty among children in families that were headed by females was 44.3% while those in married-couple families; the poverty rate was 11%. Additionally, Wesley Richards’s points out those children who are born and raised outside marriages have a greater likelihood of living in poverty compared to those who are born and raised by a married couple. Overpopulation is another social factor that is attributed to poverty. This is the state of having a great number of persons with extremely insufficient resources together with too little space. It might result from a high populace density or from low extents of resources or even both. A populace that is extremely high tends to pressurize the available resources since the resources could only support a given number of persons. The aspect of poverty might also depend on the nation’s mix of population density as agricultural productivity. A large population might engage in low productivity farming practices thereby contributing to the county’s high poverty levels. Such a state is common in developing countries that lack advanced technologies to meet their population basic needs. Social norms in customarily rural-based cultures normally support the value of big families. Additionally, governments from less developed nations do not offer any assistance either financially or even politically for family planning. Again, various families might fail to know much about family planning since they lack an adequate education. As a result, several less developed countries have high population growth rates despite the fact that they have limited resources and this contributes to excessive poverty incidences. Consequently, the lack of adequate education is another social factor that is linked to high poverty rates. The issue of illiteracy and dearth of sufficient education are common in less developed and poor countries. Notably, governments of less developed countries habitually cannot afford to provide adequate and modernized educational systems for public institutes and especially those in rural regions. While essentially all children in developed nations are accessible to education, only around 60% of them in less developed countries even attend basic schools. Patently, poor persons also forego education so as to focus on making a marginal living (Sakif, 2015). Furthermore, less developed countries have minimal employment opportunities, especially for women. Due to this aspect, many people do not or see very little reason for going to school. A research carried out in Yemen implied that 41% of the country’s rural populace survives on less than 2 dollars daily. Also, 85% of the countries deprived populace lives in rural regions where about 47% of its population are uneducated and this leads to high incidences of poverty. Moreover, the aspect of immigration has greatly worsened the issue of poverty. The United States of America is one of the nations that immigrants come to. According to Ron Haskins, many immigrants have no elementary education. The dearth of education amid these immigrants make them to only be capable of holding minimum paying jobs where they cannot earn enough money that would enable them to lick properly and live above the poverty line. According to Haskins, the rate of poverty among immigrants is higher compared to that of Native Americans. Studies have shown that in 2009, the rate of poverty among the immigrants was 19% which was more than that of Native born America that was 13.7%. The higher poverty rate among immigrants has led to higher rates of poverty within the nation. Most immigrants would have lower living status as well as lower paying jobs since them lack adequate education in addition to their race. Race, as a social factor is interrelated with poverty since is it is tangled to other subordinate elements of honor and impact that makes it a fundamental feature in poverty. Particularly, race together with wealth share a sturdy connection that leads specialists to debate if there is any causal correlation amid the two that subsists, tricking participants of a certain race in poverty one generation after the other. According to certain experts, the correlation that exists between race and poverty designates that certain races are termed to be substandard to others when regarding issues to do with financial administration (Sakif, 2015). Besides, other specialists especially sociologists point out those rich families that are mostly restrained to a single race are capable of bequeathing their resources to succeeding generations thereby certifying a race-wealth divide. In American, society has impeded that whites are dominant and therefore every other race is termed to be inferior. Other races apart from the whites have issues while earning jobs and a fair amount of pay. In this connection, many employers would not hire employees because of their diverse race or other pay them less amounts because of their skin color. This discrimination increases the incidence of poverty among other races that are considered inferior in society. Accordingly, from a sociology perspective, Alex Thio points out that society is responsible for the creation and maintenance of poverty. To him, poverty is actually what allows dirty work of society to be done. Affluent business persons and professionals are capable of realizing their career goals with the help of poor persons in society who work as maids and servants. Despite poverty allowing society’s dirty work to be done, assisting the affluent employees in reaching their career goals and objectives thereby creating a number of jobs, the social causes of poverty outweigh the positive impacts. Individuals would blame the aspect of poverty on the deprived although the poor are against operating and are not basically lazy. Clearly, the social facet regarding poverty is, therefore, the factual reason why there is an increased incidence of poverty in the entire world. Theory Presentation The neoclassical economic theory is based on the denial of the Marxian concept of exploitation. The theory applies the idea that supply of the social properties produced by marketplace exchanges is distinctively fair and just. The neoclassical theory strains the protagonist of the unequal preliminary endowment of the capital, skills, and talents which regulate the output of a distinct in causing poverty inside a market-based viable economic structure. The market fiascos such as moral peril, externalities, and adverse actions are seen as the aggravators of poverty (DavisThe Sociological Aspects of Poverty