Concept: Purposes and Types of Definitions Materials on the concept: Purposes of Definitions Defining Terms Kinds of Definitions Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing Top of Form 1 . What type of definition is used to introduce an unusual or unfamiliar word, to coin new words, or to introduce a new meaning too familiar word? A. Stipulated definition B. Précising definition C. Explanatory definition D. Persuasive definition Bottom of Form Correct: Definitions used for the purpose of explicitly spelling out the meaning of a previously unknown word are stipulated, by definition.
In other words, “When we use the word X, what we mean is Y. ” Materials 2. What technique of defining terms is used to reduce vagueness and eliminate ambiguity? A. Definition by synonym B. Explanatory definition C. Persuasive definition D. Précising definition Correct: In this case, it is merely a matter of “tightening up” a definition to relieve confusion, using more exact words or phrasing to make it more precise.
3. What type of definition points to, names, or identifies one or more instances of something to which the defined term applies? A.Explanatory definition B. Definition by synonym C. Definition by example D. Analytical definition Correct: Sometimes the quickest way to give a definition of a group of things is to show what one looks like. 4.
What type of definition gives another word or phrase that means the same thing as the term being defined? A. Explanatory definition D. Definition by synonym Correct: If you know the meaning of a word similar to the one you want to know, then using that synonym is a good starting point (with some modification) to understanding the new word. 5.What type of definition first specifies the type of thing the term applies to, and then ivies the differences between the thing the term applies to and other things of the same type? A. Précising definition B. Stipulated definition C.
Analytical definition D. Explanatory definition Correct: Analytic definitions are the most authoritative and precise way to convey the meaning of a word. They often involve giving a related term, then showing the differences. Concept: Hints for Planning and Writing an Argumentative Essay Mastery Recap Writing Argumentative Essays Good Writing Practices 6.Which hint for planning and writing an argumentative essay is described in the following statement? Make clear at the outset what issue you intend to address and what your position on the issue will be. ” A. Stick to the issue B.
Logical sequencing C. Focus Correct: Clearly revealing the issue you are discussing right from the start tells readers what to look for; it helps them focus on what you are talking about. 7. Which hint for planning and writing an argumentative essay is described in the following statement? “All points you make in an essay should be connected to the issue under discussion. A. Stick to the issue D. Be complete Correct: Don’t include extraneous material in your essay.
If you have a pressing need to say something that is off the topic, then write it in a new essay. ) 8. Which hint for planning and writing an argumentative essay is described in the following statement? “Make a point before clarifying it and make sure your reader can discern the relationship between any given sentence and your ultimate goal. ” A. Stick to the issue Correct: Arrange the components of your essay in a logical sequence that your readers will be able to follow. 9.Which hint for planning and writing an argumentative essay is described in the following statement? Support fully and adequately whatever position you take on an issue.
” A. Stick to the issue Correct: Anticipate possible objections to your position and address them. In that way, you automatically cover the issue more thoroughly. Concept: Vagueness in Writing Exercise 3-1 Exercise 3-2 Vague Generalities Vagueness 10. How would you assess the vagueness of the following statement? “Please do not make any more late-night phone calls. ” A. Vague in itself B.
Vague comparison C.No vagueness Correct: “Late-night” may not have a precise definition, but it’s clear enough to say hat there is no real vagueness in the statement. 1 1 . How would you assess the vagueness of the following statement? “Whiskey is no worse for you than beer. ” A. Vague in itself Correct: If the comparison refers to the total alcohol in one shot of whiskey with one whole bottle of beer, it may be true (but if that is what is meant, such details ought to be provided). If other claims are implied, such as potential for abuse, or relative rates of absorption, the claim requires more information.
2. How would you assess the vagueness of the following statement? “This warranty comes void if the owner uses the hammer improperly. ” A. Vague in itself Correct: Given that a hammer is an object made to hit things with, “improperly” needs a more precise definition. Does it refer to propping up a car with the hammer? Or, is it “improper” if you try pounding nails into concrete walls? Concept: Ambiguity in Writing Semantic Ambiguity Additional Exercises Ambiguity Syntactic Ambiguity Grouping Ambiguity Exercise 3-4 13. Which type of ambiguity is defined by the following? A claim whose ambiguity is due to the ambiguity off particular word or phrase. A.
Grouping ambiguity B. Semantic ambiguity C. Syntactic ambiguity D. No ambiguity Correct: Semantics has to do with the meanings of words; therefore, when the meaning is in question, the ambiguity is semantic. 14. Which type of ambiguity is defined by the following? “A claim whose ambiguity is due too problem with its structure. ” A.
Semantic ambiguity B. Syntactic ambiguity C. Grouping ambiguity Correct: Syntax has to do with the structure of the sentence, not the content. Some subject.For example, “She saw the person with binoculars” could mean “She saw (the arson who has binoculars around his neck)” or “She saw the person (by looking through her binoculars). ” 15. Which type of ambiguity is defined by the following? “A claim whose ambiguity rests on a confusion between a collection of entities or individual entities.
” A. Grouping ambiguity Correct: Grouping ambiguities are a type of semantic ambiguity that involves an uncertain interpretation of whether a group is collectively or individually being discussed. 16. Identify the type of ambiguity in the following statement’ . “Our mothers bore us. A. Semantic ambiguity Correct: “Bore” has two meanings: to give birth; and to be dull and uninteresting.
Mothers may be capable of doing both. 17. Identify the type of ambiguity in the following newspaper headline . “Unskilled Workers Get a Shot at Jobs. ” A. Semantic ambiguity Correct: The semantics of the word “shot” are unclear. Does this mean a shot, as with vaccine in a syringe, or “get a shot at” as in the expression meaning “to have an opportunity”? 18.
Identify the type of ambiguity in the following statement. “Americans have shown themselves willing to drop nuclear weapons. ” A. Semantic ambiguity
Learning Goal: I’m