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This paper investigates the phenomenon of borrowing of the kinship terms from one language to another. The languages under inquiry are Punjabi and Urdu in an area where both the languages are spoken as the major languages. It is natural for languages to adopt words from other languages due to their contact with each other. The paper explores the contact situation of Urdu and Punjabi with particular focus on the phenomenon of the borrowing of the kinship terms. In order to investigate the matter quantitatively ten subjects were selected, whose first language (L1) was Punjabi.

A questionnaire was made containing kinship terms of Urdu language and the subject knowledge of the Punjabi kinship terms was checked. In a community where the speakers are bilinguals with Punjabi and Urdu languages, the study shows that Urdu kinship terms are preferred over Punjabi kinship terms to such an extent that the speakers use Urdu kinship terms even when they speak their mother tongue, namely, Punjabi. Introduction: Kinship is one of the universals in human society and therefore plays an important role in both the regulation of behavior and the formation of social groups.

Kinship systems depend on the social recognition and cultural implementation of relationships derived from descent and marriage and normally involve a set of kinship terms and an associated set of behavioral patterns and attitudes which, together, make up a systematic whole. All societies distinguish various categories of relation-ship by descent or consanguinity, and most societies distinguish relationships by marriage or affinity as well. Although dictionary definitions differentiate these relationships, it is convenient to extend the term “kinship” to cover both kinds.

The resulting network of social relations may constitute almost the whole social structure in some of the simpler societies or be a relatively small part of a highly complex structure, as in modern industrial societies. In either case, however, the system of kin-ship and marriage plays an important role in maintaining group cohesion and solidarity and in orienting the individual members to the social maze. The use of the term “system” implies that there is a complex relation of interdependence between the component parts: the social categories and the associated rights and duties.

Lexical borrowing can be defined as the adoption of individual words from another language. It happens when two languages are in contact and one language borrows lexical items from the other language. Borrowing is the process which requires language contact. It means there should be at least a certain degree of bilingualism for some people with the donor language and the recipient language. In this study the donor language is Urdu and the recipient language is Punjabi and the lexical items which are analyzed are the kinship terms. Objectives: The paper aims to: ?Compare the Urdu and Punjabi kinship terms.

?Explore the borrowing of the kinship terms when the speakers of a community use Urdu and Punjabi languages. ? language Investigate the influence of Urdu on Punjabi in urban areas with particular focus on the kinship terms. Punjabi Language: The Punjabi language is a member of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-European family. It is spoken by more than 100 million people in Punjab (in Pakistan and north western India). Over 44% of Pakistanis learn it as their first language and about 70% of Pakistanis can understand it. Kinship Terminology in Punjabi and Urdu:

The kinship terminology in both the Punjabi and Urdu languages is very extensive and specific. The system makes crucial reference to three parameters: age, consanguinity (relation by blood or marriage) and laterality (relation on the mother’s side or father’s side). As a result, instead of general terms as „uncle? or „aunt? , highly specific terms are used. English-speaking people do not distinguish linguistically between uncle „father’s brother? , „mother’s brother? , „father’s sister’s husband? , „mother’s sister’s husband? , but Punjabi and Urdu languages do distinguish between all of these different relationships.

The assumption is that this differential linguistic labeling reflects differences in the structures of different societies and in the roles and behavior which are expected of individuals having particular relationships with one another (Trudgill 1992). Table 1: Urdu and Punjabi kinship terms Urdu TermPunjabi Term AbbuAbbu/Abba AmmiAmmi/Amma BetaPutar BetiDhee Bara BhaiLala/Veer/bhra Chota BhaiKaka/Nikka BehanBhain DadaDada/Baba DadiDadi/Wade amma NanaNana NaniNani ShoharKhasam/Karwala/Banda BiviKarwali/Budhi DulhaLara/Nadha/Ghabru DulhanWohti/Lari TayaBaba/Taya/wade Abbu TayeeBabi/Tayee/wade Amma

ChachaChachu ChachiChachi PhuphaPhupher PhuphiPhupho KhaluKhalu/Maasser KhalaaMaasee/khala MamuMama/Mamu MamaniMami BhabhiBharjayee BhatijaPatriya/Bhatriya BhatijiPatri/Bhatri BhanjaBharyya/Bhanja/Panewa BhanjiBharyye/Bhanji/panewee BehnoyeeaBhanuja/Bharwiyya SalaSala SaleharSalehar SaliSali SandhuSandha/Sandhu NandNinnan JaithJaith JaithaniaJaithani DewarDeor DewaraniDarani DamadJawayee BahuNoo Pota Potra PotiPotri DotaDotra DotiDotria SuserSora SaasSas Population: Ten respondents were selected randomly whose first language (L1) was Punjabi and who were residing in the urban and rural areas of Sargodha.

Sargodha is a multi-cultural city where Punjabi and Urdu are the major languages. Procedure: A questionnaire was made consisting of 50 vocabulary items i. e. Urdu kinship terms. The respondents were asked to write down the equivalent Punjabi terms as well as the terms that they use when they speak Punjabi. Results and Analysis of the Data: The respondents proficiency as well as their usage of Punjabi kinship terms was checked by the questionnaire and the results were found as follows: Total number of respondents: 10 First Language (L1) of the respondents: Punjabi

Table 2: Results of the Questionnaire Urdu Kinship TermNumber & %age of the respondents who knew equivalent Punjabi termNumber & %age of the respondents who reported that they use Punjabi term when they speak Punjabi Abbu10(100%)3(30%) Ammi9(90%)5(50%) Beta10(100%)8(80%) Beti10(100%)7(70%) Bhai9(90%)7(70%) Behan7(70%)3(30%) Shohar8(80%)4(40%) Bivi9(90%)3(30%) Dulha 7(70%)2(20%) Dulhan8(80%)4(40%) Phupha9(90%)2(20%) Khalu8(80%)1(10%) Khala10(100%) 2(20%) Mamu10(100%)1(10%) Mamani10(100%) 4(40%) Bhabhi9(90%)3(30%) Behnoyee8(80%)2(20%) Nand9(90%)4(40%) Dewar7(70%)1(10%)

Dewarani8(80%)2(20%) Bahu10(100%)5(50%) Pota9(90%)3(30%) Dota10(100%)3(30%) Susser10(100%)2(20%) Damad7(70%)4(40%) Average values9(90%)3(30%) The data show that nine out of total ten respondents which become 90% of the total population under investigation know the Punjabi kinship terms. 10% of the population does not know the Punjabi kinship terms at all. As for the usage of Punjabi kinship terms, only 30% of the population (only three out of ten) uses Punjabi kinship terms while speaking Punjabi. They prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. Discussion:

The literature reviewed and the data collected show that the Punjabi language is clearly borrowing kinship terms from the Urdu language where the two languages are spoken in the same area. People with Urdu and Punjabi bilingualism prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. Their first language (L1) is Punjabi, the data show that 10% of the population does not know the Punjabi kinship terms at all. This population knows only Urdu kinship terminology. Out of the 90% population who knows the Punjabi kinship terms, only 30% uses Punjabi kinship terms while speaking Punjabi.

Most of the respondents reported that they prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. The summary of kinship terms (Table 1) shows that most of the kinship terms of Urdu and Punjabi are similar; yet there are some differences. The Punjabi language is a member of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-European language family. Over 44% of Pakistanis learn it as their first language. Urdu was formed around the 1600? s in Central Asia. It has borrowed numerous linguistic items from Perso-Arabic and Indo-Aryan languages.

So in the course of its development Urdu might have borrowed kinship terms from Punjabi with some changes due to its different phonological system. Now it is surprising that Punjabi is borrowing the kinship terms back from Urdu exactly in the same way as they are used in Urdu because Urdu is enjoying more prestige than Punjabi. Conclusion: The study shows that the Urdu kinship terms are preferred over Punjabi kinship terms to such an extent that the speakers use Urdu kinship terms even when they speak in their mother tongue i. e. Punjabi.

Some of the Punjabi speakers have even lost their L1 kinship terms. The paper highlights the phenomenon of borrowing of kinship terms in urban areas from comparatively high prestige language i. e. Urdu to low prestige language i. e. Punjabi. It shows that the Punjabi speakers living in urban areas could not fully retain their L1 kinship terms and adopted the Urdu kinship terms. The study also highlights the phenomenon of lexical borrowing as one of the potential factors involved in the change of lexicon of a language in language contact situations.

Quality Management for Organizational Excellence

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Quality Management for Organizational Excellence

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