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Key Workers: Affordable Housing Challenges

Key Workers: Affordable Housing Challenges. Abstract Affordable housing in London is an issue which affects many individuals and the problem of affordable housing in London is particularly of concern to poorer sectors within London and those in low paid employment (Greater London Authority (2005) 1) (Pacione, M. (1997) 8) and (Greater London Authority (2006) 1). This is a situation which remains unchanged by the fact that there are schemes in place which purport to ameliorate the problems relating to affordable housing experienced by many people living and working in London (Rugg, R. (1999) 19-20). Schemes such as the Key Worker Living scheme which is administered through the offices of the Deputy Prime Minister, the Teachers Housing Association Scheme and London Strategic Housing have been targeted specifically at key workers who experience housing needs in London. However, although the government have made many housing provisions for London based key workers, the problem remains that these provisions arguably do not extend far enough. Specifically, it may be argued that the definition of what a key worker is is perhaps too narrow. It may also be argued that those who fall outside the definition of key worker, but nevertheless experience housing problems are being let down by the government, principally because many of them simply do not qualify for the schemes which have been mentioned above. These arguments will be put forward and evaluated in this paper. The paper will also consider the definition of what a key worker is and how it may not be an adequate definition, given that it is arguably not wide enough. The discussion on the definition of what a key worker is will lead the writer into a wider discussion of whether there is any real need to continue to have a ‘key worker requirement’ to trigger the assistance which is available to those in need of housing support within London. The paper will therefore consider wider economic, sociological and political factors in the analysis of what the government is doing to help those people who do not qualify as key workers but still cannot afford to live in London and will employ a qualitative, evaluative methodology in doing so. What is the definition of a Key Worker? It is useful to define what is meant by a key worker as this will indirectly provide an indication of the categories of people who fall outside the definition, and assist the writer in determining what the government is doing to help those people who do not qualify as key workers but still cannot afford to live in London. A key worker is a difficult concept to define, since different schemes and housing provisions have differing interpretations of what a key worker may be. Therefore, what may be a key worker within one sphere of housing provision may not be considered a key worker within another. In light of this therefore, how may one go about defining what a key worker actually is? To define the concept of a key worker requires an analysis of all the schemes open to key workers and an analysis of exactly who is eligible for the schemes and why. An extrapolation of this analysis will provide clues as to the best way to approach the problem of defining what a key worker is. Therefore the best way to approach defining what a key worker is, is to identify tenets which are present within all the various interpretations of what a key worker actually is. It is arguable that there are three main tenets which one may identify as being ‘central’ to the concept of what a key worker is. These are as follows: that the worker is employed by the public sector; that the worker is in a frontline position performing a crucial public service and that the worker is in a sector where it is difficult to recruit and retain workers (Department of Communities and Local Housing (2006) 1). Who is included within the definition? The people to whom the status of key worker is attributed to therefore must firstly be employed in the public sector dispensing essential services in a sector where there are problems with recruiting staff and retaining their services. Categorises of people who fulfil this criteria are: clinical staff employed by the NHS, for example nurses (doctors and dentists are excluded); teachers working in maintained primary and secondary educational institutions; police officers, community support officers and prison staff; uniformed staff in the fire and rescue services; probation officers and local authority employed staff (for example educational psychologists) (Department of Communities and Local Housing (2006) 1). Perhaps it is also wise to comment on which workers may not fall within the definition. These sectors may include cleaning staff and support staff within teaching institutions and within other professions. Why assistance is particularly tied to the Key Worker Sector; and What is being done to assist those who are not Key Workers? The rationale behind tying housing assistance to key workers is built upon much common sense. It is sensible to ensure that workers who provide key services are encouraged to stay within key occupations that provide useful services to the general public. Perhaps the need for such a rationale can be brought more sharply into focus by considering what may occur if essential workers were ‘priced out of the market’. A scenario like this will deplete the services which are available to the entire population within a given area and would perhaps impact hospitals and schools in particular. It is plain to see therefore why housing assistance in terms of affordable housing is targeted at these sectors which may be described as containing key workers. However, there is also an argument to be made that these provisions are not enough, and that they fail to acknowledge the wider issue which is that affordable housing affects many individuals who fall outside the definition of a key worker (<>). The reality is that the problem of affordable housing is a pervasive one, and that most low income people living in London are affected by the problem of affordable housing. However, as we have seen explained above, the definition of key worker is quite a narrow construction. Therefore professions such as cleaners and some categories of support staff typically have low incomes but do not meet the criteria which are prescribed to give them key worker housing assistance. The services which these groups provide are indeed essential; they help to support the day to day running of essential services and are therefore crucial to the lives of all of those living in London. It seems logical therefore that such individuals should be given the same levels of support that key workers are given when it comes to the issue of affordable housing. As we have seen explained above, the reality is very different, and critics of the fact that just key workers qualify for many schemes to provide housing support point to the actual need experienced by the individuals involved; not just to the wider usefulness that housing support schemes may afford the general public (which is the justification for the linkage between some housing support and just key workers). However, is it the case whereby the government simply ignore the needs of those who do not qualify for housing assistance as they are not key workers? Clearly this is not the case. The government operate housing associations and special needs facilities for those individuals who have needs due to disability or poverty. Those who are on low incomes may qualify for the new tax credits schemes and indeed for rates relief or housing benefit to help lessen the effects of the affordable housing problem. In terms of specific housing provision, non key workers may take advantage of some Social Registered Landlord Schemes[1] which include Home Exchange and Right to Acquire Schemes. Other schemes include the Seaside and Country Homes initiative which involves the allocation of homes to those considered deserving (not necessarily key workers); the Homefinder Direct scheme which is similar to the Seaside and Country Homes scheme and the LAWN project which makes homes available to ethnic minorities ( These schemes are intended to assist all those in need of housing assistance and not always just key workers. Also, on a macro and political level the government have attempted to make better use of the space which is available to build affordable housing within London. This has involved the conversions of abandoned commercial sites for use as housing sites (Greater London Authority (2005) Section 5.4). This is intended to ensure that available space within London is used sensibly to help lessen the effects of shortages in housing building sites. Clearly this will be of long term assistance to both key workers and non key workers. On a macro level another example of the government’s efforts in this area is their current emphasis on building ‘sustainable urban environments’, an emphasis which is of benefit to all of those affected by the affordable housing problem, not just those considered to be key workers. The government has also conducted many research initiatives into identifying the root causes of affordable housing problems and aiming to eliminate them. Although these initiatives only address the needs of those affected by the affordable housing problem in an indirect sense, it is clear that the government’s efforts on a macro scale (Karn, V. and Wolman, H. (1992) Ch 1) are intended to help those key workers and those non key workers who are all affected by the affordable housing problem. The problem remains however, that non key workers simply do not get the levels of support that key workers may qualify for, in spite of the fact that perhaps both sectors are equally deserving. Therefore, would the problem of affordable housing be more fairly approached by simply abolishing the requirement for workers to qualify as key workers in order to qualify for housing support within London? Another approach would be to make it easier to fall within the definition of what a key worker is. The answer to these two suggestions is that perhaps there is an argument for this to be the case, but it must be counterbalanced against the fact that resources within this area are limited. It is inevitable that there will be a deserving case to be made for many third parties who do not fall within the current definition of what a key worker is and of course, it is the case that it is desirable for all of those who are in need to receive housing support. As we have seen explained above however, there is a cogent rationale for why support is targeted at the key worker sector in particular. Key workers provide valuable services to the entire community and to neglect them would be detrimental to the levels of available services which all those resident in London often depend upon. The reality is that limited resources have to be dissipated in ways that are prescriptive and designed to exclude some categories of people. This exclusion does not point to an idea that the excluded person is undeserving; instead it points to the fact that there are limited resources which have to be expended in a frugal manner. Bibliography Articles and Reports Department of Communities and Local Housing (2006) Key Worker Eligibility. Publisher: Wandsworth Council. Place of Publication: UK. Greater London Authority (2005) Housing in London: the London Housing Strategy Evidence Base 2005. Publisher: Greater London Authority. Place of Publication: London. Greater London Authority. (2006) London Futures. Publisher: Greater London Authority. Place of Publication: London. Books Karn, V. and Wolman, H. (1992) Comparing Housing Systems: Housing Performance and Housing Policy in the United States and Britain. Publisher: Oxford University. Place of Publication: Oxford. Pacione, M. (1997) Britain’s Cities: Geographies of Division in Urban Britain. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Rugg, R. (1999) Young People, Housing and Social Policy. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Websites 1 Footnotes [1] Also known as SRL schemes. Key Workers: Affordable Housing Challenges
This essay will outline and critically evaluate the main evidence supporting an association between offending, victimisation and social class, using criminological theories such as Strain Theory and Labelling theory to demonstrate this. Social class in relation to offending and victimisation is an extremely broad area, taking this and the words limit into account this essay will specifically focus on offending and Victimisation of the lower classes in society. Class was originally defined by Karl Marx in relation to the means of production where he described two main classes the bourgeoisie the owning class and the proletariat the workers who were exploited by capitalism (Giddens, 2001). His theory has been heavily scrutinised and class is now seen as more flexible than Marx first interoperated taking into account; income, wealth and status and in addition to this culture and patterns of consumption (Giddens, 2001). In contemporary society class is based on a complex model where defined by occupation however this leads to the victimisation of the lower classes and low income families especially in respect of stereotypes regarding criminality (Croall, 1998). The stereotype of the “Dangerous class” arose in Victorian times as a reaction to the crime rates. The lower classes were depicted by the middle and upper classes as idle and lazy, would rather live off the proceeds of crime than do a hard days labour (Elmsley, 1996). This stereotype lives on to present day with the common belief that the lower classes “the underclass” are the main offenders in relation to criminal behaviour (Croall, 1998). The underclass has been defined by Giddens (2001) as a group at the bottom of society, who suffers from severe inequalities in health, education and lives off the welfare system which results in difficulties conforming to the economic, social and political norms of society which are predominantly middle class. Murray ((1990) cited in Walklate (2003)) suggests that members of the underclass are not only defined by their behaviour and unemployment status but also their involvement in crime and their illegitimacy. Durkheim’s theory of anomie suggests that the lack of opportunity that the underclass has consequently resulting in criminality and deviance (Marsh, Melville, Morgan, Norris, Walkington, 2006). This theory of Anomie was taken further by Merton (1910-2003) who suggested that people from more deprived areas had less change of achieving social, economic and personal growth (Marsh et al, 2006). Their opportunity is obstructed by the area they live, poverty, literacy, cultural background and which puts a strain on their ability to achieve economic status and wealth (Marsh et al, 2006). This form of Anomie theorised by Merton is Called Strain Theory which accounts for the inability for people from deprived areas to achieve their goals of status and wealth by legal means (Newburn, 2007). This therefore suggests a reason for the shift to criminality and also gives reason for the high numbers of offenders from this class (Giddens, 2001). This can also be explained by the by David Gordon a political economist who believes “crime in capitalist society represents perfectly rational responses to the structure of institutions upon which capitalist societies are based” meaning that due to the strain in striving for greatness and wealth people from lower classes gain their wealth through unconventional means (Reiner, 2004). Offending occurs in all social classes however, the majority of convictions occur from the lower classes of society in involving crimes such as robbery, theft, burglary and joyriding. White collar crime on the other hand is generally seen by society as crime of the middle and upper classes this may be due to accessibility the middle/upper classes have to commit fraud or exploitation of health and safety laws and with a very low conviction rate this reflecting in the crime statistics (Croall, 1998). This gives an unfair representation of crime and victimises the lower classes in society (Croall, 1998). The majority of convicted offenders are to from lower class background committing crimes of robbery, theft, burglary and crimes against property (Muncie
Organisational Behaviour Assignment Pepsi. Motivational Techniques of Pepsi The drink is the invention of Caleb Bradham, a pharmacist and drugstore owner in New Bern, North Californa. In late 1890’s, he had been experiencing with Coca and Kola extracts in the syrup form. By mixing this syrup with carbonated water, he produced a very pleasing beverage that not only tasted good but also made his customers feel good. He promoted it as a cure of dyspepsia (indigestion). Initially called Brand drinks by his local friends, the local friends, the drink was formally titled PEPSI COLA in 1898. By 1902 the syrup was so popular that Caleb was devoting most of time in the preparation, packaging, marketing, advertising, and overseeing the distribution of it to other pharmacies. His sales increased rapidly and in 1904 he bought the Bishop Mill and converted it into his bottling plant for Pepsi Cola. In cola 1907, he purchased adjoining land and built a three-story addition to the factory to serve as office space for his new company. TARGET MARKET The target market of Pepsi aims at young generation. The target market of Pepsi also includes the child is able to pronounce Pepsi as “Bebsi”. ATTRACTION OR PROMOTIONAL TECHNIQUES By opening CRICKET CLUBS for the young generation in which the organization hire famous cricketers like Sachin Tendulkar and Wasim Akram. These cricket clubs provide an opportunity for cricketers to learn playing cricket and as well the product Pepsi is promoted. Another way of attraction is by sponsoring famous celebrities. When these famous personalities sponsored by Pepsi form in their fields of specialty, the Brand is also promoted. This brand also provides scholarship for students, so that students from poor families can be supported as well gaining social goodwill. The organization also introduces many different schemes in which the participants can win different gifts like a CD player, T- shirts, Bikes, free return tickets etc. MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES The Human Resource Department of Pepsi Company gives following incentives and benefits to motivate their workers. JOB SECURITY: They give assurance to the employees working that they would not be removed after a certain time period of working. This promotes the employees to work sincerely because as they know that they would be in the company for a longer duration they would try to put their best performance. PAY ALLOWANCE: This means that the employees would get allowances for their various overheads such as travel, food, housing etc. This is an added advantage to the employees working to motivate them to produce and give their output effectively. PROMOTION TO NEXT DESIGNATION WHICH IS PURELY ON MERIT: This is an important factor of motivation, when an employee gets an opportunity to be promoted purely through his merit he tries to put in his best performance. This creates an atmosphere of competition among employees this is good because it increases the productivity of the workers. ANNUAL PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: Pepsi organizes an annual performance appraisal program in which the best employee, proactive employees of the year and various other categories are elected and felicitated. This creates recognition for hard work, Job satisfaction and effort put in by each member. This motivates each one to obtain that recognition. THE WORKERS ARE OFFERERED PEPSI AT RS.3 AND MEAL (ALL TYPES) IS AVAILABLE AT RS.10: This is an innovative idea formed by the company so that the employees working for the company can avail the food provided in the canteen and Pepsi can be provided to them at a very cheap rate. This creates a sense of satisfaction within the hearts of the employees and creates a high impression about the company. They would be not be disappointed instead be motivational factors for fellow employees. FREE DISPENSARY: This means free allowance for medication. If an employee falls sick his medication cost and the bills would be covered up the company. This one of a major advantages and a motivator which creates an impression in the minds of each employee that whatever happens the medication cost would be covered up by the company. This also avoids one of a major mind barrier that is Perception about the company. CASH REWARDS: The Company also provides extra cash rewards to the really sincere and devoted workers. This also applies to those employees who have worked in the company for more than 10 or 15 years. BONUSES: This is a also a reward a reward gifted to the workers for the merits and hard work. WAYS TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY Motivate Your Employees: Pepsi can put in more efforts to plan and put in ways and means to promote, motivate and encourage an employee because every employee’s output is important to the company. Therefore, try to keep your workers in the best possible situation and make all the factors such as working conditions and other factors favorable so that they get motivated to work more all the time. Manage Your Time Efficiently: Time is another important factor to improve productivity. When all the plans and objectives of a particular company are achieved successfully within a certain span of time that particular company/business develops. Therefore, time is a crucial factor for decision making and setting goals. Streamline Your Small Business: Take advantage of good accounting and inventory software to keep track of your finances, sales and purchases. Take regular inventory of your products and sell off slow-moving items so they can be replaced by faster-moving ones. You can also use bar codes to keep track of your inventory and avoid pilferage either by thieving customers or your own staff. Keep an eye on your credit customers so that you can collect your accounts receivable efficiently. Invest in faster computers or other energy and time-saving equipment. Look into multifunction equipment. Nowadays, you can get fax, copy; scanning and printing devices all bundled into a single machine. This will save time, space, and energy – and speed up your response time to customer inquiries. Every Small Effort Counts: Even small gestures such as installing a coffee machine or an air-conditioning unit can help boost productivity in your business. Any improvement, small or big, should be explored in order to increase productivity levels in your small business – and the above methods can help you do that. 5) Get Your Supporters Talking : The streets are talking and the web has ears. Potential customers are more responsive to recommendations from friends and family. This positive feedback stems from competent customer service and satisfaction. By going that extra mile to get the job done, your clients will definitely take notice and spread the word amongst their network of friends. Generating this type of buzz is far more valuable and affordable than throwing thousands of dollars towards a print ad campaign; however, the turnaround requires more time and patience. You may even want to consider a rewards system for leads and referrals. SETTING SPECIFIC GOALS Incentives such as cash bonuses and or vacation packages are okay, but without defined goals, your team is more or less competing amongst each other rather than collaborating to accomplish a common goal. It helps to have a finish line on the horizon to keep those legs pumping. By setting defined goals and posting them for all to see, your team productivity should spike considerably, especially since progress is more easily gauged. If they can visualize the end, your team will know how hard they have to push to get there. CONCLUSION Any company can become successful if only they have effective motivational strategies and if they are implemented effectively. A worker in must be given as equal importance as a manager in a company, this is because each person has his own importance in the duty delegated to him. “Individually we are one drop, but together we are an ocean”. Organisational Behaviour Assignment Pepsi

FPX 5910 CU Analysis of Netflix Competitive Strategies Capstone

FPX 5910 CU Analysis of Netflix Competitive Strategies Capstone.

I’m working on a business report and need support to help me study.

Create a 15-20 page capstone paper that analyzes a business topic and provides recommendations and is supported with credible resources that demonstrate evidence-based thinking.IntroductionThroughout your MBA program, you have worked to develop as a business professional and prepare to meet future challenges as a business leader. Your program culminates in the capstone project, which forms the primary focus of this course, the final course you will take in the program. The capstone project is intended to provide for you the opportunity to demonstrate your MBA program outcomes in these ways:Planning and executing the strategic and tactical elements of a comprehensive project.Integrating and demonstrating the business leadership skills and techniques you have learned throughout the MBA program and your own growth as a business leader.Communicating your analysis and recommendations for a real organization both in written form and in a formal presentation.Completing your MBA program with an experience that reinforces what you have learned throughout your MBA program. Assessment DescriptionFor complete details, refer to the MBA Capstone Project Description [PDF] and scoring guide. Your capstone project should address these expectations:Apply foundational knowledge and an understanding of business systems, processes, and technology within and across core disciplines.Integrate information across disciplines from differing perspectives.Develop logical, well-supported, evidence-based solutions to business challenges and opportunities.Apply innovative, strategic, and sustainable approaches to business practice and planning.Apply leadership and collaboration principles and strategies for virtual, global, and culturally diverse environments.Integrate principles of ethics and integrity into business decisions.Communicate clearly and effectively in a business environment.Additional ExpectationsInclude an executive summary following your cover page.Include various body sections that contain the analysis and recommendations.Include a conclusion that summarizes main points of the paper. Before you submit your assessment for grading, submit it to SafeAssign as a draft. Review your SafeAssign report and address any flagged issues to ensure you have properly cited all quoted or paraphrased material.As an MBA learner, you have access to a free subscription to the Wall Street Journal (WSJ). Take advantage of that subscription, and do some of your research in the WSJ. Try to include at least one source from the WSJ in your final draft. Submission RequirementsStyle: Your paper should follow the corresponding MBA Academic and Professional Document Guidelines (available in the MBA Program Resources), including single-spaced paragraphs. Use a professional writing style.Communication: Ensure written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message and quality.APA guidelines: Format your citations according to current APA style.Resources: Use at least six citations from credible sources.Length: Your paper should be 15–20 pages, not including front and back matter (cover page, executive summary, table of contents, references, appendices). Papers that do not meet this minimum will be immediately returned for revision.Font and font size: 12 point, Times New Roman.‹EvaluationBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies through corresponding scoring guide criteria:Competency 1: Apply foundational knowledge and an understanding of business systems, processes, and technology within and across core disciplines.Apply foundational knowledge and an understanding of business systems, processes, and technology within and across core disciplines.Competency 2: Integrate information across disciplines and from differing perspectives.Integrate most relevant supportive and conflicting information (data, insights, best practices) across disciplines from differing primary functional perspectives individually and holistically.Competency 3: Think critically and analytically to provide evidence-based solutions to business challenges and opportunities.Develop logical, well-supported solutions based on relevant, sound, logical, and credible evidence (data, insights, analyses, best practices) to solve business challenges and opportunities. Competency 4: Apply innovative, strategic, and sustainable approaches to business practice and planning.Apply innovative, strategic, and sustainable (long-term) approaches to business practice and planning.Competency 5: Lead and collaborate in virtual, global, and culturally diverse environments.Apply leadership and collaboration principles and strategies for virtual, global, and culturally diverse environments.Competency 6: Integrate principles of ethics and integrity into business decisions.Integrate principles of ethics and integrity into business decisions by assessing ethical implications and resolving ethical conflicts and dilemmas.Competency 7: Communicate clearly and effectively in a business environment.Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a business professional.
FPX 5910 CU Analysis of Netflix Competitive Strategies Capstone

Performance Appraisals

nursing essay writing service Performance Appraisals. I’m working on a Management exercise and need support.

Performance Appraisals
Answer the following questions about Performance Appraisals.
1.Most supervisors do a fair job of handling performance appraisals.Discuss your views on this statement.
2.Do you feel that conducting performance appraisals once a year is enough?Discuss!
3.Why do you think that most supervisors do not look forward to appraising their employees?


This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeQuality of Writing and Proofreading

2.5 ptsWritten responses are free of grammatical spelling or punctuation errors. The style of writing facilitates communication.
2.0 ptsWritten responses are largely free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. The style of writing generally facilitates communication.
1.5 ptsWritten responses contain a few errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation, etc. Some errors but not so many to indicate repetitive distractions.
1.0 ptsWritten responses include some grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. The errors distract the reader.
0.5 ptsUses incorrect grammar and incorrect sentence structure consistently. The errors interfere with the communication process.

2.5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeComprehension of material

3.0 ptsThe writer understands significant ideas relevant to the issue under discussion. This is indicated by correct use of terminology, precise selection of information components required to make a point. Correct use of examples .
2.4 ptsAble to distinguish and comprehends a deeper meaning on most occasions. Ideas are reasonably clear. Some subjective evaluation is necessary to determine what the writer means.
1.8 ptsComprehends the surface level meaning of the material and begins to relate issues to general knowledge and experience
1.2 ptsDemonstrates some basic comprehension of the material . Does not make connections with the bigger picture.
0.6 ptsNot comprehending or reflecting on what is read or viewed

3.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLength, content and ability to interpret and answer assignment

1.5 ptsWork demonstrates that all tasks were completed Showed some originality and extra initiative in completing assignment.
1.2 ptsWork demonstrates that significant effort was made to attempt all aspects of the assignment. Ideas connected clearly.
0.9 ptsWork demonstrates that some effort was made to attempt all tasks that were assigned. Occasional sense of engagement of writer with the subject matter.
0.6 ptsLittle effort was made to attempt all tasks that were assigned. Ideas were connected but weak
0.3 ptsVery little effort was given to the task assignment. No response was given.

1.5 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRelevance of answers, opinions and ideas.

3.0 ptsStudent is clearly expressing arguments, opinions and responses in answering assignments. Superior ideas and insights. Answers are clear and complex.
2.4 ptsStudent is more consistent in expressing arguments, opinions and responses when answering assignments
1.8 ptsStudent is learning to develop and express arguments, opinions and responses in answering assignments. More complex and insightful answers.
1.2 ptsNot developing their ability to express arguments, ideas or opinions. Ideas are not complex or insightful. May include some information that distracts from central purpose.
0.6 ptsStudent is not able to express opinions, ideas, and responses due to inadequate writing skills. Ideas are unclear.

3.0 pts

must be do not have any plagiarism from internet !!!!!
Performance Appraisals

Helping Attitude Is Predisposition Of Helping Behaviour Psychology Essay

Helping is something that expected to be voluntary. Helping behaviour itself can be characterized as helpful behaviours that do not expect rewards in return. However, people helped frequently to get desired response, such as materials or social rewards, is not based on sincerity (Hasan, 2010). In fact, the not-expecting-reward helping behaviour or altruism has tremendous impact to society, as shown by Mother Theresa (1910-1997) (Hasan, 2010). Helping attitude is predisposition of helping behaviour (Hasan, 2010). Helping behaviour can be defined as voluntary actions to help other people, with or without expectation of rewards (Hasan, 2010). Helping behaviour is part of prosocial behaviour (voluntary actions that are proposed to assist or provide benefits to other people, such as sharing, comforting, rescuing and helping) (Hasan, 2010). There are 4 types of prosocial behaviors were identified (altruistic prosocial behaviors, compliant prosocial behaviors, emotional pro-social behaviors, and public prosocial behaviors) and they are related differently to theoretically related constructs (Carlo

Identifying The Sources Of Finance Available To Business Finance Essay

In this given case study, a prospective businessman is highlighted. Through the document suggestion in different sides are presented. Finding sources of finance, effects and choosing a right form have discussed here. This document will be helpful for those who are looking for opening a new business, but don’t know about the financing of the business. Hope you guys will be helpful reading this document. 1.1 Sources of Finance In this concerning chapter we will discuss about the various sources of finance that are available in finance. In a business there is various sources finance available. Here we will discover the different sources of finance for our client John. Sole traders: In sale trader ship the owner of the business has the full account of profit or loss that incurs. It is the simplest form of business. Setup of this business is also very easy with no such legal restrictions; however they are entitled to pay income tax on profits. Partnerships: This is one of the common forms of business. Generally, profits as well as losses will be shared by the partners. For these, Partnership Act 1890 has been established. Each may also sign the Deed of Agreement. Other than these exceptions to sole-trader they are almost similar (i.e. partners are liable for debts also for the income taxes from the share of their profits etc). Corporations: Corporations are separate legal entities from the owners. There is basically two types of limited companies; one is public limited company and is private limited company. These both require ‘Memorandum of Associations’ and Articles of Associations as from the legislation of Act 1985 (as mended by the companies Act 1989). Government imposes a much higher rate tax (on profits) which is corporation tax. 1.2 Different Terms of Finance In the given assignment, we saw that John doesn’t have enough finance knowledge to classify his financial needs. Estimated Requirement Terms Building