Key ReadingSpivak, G. C. (1993) ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory,

Key ReadingSpivak, G. C. (1993) ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, New York.  pp. 66-111.Further ReadingGuha, R. (2000) ‘On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India’, in Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial, Chaturvedi, V. (Ed), London and New York: Verso. Also freely available here.Guha, R. (1999) The Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India, Durham and London: Duke University Press.Key ReadingWilliams, R. (1977) Hegemony, Marxism and Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 108-113. Hall, S. (1990) ‘Gramsci and Us’ in Hall, S. The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left Verso, London pp. 161-173. Republished on the Verso website, February 2017. Gramsci, A. (2003) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London: Lawrence and Wishart. See also, the Antonio Gramsci archiveFurther ReadingGreen, M. (2002) ‘Gramsci Cannot Speak: Presentations and Interpretations of Gramsci’s Concept of the Subaltern’, Rethinking Marxism Vol.14(3):1-25.[supanova_question]

RFID (Radio-frequency identification) system

RFID (Radio-frequency identification) system.

RFID (Radio-frequency identification) system can be used to track patients, doctors and expensive equipment in hospitals in real time. RFID tags can be attached to the ID bracelets of all patients, or just patients requiring special attention, so their Paper details: An RFID (Radio-frequency identification) system can be used to track patients, doctors and expensive equipment in hospitals in real time. RFID tags can be attached to the ID bracelets of all patients, or just patients requiring special attention, so their location can be tracked continuously. RFID technology can also provide an electronic link for wirelessly communicating patient data. What is your opinion of a mandatory hospital policy requiring the use of RFID to decrease errors in the operating room?

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Humanities / History

Key ReadingSpivak, G. C. (1993) ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ in Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory, Humanities / History.

Use this book to answer the questions below and add quotes with page number from the book to support answers. Here is the name of the book: Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (ISBN:978-­‐0674171039) 1. What, according to Kuhn, is the main difference between Greek and Egyptian cosmology? (100-150 words; 15 points) 2. Define the following 3 terms based on the reading (2-3 sentences each; 15 points [5 each]) [Please don’t google these and copy paste definitions, lots have tried….explain in your own words based on the reading] a. North celestial pole b. Circumpolar stars c. Ecliptic 3. Ancient Greeks believed the cosmos was made up of two spheres. What were these two spheres? Where did this conception of a two-sphere universe come from? (see p. 25-33) (100-200 words; include at least 2 short quotes from the text with page numbers; 15 points) Chapter 2 (45 points) 4. For ancient thinkers, retrograde motion was a major theoretical problem. Yet, Kuhn says some ancient thinkers did try to offer a solution (see pp. 55-70). One was “the theory of homocentric spheres” (embraced by Eudoxus). The other was a theory of “deferents and epicycles” (embraced by Apollonius and Hipparchus). Explain these theories and the benefits of each. (150-200 words; include at least 3 shorts quotes from the text with page numbers; 15 points) 5. Explain in your own words what an epicycle is and what it allowed ancient astronomers to explain. Keep in mind the difference between “major” and “minor” epicycles. (150-200 words; 10 points) 6. What was, according to Kuhn, Ptolemy’s real contribution to ancient astronomy? What makes Ptolemy such an important figure in the history of science? (100-150 words; 5 points) Chapter 3 (20 points) 7. Aristotle did not believe vacuums could exist in nature. What evidence did he use to support this belief? (50-100 words; 10 points) 8. Ancient Greeks had many “scientific” reasons to embrace Aristoteles’ cosmology. But Kuhn says they also had a “non-scientific argument” (p. 91) for accepting his theory. What was the non-scientific appeal of Aristotle’s cosmology? What non-scientific argument could be given in favor of it, according to Kuhn? (100-150 words; include at least 2 quote from the text with page number; 15 points) EXTRA CREDIT (Optional): Draw a timeline (with arrows and dates) depicting the major discoveries and thinkers mentioned in the chapter in chronological order. This should be a drawing or a diagram (i.e. a visual rather than textual representation). (5 points)

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Earning from Environmental History,environmental historians are experts in documenting the historical relationship between humans and nature at specific times and places. You are going to practice developing such skills by collecting and analyzing photogr

Earning from Environmental History,environmental historians are experts in documenting the historical relationship between humans and nature at specific times and places. You are going to practice developing such skills by collecting and analyzing photogr.


environmental historians are experts in documenting the historical relationship between humans and nature at specific times and places. You are going to practice developing such skills by collecting and analyzing photographic images taken on the Great Plains during the 1930s and using them as empirical data to interpret the human-environment relationship at that time and place. As you have now realized, the Great Plains droughts of the 1930s constitute one of the greatest environmental disasters of the 20th century. The photos in the US Library of Congress collection contain an important database of knowledge about the human-environment relationship on the Great Plains. Your assignment requires you to identify important images in the question and interpret them in a systematic way, as if you were a professional environmental historian. Specifically, you must do the following: 1. Browse through the US Library of Congress collection and select three images that you believe provide important information about the human-environment relationship on the Great Plains during the 1930s. Copy and paste these images into a Word document, providing the full bibliographic reference in a caption below each image (see how this was done in Figure 1 above and in the “Lessons from the Dust Bowl article”, and you do similarly).12. Write a report no more than 3 single-spaced pages in length (not including the space taken up by the images themselves) in which you: (1) describe in words what is being depicted in each of the selected photos, as well as where/when each photo was taken (you will find that many images in the LoC collection are accompanied by a note that provides this information); (2) explain what you believe is the lesson we today should draw from the information contained in the photograph. In your explanation, try to link the photos to what you learned from reading the “What We Learned from the Dust Bowl” article. Some tips about interpreting photographs… As you browse through the Library of Congress collection, think about how you will interpret the photographs you select. Photographic imagery provides powerful data with which to understand and interpret historical events. The photographs in the collection contain information such things as: -What people were like (such as their age, gender, clothing, family size and configuration, posture, etc) -Interactions between people (e.g. people looking at one another, holding one another, speaking, etc) 1 Note that it is OK to copy and paste images from this collection into your work, so long as you cite the source. This is because the images in this LoC database are in the “public domain”; that is, there is no copyright on them. 
7-Activities that people carried out (in their work, in their leisure time, in their daily routines) -Things people have imposed upon the natural landscape (e.g. fields, crops, houses, bridges, farms, electrical poles, etc) -The technologies people at that time used (e.g. automobiles, farm equipment, windmills, etc) -Environmental conditions (e.g. soil, dust, wind, sunshine, standing water, etc) When you look at a photograph, consider not only the foreground of the image, but the background as well. Consider the time of day, the time of year, and the location in which it was taken. Remember that these photographs are the outcomes of deliberate decisions by a photographer to capture and communicate a particular set of information. What is the photographer trying to tell us? Why has the photographer composed the image in a particular way? For example, has the photographer chosen to zoom in on an individual person’s face, or are the human figures shown in full? If there are no people at all in the photo, why not? (Notice you will not find a single “selfie” in the entire collection). The information the photographer is trying to convey is often reflected in the framing of the people, things and landscape elements in the photo. There are more questions to consider when viewing these photographs. What is the focal point of the image, and why? Are people in an image carrying out some sort of activity and, if so, what likely happened before the photo was taken, and what will likely happen next? Or has the photographer asked the people in the photo to pose for the image? If so, what is it the photographer wants us to interpret from them? Does s/he want us to study the people themselves, or does s/he want us to consider their setting and surroundings (or all of these)? Perhaps the photographer decided not to include any people in the photo at all, and instead shows us the landscape. What information is the photographer trying to tell us about that land?


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Art Exhibition Review

Art Exhibition Review.

Provide two brief reviews on current art exhibitions: The Whitney Biennial 2019 and “Elective Affinities: Edmund de Waal” at the Frick Collection.

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Career research paper

Career research paper.

In order beginning with a introduction with a thesis statement then a description of what education (degree, license, and/or training) is needed to become a Mental Health Counselor, how long does it take to get this position, and a job description of that job such as: income range, daily duties, how many hours can someone work in this. The pros and cons of this career. What the job market is like in Indiana, USA. What other jobs are related to Mental Health Counselor. What skills, personality, time should one have to be successful in this type of career. And how does this career help or benefit the community or society as a whole.And a conclusion at the end.

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should social media companies be more transparent about how they use their collected data?

should social media companies be more transparent about how they use their collected data?.

1. Research and select an issue related to social media and marketing. For instance: should social media companies be more transparent about how they use their collected data? Should celebrities leverage (or exploit) their social media following to make money? Is it right for companies to use their young consumers to market their products? Is it wrong for people to post “inappropriate content” in order to garner likes or followers? 2. Determine an ethical principle by which to analyze the issue or situation. To help with this, we’ll want to use a “right or wrong,” “good vs. bad,” or “lesser of two evils” approach to shaping our perspective. 3. Construct a thesis that presents your overall perspective. That is, what’s your stance on the issue? 4. Using the “four pillars of argument” (Chapter 1), construct a 3-5 page ethical argument in which you present and support your perspective about the situation with sound reasoning and appropriate research information.

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Key to Boosting a Consumer-driven Economy Fostering Cambodia’s E-Commerce Return Policy Lessons from China

Key to Boosting a Consumer-driven Economy Fostering Cambodia’s E-Commerce Return Policy Lessons from China.

Key to Boosting a Consumer-driven Economy Fostering Cambodia’s E-Commerce Return Policy: Lessons from China


Paper details:

1.I would like to have a literature review written about this topic that focuses on illustrating the method in applying return policy in Cambodia when there aren’t formal rules or an e-commerce system like in Taobao, China and Amazon, USA. 2.Many paper only talk about how beneficial return policy in consumer protection is, but do not give a guide on the method needed to carry it out in a country where consumer protection is weak or wost, dont have it at all (most emerging countries). So please include that as a research gap as well.

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discuss each author’s interpretation of Aristotle, and compare and contrast the arguments they make

discuss each author’s interpretation of Aristotle, and compare and contrast the arguments they make.

Dante, marsillo of padua, and st. Thomas Aquinas all used the same sources but came to different conclusions about where ultimate authority lies (with pope or the emperor). discuss each author’s interpretation of Aristotle, and compare and contrast the arguments they make. who is most convincing? the only source to use should be the one i provided from the book great political thinkers plato to present sixth edition. please cite appropriately with page numbers

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Health Services Administration Internship

Health Services Administration Internship.

 Write 3-4 page paper that details to what extent you practice habits that create success. In his national bestseller, “The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People,” author Steven R. Covey outlines seven practices that he believes are key to both personal and professional success. According to Covey, the seven habits of highly successful people are: 1) They take initiative. (“Be Proactive”) 2) They focus on goals. (“Begin with the End in Mind”) 3) They set priorities. (“Put First Things First”) 4) They only win when others win. (“Think Win/Win”) 5) They communicate. (“Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood”) 6) They cooperate. (“Synergize”) 7) They reflect on and repair their deficiencies. (“Sharpen the Saw”) Question: To what degree to do you engage in these practices?  For each of Covey’s principles, describe how well (or in some cases perhaps, how poorly) you are practicing these habits.  Provide specific example of each habit as they apply to you (For example, with regard to Habit # 1- “If I am having a problem in class, I approach my professor and ask for clarification.”)  If you are not practicing these habits, reflect and explain what keeps you from engaging in these behaviors. A PDF file of Covey’s book is available in this week’s folder. You may use it to learn more about Covey’s principles and gain further clarification about his ideas.

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Managing Complexity

Managing Complexity.

IKEA started in Sweden over 50 years ago with one man’s vision. Ingvar Kamprad, the founder of IKEA, asked the questions:

  • Why are nice homes only possible for people with a lot of money?
  • Why should none be able to afford a nice, functional home?
  • Why does furniture have to be so expensive?
  • Why is there no one offering a wide range of home furnishing articles of good form and function at prices so low that the many people can afford them?

Ingvar Kamprad wanted to help create a better everyday life for the people in the area of Sweden where he lived. He was brought up in a farming community where ordinary people were struggling to make a living out of stony fields and limited resources.

Nothing could be taken for granted and survival meant hard work, ingenuity and working together. Ingvar Kamprad’s desire to help ordinary people founded the basis of a strong company culture, which has helped to make IKEA so successful. It is not surprising that IKEA comes from Sweden – a country that has long been famous for the way in which it cares for its citizens. In a recent IKEA publication, Democratic Design, the concept of giving everyone the same opportunity in life is set out in the following way:

“..Everyone who has grown up in Sweden has learnt – either from their

Dad, or from society in general – people who are not all that well off should still be given the same opportunities as people who are. It’s hardly surprising that, as a Swedish company, IKEA espouses Swedish values.”

Creating an anti-brand

The IKEA concept was a revolutionary one, which was well ahead of its time.

Essentially, IKEA has built an anti-brand, which stands for the good of the many people rather than a narrow group of shareholders. IKEA began with the question: Who is on the side of the customer?

From this stemmed a corporate philosophy, which asked two further questions:

Isn’t there room for an anti-brand that stands for low price, high quality and innovation? Isn’t there room for an anti-brand that stands for the benefit of everyone?

High quality at affordable prices

In order to realize the aims of his business idea, Kamprad needed a way of designing which would make it possible to maintain high quality standards, while at the same time making reductions in price. The solution he came up with was based on common sense and a respect for the customer. He carried out detailed research in the different life stages and the needs of customers at each stage (e.g. setting up home for the first time, raising a young family, retiring etc.). From this, he was able to calculate what customers would be able to afford, while still having some money over.

Then he sourced the right materials and the production units, which had the expertise and capacity to produce goods economically. In many cases, he approached producers who were not part of mainstream furniture manufacturing. For example, a shirt manufacturer may well be suited to producing loose covers for settees and beds.

Large IKEA stores were built on the outskirts of towns where rates were cheaper and people could park easily.

The furniture was sold in flat packages which saved space and allowed for ease of handling and transport.

Finally, Ingvar Kamprad built his business on the philosophy “We do a little, you do a little, together we save money” which meant that the customer became part of the production process. The DIY idea was refined and put into operation on a large scale. All this allowed for long production runs, which provided economies of scale and growth whilst maintaining the quality of the finished products. Instead of increasing the numbers of service personnel when the business grew, he kept the numbers the same, reasoning that employing more people would cost more money and this would make the products more expensive (so that buyers would not be able to afford them).

The simplicity of the way of working is what makes IKEA successful. The initial vision “to create a better everyday life for the many people” is even more relevant today than it was 50 years ago.

IKEA’s vision

A vision is the ideal or aim to which an organization and its people work. The vision statement should answer the question – “Who is IKEA?” Having a clear vision enables an organization to enthuse its employees, customers, suppliers and other important stakeholders. Ingvar Kamprad’s vision, for example, was different and exciting because it said that ordinary people mattered. Nowadays, many modern organizations set out to create a corporate and a personal vision for the people that work for the organization.

Today IKEA’s corporate vision is that of “A community of professionals, constantly developing the skills necessary to create a better everyday life at home for the many people.”

This is translated down to a personal vision for IKEA employees:

“I, as an employee at IKEA, can make a difference. I am able to help to create something for the benefit of everybody, a better everyday life at home.”

IKEA’s mission

Having created a clear vision, it is then necessary to translate the ideas into a mission – i.e. a purpose which can be used as a clear guiding principal for how the organization and its employees will be able to achieve the vision. The mission statement lays out the direct practical steps, which the organization and its employees will be able to take to achieve its vision. With a clear mission, it is possible to set out what the organization and its people need to do to secure improvements in performance.

IKEA’s mission is: “To develop the skills of every IKEA employee, so that they may become professionals in providing a complete range of home decorating products of good form and function at a low price.”

The mission for IKEA’s employees is: “I will gain the knowledge necessary to develop myself and my skills so that my work and my life are more meaningful.”

Developments of IKEA’s corporate mission are reflected in the company’s businesses practices, which conveniently can be set out under the mnemonic IKEA:

(I) INNOVATION: Discovering better solutions to reduce costs without affecting quality, finding innovative production methods and materials.

(K) KNOWLEDGE: Existing within the business, incorporating 50 years of history and home decorating practice throughout the world.

(E) EXPERIENCE: Existing within the stores, incorporating ideas, inspirations relating to home decorating solutions.

(A) ACCESSIBILITY: Availability of complete home furnishings at all times at low, appropriate prices.

Today’s business idea-democratic design

Today, IKEA’s business idea has come some way since the earliest days of Ingvar Kamprad. IKEA sets out its business idea in the following way: “To offer a wide range of home decorating articles with good form and function, at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them.”

The three key dimensions of IKEA are therefore: Good FORM and FUNCTION, at a LOW PRICE.

Most designers will accept the principle that the form of a product depends on its function, e.g. the shape of a chair is determined by the need for a person to sit comfortably on it. The product, which the designers create often, incorporates two important dimensions- good design and practical function.

Nevertheless, it is still possible to encounter form without any obvious function. Sometimes beauty alone provides sufficient justification for the existence of an object – it becomes art. In the same way, it is sometimes possible to encounter function without form – a product is so eminently well suited for its purpose that its appearance is of no consequence.

In our homes, however, the best solution is almost invariably a combination of both form and function. However, form and function in harmony are only half the story.

Affordability also has an important part to play. Price is the third and most critical dimension for those who seek to make good design and practical function available to the many, not just the few. It is the combination of form, function and a low price at the same time, which makes IKEA products unique.

Illustrating the key dimensions – The Oggla Chair

The best way to illustrate the concept of democratic design at IKEA is to take a specific example. Form – the Oggla Chair is inspired by Thonet’s Vienna chairs and was first produced for IKEA at its Thonet factory. The chair was produced in formed wood and was light, strong and beautiful.

Function – this was a typical example of a chair, which could be easily stacked, fitted many styles, and was comfortable and elegant without being extreme. Thanks to its lightness, it was easy to move and handle.

Low price – this, however, was not enough for Ingvar Kamprad, who commented, “The chair is too expensive – we can’t sell it in a flat pack”.

Designer Gilles Lundgren found the solution. A supplier in the USA, together with the enthusiasts from Smaland in Sweden, found new materials and production methods to make it possible. Today the chair is made in recyclable polypropylene for use indoors and out. It comes with a stool, an Ogglett, in many different colors and combines the three dimensions of IKEA: form, function and a low price.

Meeting the needs of the consumer

Because IKEA is fundamentally concerned with serving the requirements of ‘the many people,’ the design process begins with finding out what the consumer wants. IKEA therefore engages in a continual cycle of market research to find out about consumer lifestyles, what benefits consumers are seeking from a range of household furnishings, what consumer perceptions are of existing products and many other things. IKEA has always been conscious of the importance of a detailed analysis of customer needs.

For example, because IKEAÕs primary market is ‘the many people’ rather than the privileged few, a prime concern of furniture design will be to provide solutions for people who may live in small, compact homes. The form and function of furniture designed by IKEA is thus very much driven by the needs and requirements of consumers.

Achieving and maintaining low prices

IKEA continually strives to provide beautiful, practical furniture at a low price. This means, for example, that IKEA designers work with production unit suppliers to design furniture in a way, which makes the most rational use of available production capacity. It means that products are designed to be produced in environmentally suitable materials that can be purchased at reasonable prices and that products are designed so that customers can assemble them themselves at home in order to save money.

IKEA purchasers travel the world to find the best possible manufacturers at the lowest possible price, without undermining the designer’s original idea or lowering the quality of the product. The result is that design engineers are not frightened by the mathematics of making maximum use of materials and technology. It also means that customers do not need a degree in engineering to put their furniture together!

Meeting environmental standards

Nowadays, consumers demand that furniture design meets the highest environmental standards. IKEA has responded to this consumer demand and has set itself high standards, which mean that:

  • Manufacturing is carried out so that materials, technology and transportation have the least possible damaging effect on the environment
  • Raw materials are used rationally and waste is minimized.

Unfortunately, no manufacturing process is completely environmentally friendly but at IKEA, a very strong emphasis is placed on thinking and acting ecologically. For example by striving:

  • Not to consume resources at a rate faster than nature can replace them
  • Not to use unnatural materials and substances
  • To preserve nature and its inhabitants
  • To refrain from dumping waste


This case study shows the importance and influence of vision within a company. Ingvar Kamprad’s original vision has provided IKEA with a clear set of goals and principles that have contributed enormously to the success of the company. His vision to provide home furnishings of good design and function at prices so low that the majority of people could afford them has led to a company culture, which necessitates the best practice in not only the design of its products but also the design of the company structure and its systems.


  1. Apply the Hard Systems Method to this IKEA situation case, including spry diagram in order to brainstorm, analyse and make suitable recommendations. Provide a detailed narrative explaining your thinking process. (1500 words) (50 marks)
  2. What are the main insights or new understandings that you gained from the application of HSM to the IKEA case study? (400 words) (15 marks)
  3. What are the main criticisms of the “Hard systems method”? To what extent do you agree with these criticisms? (400 words) (15 marks)
  4. What is CATWOE? What do the letters stand for and how is this tool used (based on the case study)? (400 words) (20 marks)

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