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Key factors for achieving competitive advantage

Key factors for achieving competitive advantage. The main purpose of the essay is to concentrate on the key essentials in Ryanair’s internal environment according to the case study ‘Ryanair low-fare model company’ (O’Higgins, 2007). By identifying those elements and critically analyzing their effect on the company ‘s strategy, the paper will focus on how these factors form the organization strategic capabilities and are used to gain competitive advantage. Using the resource-based view firstly introduced by B.Wernerfelt (1984) it discuss how Ryanair benefits from their capabilities to offer a lower cost product. Both hypothesis and references will be applied for better understanding of the topic. 2. Ryanair’s core competences In line with Michael Porter’s theory there are three major strategies that companies can use to achieve competitive advantage – cost leadership, differentiation and focus (Annon, 2006). Ryanair has chosen the first approach as it seeks to be the lowest cost producer in Europe by selling standardized, mass products. The concept of how to design a future strategic development on the basis of unique resources and competences is used by Ryanair effectively (Hamel.G, Prahald.C.K., 1989). The company controls that by allocating, organizing and stimulating those resources to decrease costs and respectively price. Such internal operations, which aggressively follow the strategy of reducing costs, lead to competitive advantage and serve as basis of Ryanair success. Ryanair’s ambition is to be the European leading low-fare airline operator and it maintains that by constant enhancements and expanding in the low-fares service. The company aims to engender high passenger traffic by offering the lowest costs. This is achieved by focusing on operating effectiveness and cut costs. However, there are several key factors in the company’s strategy that are of a vital importance for sustaining competitive advantage over its competitors. All together they play as key strategic capabilities for influencing and driving the cost efficiency which is essential for Ryanair’s operating strategy (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). 3.Key Factors for achieving competitive advantage 3.1 Ryanair’s Approach. Ryanair’s company culture is about offering a low fare product which exerts a pull on fare-aware customers and is on the basis of one-way trip – an advantage as many of their competitors do not use this approach. By maximizing the production capacity as a tangible physical resource Ryanair is able to manage the cost more effectively (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). 3.2 Route policy. Ryanair’s route policy is concentrated in point-to-point service, short-haul routes, and using uncongested landing fields around major cities and travel destinations. Choosing such short-haul routes gives advantage to Ryanair to offer their clientele frequent service. By that tool the company can operate as a “non-frill” carrier suggesting that people expect frills attached only when they use longer flights. Ryanair is able to offer direct routes (point-to-point) and by that the company cut costs from servicing the travelers and transferring the baggage. The choice of secondary uncongested airports gives an advantage in a manner of more on-time departures, fewer delays, handling costs. It gives them an edge in front of the other competitors and is a key aspect of maximizing its productivity. It is a part of the product/process design as Ryanair seeks to maximize their aircrafts utilization. This leads to influencing the costs in different parts of the value chain (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). 3.3 Passenger Service. Customer service is a part of the value chain in a company and is considered as a primary activity (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). In proportion to the theory Ryanair’s strategy is to satisfy their customers by service performance which is better than that delivered by its rivals in the low-cost/fare sector. The company is using sector benchmarking to identify its advantages over the competitors. The final “package of services” underpins those advantages and allows the company to grow as no one in the branch is able to compete on that level. Ryanair manages that package by focusing completely on the execution of services and choosing secondary airports. The company is taking an advantage of the situation regarding the numerous fuel surcharges and is ahead of its competitors as their management succeed in captivating the additional fuel surcharges through mixture of cost cutbacks and further increasing the efficiency. As many companies cannot compete on that altitude they exit the sector and the passanger flow is transformed to Ryanair. This gives them the prospect to expand and enhance their productivity. No fuel surcharges Youngest Fleet LOWEST AIR FARES RYANAIR’S CUSTOMER SERVICE PACKAGE Best Punctuality Fewest lost bags Fewest cancellations 3.4 Ancillary Revenues. ‘Core competences may become embedded in an organization’s culture’ (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). Ancillary services that include non-flight services such as in-flight sales, accommodation services, insurances, car rentals, excess charges, commissions, etc. has become a significant element in Ryanair’s culture. This is an example of how the company’s management can actually stretch its strategic capabilities when they spot a prospect to design new service out of the existing capabilities. According to Hamel and Prahalad (1990) those stretching of competences can be used as a basis for related diversifications. Ryanair offers a range of ancillary services that are connected with the company’s main passenger service. By providing such services the company seeks to enhance its sales and in that order to cut the unit cost. According to the case study one of those services is the so called in flight mobile phone service which allows people to use mobile phones while they are on the aircraft (O’Higgins, 2007). The idea is not well-accepted among customers but it is just one of those initiatives that support the Ryanair’s strategy. As Michael O’Leary ( Ryanair’s CEO) declared ‘If you want a quiet flight, use another airline. Ryanair is noisy, full and we are always trying to sell you something ( Done.K and Braithwaite.T, 2006). Another matter of observation is how the company uses the internet to build its brand name. Ryanair is declared as owner of the largest travel website in Europe and fifth recognized brand on Google. As Furlong.S (2006) suggests, the company posses the ability to renovate its web traffic into e-commerce and advertising revenues. By building a strong brand image as an intangible asset it expands its competitive advantages. J.B. Barney (2001) implies that the most valuable sources of achieving a competitive advantage are the intangible assets and competences entrenched in the company’s culture and is much harder for competitors to try to imitate them. Ryanair has put the theory into practice and therefore they successfully exploit the World Wide Web to build strong image and promote its products. 3.5 Low Operating Costs. Ryanair’s approach is to reduce operating costs in order to be the lowest cost operator in Europe. Ryanair is focused on reduction and control of the crucial expenses that are important for managing an airline company: a)Fleet Costs. Identifying the Ryanair’s aircraft fleet as a physical asset and an unique resource is important in order to understand Ryanair’s policy which is devoted to keeping the aircraft maintenance costs as low as possible (O’Higgins, 2007). This is achieved by reducing the fleet’s average age and by maintaining the fleet in the best cost efficient way. As an element of the core competences company performs different activities as checking the aircraft, own routine aircraft repair, aircraft return to Ryanair bases each evening, plus certain aircraft examinations. All these actions lead to benefits for the organization that can be used to gain competitive advantage over the rivals. New aircrafts are more environmental friendly and this helps the company’s to build an image but moreover it reduces the fuel costs as the new machines’ fuel consumption is much lower. It also gives the advantage of a larger seat capacity which can take full advantage of the productivity by managing capacity-fill (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). A good illustration is the technology development, as a support activity in the value chain within the company that Ryanair undertakes when providing the winglet modification program. This program allows the aircraft to consume even less fuel and contributes to the cost efficiency. Another important issue is that by purchasing aircrafts from one and the same manufacturer the company is given an opportunity to reduce the costs associated to the training of the personnel, purchase of new parts and repair. It also allows the company to design more flexible schedules for crews and equipment. b) Passanger Service Costs. Another dimension of the process design as a source of cost efficiency is the customer service costs (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). Ryanair try to save costs and improve speed by different measures such as web-based check-in, priority boarding and charging bags. This actually reduces costs on facilities, staff and it saves time. By developing aspects such as their internet booking page and reservation center, Ryanair manages to eliminate commissions obtained by the travel agent and be more competitive following its business low-cost model. c) Airport Access Fees. According to the case study (O’Higgins, 2007) Ryanair’s airport, handling and route charges are increased as a result of the company’s expansion in the number of sectors flown. The company focus is on stable increase in passenger flow, keeping the level of increase higher than the raise in airport charges. Ryanair is making an attempt to control airport service and access charges by choosing airports that can offer Ryanair competitive cost conditions. As Ryanair maintains a huge volume of customer traffic it is given the opportunity to bargain specific contracts with such airports so to lower the airport charges. By such operations the company is gaining competitive advantage over its rivals who generally operate on congested airports. Their aggressive approach against charges and conditions at some airports is also an important tool to protect their business model of low-fares as they are expected to serve as many customers as they can carry. The reason is that Ryanair cannot afford repeated passenger and flights delay which is caused by understaffing at such airports. d) Personnel Productivity.Ryanair thrives constantly to improve the productivity of its personnel. The company manages the work-force by different approaches including commissions for on-board sales and payments on the basis of flying hours. They manage to achieve such productivity by recruiting, rewarding and training its personnel. According to Porter (1985) such human resource management acts as a support activity for the efficiency of the primary activities in the value chain. By managing their skills and knowledge and rewarding their work Ryanair can contribute from the maximized productivity of their labor force. The increasing fuel costs drives the company to take measures in order to keep the fares low. Such measure is the launched program for piloting training by which pilots gain knowledge how to fly the aircraft with minimum fuel consumption and it respectively leads to cutting in fuel costs. This can be identified as a dynamic capability. As suggested by David Treece (1997) this is considered as ability to renew the company’s strategic capabilities in order to meet the demands of the ever changing environment. By such trainings the organization is developing its core competences which can lead to competitive advantage (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). 3.6 Michael O’Leary Praised by present and former staff for his ability to lead the company, Michael O’Leary, is strongly identified by his dynamic decisions and arrogant statements ( O’Higgins, 2007 ). As proposed before and from Barney’s (2001) theory it is the nature of the intangible unique resources to be inimitable and for that reason to serve as a basis of gaining competitive advantage. Ryanair is strongly recognized by their intellectual capital represented by its Chief Executive. Ryanair strategy owes a lot credits to him as the company’s success is due to his aggressive approach. It is essential to understand that more often it is an unique intangible resource or embedded in the culture activity or linkages of activities that really matter to achieve competitive advantage (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). Ryanair is the European leading low-cost model airline because of his talented manager. The company is marked by his actions and the success is due to his unique characteristics as a personality. Therefore it is impossible for the competitors to imitate that resource which in the end conducts advantage for Ryanair and differentiate the company from its rivals. Ryanair has benefited from his leadership since the foundation of the company as he has used the so called ‘first-mover advantage”. O’Leary’s Ryanair is designed as the first European low-cost operator adopting the model of Southwest Airlines – the world major low-cost company. By using this source of cost efficiency the corporation is moving down the experience curve and is actually able to absorb that experience and turn it into reduction of the cost base (Johnson, G., Scholes, K. and Whittington, R., 2008). Another issue when managing company’s strategic capabilities is the option those capabilities to be renewed and recreated. The ability to manage and control those processes is known as a dynamic capability (Wang, C.L. and Ahmed P.K., 2007). Such capabilities are the mergers and acquisitions, by which the company can gain new skills and knowledge as well as new customers. The case shows how the idea of Michael O’Leary to merge his company to a rival one has never become reality as his views obviously are directed to external development of company’s capabilities. 4. Conclusion. The assignment has explained the central importance of managing the company’s internal environment by numerous measures and operations. Using the resource-based view the project was undertaken in order to identify the key factors in a company (Ryanair) that have an impact on the organization’s strategy. By analyzing those elements the paper has shown how managing those factors can contribute to the company to achieve competitive advantage over the rivals and continue to grow. As Ryanair has adopted the low-cost business model their actions and functions are strongly connected to the reducing costs as the company thrives to offer the lowest, in meaning of price, product. word count: 2347 Key factors for achieving competitive advantage
Article Toward a Cumulative Science of Emotion Reaction Paper.

Write a two-page double-spaced reaction paper to an article on emotion.First, you need to pick an article about emotion that was not discussed in class or covered extensively in the assigned readings. You can find good articles from journals such as Emotion, Emotion and Cognition, and Journal of Motivation and Emotion. The first paragraph of the reaction paper should be a summary of the article (like an abstract, but written in your own words). The remaining paragraphs should discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the article. For instance, you can discuss threats to internal validity, issues of external validity, and whether there was a manipulation check. The discussion can include both positive and negative comments. Your paper should also include original thinking. For example, did you come up with any new hypotheses or ideas for future studies? You will need to turn in the journal article along with your reaction paper.The paper must be in your own words, and should not be something you have written for another class.I take plagiarism very seriously. When you use words or ideas from another source, whether it is from your textbook, a journal article, lecture slides or a website, you must credit the original source. This also applies whenyou use other people’sideas inyour own words.If you are using direct quotes, you must place quotation marks around them and cite the source in parenthesis. If you are using ideas, cite the source in parenthesis after a sentence that was derived in part from that resource. Not including this information is considered plagiarism.
Article Toward a Cumulative Science of Emotion Reaction Paper

Arizona State University Crime Within the Community Writers Journal.

BackgroundConsiderations of exigency and kairos are critical as you judge which conversations and which discourse communities to engage with in your larger research project. After all, our readers are much more willing to listen to what we have to say if we can show them that doing so is critically important.PurposeIn this Writer’s Journal, you will have the opportunity to reflect on your topic’s exigency and kairos; additionally, you will be able to think about and formulate your central research question (CRQ) in terms of exigency and kairos.Skills and OutcomesExplain how the context surrounding your topic is exigent (Rhetorical Knowledge)Interpret the your topic’s inquiry as kairotic (Rhetorical Knowledge)Produce a new formulation of your CRQ that captures your project’s exigency and/or kairos (Rhetorical Knowledge; Critical Thinking, Reading, and Composing; Processes)Habits of Mind PracticedOpennessCreativityResponsibilityFlexibilityMetacognitionTasksIn your journal entry, you should explain how your topic is exigent. Why is it critical to explore your topic right now and/or dangerous not to do so?Next, you should explain how your topic is kairotic. This is moving beyond describing why it is important/critical to explore your topic now (exigency) and is instead an interpretation of how current events make it likely that exploring your project could result in some positive impact. In short, why is now the “perfect” or “opportune” time to explore your project?Finally, you should reformulate your CRQ in terms of the exigency and kairos you explore in this journal entry. Does your CRQ substantially change? Do considerations of exigency and kairos directly affect your CRQ’s formulation, or would it be more effective to address these concerns with your audience in a different place, like an introduction to your project or other textual frame? Why?*NOTE: There are many different ways to approach these tasks, but you should aim to be as thorough as possible in your response (approximately 500 words is a good target length).Criteria for SuccessIn each Writer’s Journal, you should: clearly address each question or task;employ many details, examples, and explanations in answering each question or task; and,create an internally organized text, employing sentences (or notes where applicable) that clearly relate to one another.
Arizona State University Crime Within the Community Writers Journal

Sociology Reading Journal – EASY

Sociology Reading Journal – EASY. I don’t understand this Sociology question and need help to study.

ASA format. 12 point font double spaced. 1 page for each reading minimum.
4 total readings. 4 pages. 4 separate quotes. Each reading on separate page.
Reading theory is challenging, to say the least. It often requires multiple readings, “googling” terms you do not understand, and a general tenacity that can be difficult to muster. Journaling will help with this.
Directions:

Read the requiring readings:1.) Durkheim – Mechanical and Organic Solidarity2.) Durkheim – What is a Social Fact? 3.) Durkheim – Anomic Suicide 4.) Durkheim- The Human Meaning of Religion
After you have read the piece, identify with a quote that you believe best summarizes the main argument, or one of the main arguments, of each piece.
Title your journal entry with the author and title of the reading.
Type the quote you chose at the top.
Explain why you think this quote best summarizes the argument. This means you will write—in your own words— a paragraph or two on how you understand the piece and how the quote reflects that understanding.

Sociology Reading Journal – EASY

The Future of Psychological Testing and Assessment Presentation

term paper help The Future of Psychological Testing and Assessment Presentation.

Select a special population of interest from the following list:Domestic violence victimsClients with questions about their sexual orientationHuman trafficking victimsClients with suicidal ideationClients who self-harm Hypothesize the future of psychological testing for your selected population.Create a 7-10-slide presentation about your population that includes the following:A description of the tests and assessments currently in useChanges to the tests and assessments you would like to seeExplain any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rightsDetailed speaker notes as if you are giving the presentation in personWhile APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center1Unsatisfactory0.00%2Less than Satisfactory74.00%3Satisfactory79.00%4Good87.00%5Excellent100.00%70.0 %Content 20.0 %Tests and assessment currently in use for the selected populationThe presentation does not include the tests and assessment currently in use for the selected population. Presentation does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.The presentation inadequately includes the tests and assessment currently in use for the selected population. Presentation demonstrates poor understanding of the topic.The presentation appropriately includes the tests and assessment currently in use for the selected population. Presentation demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.The presentation includes an advanced description of the tests and assessment currently in use for the selected population. Presentation demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic.The presentation includes an insightful description of the tests and assessment currently in use for the selected population. Presentation demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.20.0 %Changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to seeThe presentation does not include a description of the changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to see. Presentation does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.The presentation inadequately describes the changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to see. Presentation demonstrates poor understanding of the topic.The presentation appropriately discusses the changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to see. Presentation demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic. Presentation demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.The presentation includes an advanced description of the changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to see. Presentation demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic.The presentation includes an insightful description of the changes to the tests and assessment the learner would like to see. Presentation demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.20.0 %Procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rightsThe presentation does not include an explanation of any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rights. Presentation does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.The presentation inadequately includes an explanation of any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rights. Presentation demonstrates poor understanding of the topic.The presentation appropriately includes an explanation of any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rights. Presentation demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.The presentation includes an advanced explanation of any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rights. Presentation demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic.The presentation includes an insightful explanation of any procedures related to reporting abuse, duty to warn, or victims’ rights. Presentation demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.10.0 %Detailed Speaker NotesDetailed speaker notes that detail what would be said if giving the presentation in-person are not included. Presentation does not demonstrate understanding of the topic.Detailed speaker notes that detail what would be said if giving the presentation in-person are inadequately included. Presentation demonstrates poor understanding of the topic.Detailed speaker notes are concisely included and accurately represented what would be said if giving the presentation in-person. Presentation demonstrates a basic understanding of the topic.Advanced and detailed speaker notes are included that represented what would be said if giving the presentation in-person. Presentation demonstrates understanding that extends beyond the surface the topic.This paper includes insightful and highly detailed speaker notes as if the presentation is given in-person. All speaker notes were in perfect unison with the content on the slides. Presentation demonstrates an exceptional understanding of the topic.30.0 %Organization, Effectiveness, and Format 10.0 %Presentation of ContentThe content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other.The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.5.0 %LayoutThe layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.5.0 %Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) and/or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)Slide errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning.Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader.Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader.Slides are largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present.Writer is clearly in control of standard, written academic English.5.0 %Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)Sources are not documented.Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.100 %Total Weightage
The Future of Psychological Testing and Assessment Presentation

Reflection on Cultural Competencies

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Jon Teegardin Caring for a multicultural society is the name of the class I am taking this semester. It is only logical that part of learning about providing care to a patients of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds is learning about my own perceptions of culture. By honestly and openly completing a cultural competency checklist, I was able to identify my own strengths and shortcomings about culture. This paper will analyze the results of my checklist, analyze my thoughts and feelings about my responses, and identify ways I can improve on my care of culturally diverse patients. Analysis and summary of the assessment results This assessment was completed by me, Jon Teegardin, RN. I currently work as an emergency room nurse at a local hospital. I strongly agreed with 77% of the statements in the assessment, agreed with 16%, and chose neutral for the remaining 7% of the statements. There were no statements that I disagreed or strongly disagreed with. The subjects with a neutral response included acceptability of the use of languages other than English, participation in insensitive comments or behaviors, and recognition of different English language dialects. Analysis of thoughts and feelings after taking assessment My initial impression of the assessment was that I was culturally competent and sensitive to culturally related differences among my patient population. As I looked closer at my responses though, I realized that I am less sensitive to non-English speakers and that I am prone to making insensitive comments. After realizing this, I wanted to analyze why I have a neutral view about those who may not speak English and those who speak a different dialect of my native language. Being 45 years old, I can distinctly remember a time in this country when the English language was the only language used by business and even the government. The United States Government still requires that naturalized citizens “read, write, and speak Basic English” (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, n.d.). Television produced many shows that used racial and ethnic stereotypes as the basis for sitcoms. Shows like What a Country used language and cultural differences as the punchline for jokes set to a laugh track. Perfect Strangers went so far as to create a fictitious country of origin for the shows main character. This allowed the network to write scripts that utilized extreme stereotypical views of eastern Europeans without appearing to be offensive to the target audience of Americans (Amazon, 2014). This programming taught viewers that it was OK to laugh at those who spoke differently or those who had different traditions or values. We were taught that an accent was something to laugh at and imitate. I could cite even worse examples from the seventies. I actually felt ashamed when I thought about American Sign Language and deaf culture. I actually debated a previous instructor about deaf culture, based in part on the fact that American Sign Language is not just hand signals of English words or letters, but is actually a visual language of its own (Jay, 2008). I actually contradicted my own belief by limiting my definition of language. Not one of my finer moments. Areas of improvement needed after taking the assessment There are three areas of improvement that I identified by taking this assessment. Acceptability of the use of languages other than English, participation in insensitive comments or behaviors, and recognition of different English dialects. It is important to remember that while a person may speak Basic English, they may be more comfortable speaking their native language. There are 31.8 million U.S. residents that speak a language other than English in their home, and of that number, 54% are Hispanic (Cultural diversity and language issues, 1994). Even though there is a movement in this country away from the concept of the melting pot, it does not mean that people who choose to come here don’t want to embrace American culture. Learning a new language is hard and that difficulty is magnified as we age. I have encountered many patients in the ER who speak little or no English, but their child speaks both languages fluently. It is insensitive to demand that everyone who comes here speak only my native language. Insensitive comments or behaviors don’t need to be made in a negative manner to be hurtful. How many of us have spoken louder and slower to someone who speaks limited English? We may be doing so in an attempt to be helpful, but do we stop and think about how patronizing or belittling that behavior may be? It is important that I model my behavior in a manner that is sensitive to a language barrier in a manner that is still respectful. Part of my assessment of a patient needs to address communication barriers immediately and utilize my facilities language translation services earlier in the patient encounter. Recognition of different English dialects should include geographic influences. I have to admit that initially I was looking at dialect as simply poor grammar, when it is much deeper than that. Southern English is just as correct as Midwestern English, even though substantial differences can be found in the way people from these two areas speak. One researcher identified 24 different dialects of American English (Wilson, 2013). Suggestions for improving the provision of transcultural healthcare It is important that to let go of stereotypes or behaviors that were impressed on me at an early age. The first step towards modifying these behaviors is identifying them properly. The assessment is a good tool to identify areas that can be improved. It is also important to recognize that “transcultural research, as presently conducted, may depict a view of behavior that encourages expectations of stereotypes among health practitioners and this view may inhibit rather than enhance individualized practice” (Price

Essay on W.C Williams and Oliver Sacks

Essay on W.C Williams and Oliver Sacks. Need help with my English question – I’m studying for my class.

Write a well-organized Essay of approximately 800 words, that is responsive to the following question: How is the doctor/patient relationship reflected in the stories and poems of William Carlos Williams (or the “Afterword” by William Eric Williams or the “Introduction” by Robert Coles), as well as the clinical tales by Oliver Sacks? Be sure to make some reference to at least five works in each of these volumes (ten works in total). For W.C. Williams, be sure to include at least one poem, and for Sacks, choose at least one work from each of the four sections of his book.

1. William Carlos Williams, The Doctor Stories [Selections]. New Directions (1984). ISBN:0-8112-0926-1. [Selections]
Williams_A Face of Stone.pdf
2. Oliver Sacks, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat [Selections]. Harper & Row (Perennial edition) (1987). ISBN: 0-06-097079-0. [Selections]
http://web.arch.virginia.edu/arch5424/Handouts/sac…
Essay on W.C Williams and Oliver Sacks