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Keiser University The Heart Hospital Balance Sheet Math Problem

Keiser University The Heart Hospital Balance Sheet Math Problem.

Chapter 17. page 676Problem 17.7 – The HEART Hospital Balance Sheet , Sept 30, 2015.(a). Perform a Du point analysis on the Heat Hospital . Assume that the industry average ratios are follows: Total margin 15% Total asset turnover 1.5 Equity multiplier 1.67 Return on equity ( ROE) 37.6%(b). Calculate and interpret the following ratios for The Heart Hospital: Industry AVERAGE———————————————————————————————- Return on ASSETYS (ROA) 22.5%Current ratio 2.00Days cash on hand 85 daysAverage collection period 20 daysDebt ratio 40%Debt to equity ratio 0.67Time interest earned ( TIE) ratio 5.00Fixed asset turnover ratio 1.4
Keiser University The Heart Hospital Balance Sheet Math Problem

Table of Contents Abstract Introduction How Often Do Wrongful Convictions Occur? Comparison of Country Wrongful Conviction Rates Protecting the Innocent Conclusion References Abstract The judicial system is expected to be able to deliver the correct verdict in every case, as accurate judgments are its primary responsibility. However, the recent increase in exonerations of wrongfully convicted people, some of whom were on death row, has brought public attention to the issues of current investigative and court procedures. As such, quality improvement initiatives have become necessary and urgent to improve the state of the framework and minimize the number of future mistakes. The first step to assessing the state of the system and its weaknesses is an identification of the causes for known wrongful convictions and the evaluation of the accuracy of the court’s assessment in other countries. This report analyzes the situation in the U.S., Canada, the United Kingdom, and China and suggests improvements based on the findings. Introduction Wrongful convictions are a critical issue in criminology and law study, as they tend to indicate the conclusion of a case, letting the criminal be free while punishing an innocent person. The U.S. and other countries have to deal with the same concerns in their criminal systems. This report compares the prevalence of wrongful convictions in various countries to study the possible measures that can be used in the United States. How Often Do Wrongful Convictions Occur? Wrongful convictions can be considered a prevalent concern in the current investigative system. According to Garrett (2017), there are currently over 2,000 recorded exonerations in the past 20 years, with the number of innocents who were never acquitted unknown. A considerable part of these re-examinations can be attributed to the emergence of new investigation tools, such as DNA testing. Ultimately, however, convictions based on insufficient or false evidence happen somewhat frequently. It is possible that most mistaken verdicts happen because of unreliable evidence or police procedures. Garrett (2017) identifies eyewitness misidentification, flawed analysis, false confessions, and prosecutorial misconduct as the primary factors responsible for erroneous judgment. While it is possible that the wrong persons would be accused accidentally, malicious intent from both court officials and the actual perpetrator can exert a significant influence on the conclusion of a court case. One of the ways to move away from unreliable evidence involves increased use of scientifically verified procedures. According to Garrett (2017), forensic methods tend to lack quality control, and new techniques that are not yet consistently accurate are continuously introduced. Increased screening and identification of witnesses can also improve the outcomes of an investigation, with methods that allow the police to discover more potential onlookers and prevent bias during questioning. Comparison of Country Wrongful Conviction Rates The U.S. is not the only country with a significant wrongful conviction rate. According to the Innocence Compensation Project (n.d.), nearly 900 cases occur in Canada every year, a rate similar to that of the United States. Detailed statistics are unavailable for the United Kingdom, but Huff and Naughton (2017) note the growing concern over the issue. Jiang (2016) indicates that China has a conviction rate that approaches 100%, but few cases see the person exonerated later. Overall, the issue of wrongful convictions is prevalent in many countries, even advanced democracies. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the deficiencies present in the U.S. judicial system, it is still viewed as an example by many other countries. Huff and Naughton (2017) as well as Jiang (2016) look to the U.S. as a reference when comparing methods and identifying areas that can be improved. Countries with less advanced judicial systems or corruption issues should also have higher wrongful conviction rates, although the data are usually insufficient to reach a conclusion. The public is likely not judging the judicial system fairly, as while opportunities for improvement always exist, the framework puts the U.S. among the world leaders. According to Garrett (2017), errors are inevitable due to the human nature of crime, investigation, and trial, but law enforcement is making efforts to minimize such mistakes. Nevertheless, members of the public mostly see the widely publicized exoneration cases while dismissing the overall accuracy of the system. Protecting the Innocent As no protection could be called adequate unless it prevented all cases of wrongful conviction, the court system cannot be said to have sufficient safeguards. The number of continuing mistaken verdicts, as indicated by Garrett (2017), supports the argument, as innocent people are still being punished for others’ crimes. There are avenues for improvements that can and should be taken for the sake of improving analysis and judgment accuracy. The primary areas that should be addressed involve the collection and analysis of evidence. The current forensic methods should be refined until they deliver consistently accurate results, and approaches with insufficient scientific support should undergo scrutiny in court. Furthermore, witnesses and the accused should be interviewed in a controlled and neutral manner with openly available recordings for the latter and minimal bias in questions and potential signals. Conclusion Wrongful convictions are an important issue in the United States as exonerations based on new evidence surface in a variety of cases. The primary causes are unreliable evidence and misconduct by interrogators and prosecutors. Other advanced countries face similar issues and look to the United States for reference. Ultimately, improved data collection methods and minimization of bias during questioning should help to minimize the risk of an incorrect verdict. References Garrett, B. L. (2017). Actual innocence and wrongful convictions. In E. Luna (Ed.), Reforming criminal justice (pp. 193-210). Vol. 3, Tempe, AZ: Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law. Huff, C. R.,
For this assignment, you will write a 1500-2000-word research paper In MLA Style.

Topic (The Gender Gap is defined as ‘the discrepancies in opportunities and status between men and women.’ Many believe the gender gap is still very present in America, saying that women have fewer opportunities in STEM-related fields and make less money than men regardless of time on the job, education, or experience.However, there are also those who believe the gender gap problem is just a myth. To them, these claims do not consider the type of job, the fact that men may work more hours, and that men are more likely to pursue high-stress advancements.Is there evidence to suggest that the gender gap still exists today? If so, is there a solution to this problem? If not, what do you think is causing so many to believe that it still exists?)Instructions :Please write your paper in the MLA format. As part of your research, you may refer to the course material for supporting evidence, but you must also use at least four credible, outside sources and cite them using MLA format as well. Please include a mix of both primary and secondary sources, with at least one source from a scholarly peer-reviewed journal
For this assignment, you will write a 1500-2000-word research paper In MLA Style

Effectiveness of Guidelines on Myocardial Self-Care

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTH GUIDELINE ON SELF CARE FOR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION PATIENTS. Patel Asha N. Abstract: Heart disease is first of the largest killer diseases in the world. According world health organization estimated 17 million people worldwide coronary vascular disease. In developing country the cost of bypass surgery and angioplasty is very high. every person cannot affordable for taking treatment. this study helps to patient about self care precaution and awareness of disease and its minimizes the further complication. This study helps to myocardial infarction patient to improve their health. This study is a experimental study. The population of this study consists of medical college attached government hospitals in Gujarat state. This stydy include the 35 samples in male and female. A structured questioner tool is prepared for assessing the knowledge including six component (self care, modifications, exercise, pulse monitoring, diet, stress reduction technique) and check list, ratings scale prepared for assessing the performance of their activities(pulse monitoring, muscle starching exercise, stress reduction technique) the finding is indicated that health guideline is very effective for the MI patient to improving their health and healthy life style. Key words: Effectiveness, Health guideline, Myocardial infarction, Performance rating scale observational check list. Introduction: The widely accepted definition of “WHO” in 1948 in preamble to its constitution which is follows “Health” is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely absence of any disease or infirmity”. So according to W.H. O. health cannot be defined as a ‘state’ but it must been as a process of continue adjustment to the changing meaning which we give to life. This is a dynamic concept. Heart disease is first of the largest killer disease in the world. Cardiovascular disease are major contributors to the global burden of chronic disease with 29.3% of global deaths and 9.9% of total disease burden, in terms of disability- adjusted life years lost, being reported in 2003. Low and middle income countries accounted for 78% and 86% of the CVD deaths and daily lost, respectively, worldwide in 1998. In India CVD is projected to be the largest cause of death and disability by 2020 with 2.6 million Indians predicted to die due to coronary heart disease, each consist 54.1% of all CVD deaths. In resent year education has come to be considered as an integral component of health care. The modern philosophy of health care in every society take in to consideration the physical, special for diet, psychological and socio cultural environment and other thing in that stress management using many technique like mediation, relaxation etc. MI is a chronic life long illness. The basic component of self care applies to all cardiac patients but the care must be designed to fit each person individual needs and habits. In order to meet learning needs of the patients, prepare health guideline on self care activities for the promotion of the health, prevention of further risk or complication, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. It aims at the modification of life style – change in diet, regular exercise, avoid smoking and avoid alcohol and stress management for preventing health crisis. Objectives of the study To assess the knowledge of self care on myocardial infarction before and after introducing health guideline and demonstration on self care activates to myocardial patients admitted in medical ward in medical college attached government hospitals in Gujarat state. To assess the performance of self care on myocardial infarction before and after introducing health guideline and demonstration on self care activates to myocardial patients admitted in medical ward in medical college attached government hospitals in Gujarat state. Literature reviewed: Important education after myocardial infarction: Duryee R, “ The efficiency of inpatient educational after myocardial infarction in that the educating the patient who has experienced a MI has long been a challenge for the professional nurse. Nurse has prepared volumes of teaching materials to enlighten the patient who has experienced an MI. the purpose of this study was to review the research literature on in- patient education after MI published between 1975 and 1983 the review of 21 studies to determine what information is most important to patients whether inpatient teaching increase patient knowledge, whether lifestyle changes are affected by education and which instructional methods were most effective. Multiple teaching methods were used across the 21 studies reviewed: individual and group session led by nurse rehabilitators, slide sound presentation, videotape sessions with a nurse. The studies demonstrated that audiovisual methods are as effective as presentations by an educator. Important of diet for heart disease. Miss Saramma Jacob “A study of the knowledge of the patients and the relatives about the importance of salt restricted diet as a therapy in some heart disease”. This study was designed to explore the knowledge of the patients and the relatives about the importance of salt restriction and also the importance of using the prescribed amount of salt. Through this of study it was found that knowledge of this patient and the relatives about the importance of salt restricted diet as a therapy and the relatives about the importance of salt restricted diet as a therapy in some of the heart disease has increased 10% to 70% proper explanation and teaching about the important of salt restricted diet is the reason for this increase in knowledge. All patients used the prescribed amount of salt within one day when they realized the importance. Robertson d and keller C. “ Relationship among health beliefs. Self efficiency and exercise adherence in patients with coronary artery disease.” Many nursing care hours are dedicated to educating patients with coronary artery disease about their disease process and requisites life style changes in order to maximize life expectancy. New therapies may abort life threatening events, however control of the progression of coronary artery disease is ultimately dependent upon the patient’s cooperation in modifying risk factors. Too often health care recommendations go unheeded. The purpose of this study was to develop a model that would explain relationship among several variables that determined adherence to an exercise regimen. The variables were chosen from the health belief model and self efficiency theory. Study findings revealed a significant positive correlation between activity and perceived benefits and between activity and perceived self efficiency. There was significant negative relationship between activities and perceived barriers. Hypotheses: The mean post test knowledge scores of self care of myocardial infarction patients will be significantly higher than their mean pretest scores at 0.05 level. The mean post test of self care activities scores of self care of myocardial infarction patients will be significantly higher than their mean pretest scores at 0.05 level. Operational definition Effectiveness: It refers to the power of the bringing a change in the knowledge and activities of myocardial infarction patients regarding self care activities after the administration of health guide line and demonstration of exercise from the knowledge and performance scores. Knowledge: It refers to the myocardial patients for correct responses regarding self care activities on the structured knowledge test item and evidence from knowledge score. Activities: It refers to the myocardial infarction patient’s ability to perform activities regarding pulse monitoring muscle stretching exercise, stress reduction technique and tool as evidence from structured observational checklist and performance rating scale. Self care: Those health generating activities that are undertaken by the person themselves. Delimitation: Investigator includes only medical college attached government hospitals. Investigation take only hemodynamic stable myocardial infarction patient. Methodology: The present study is a quai experimental study. The methodology presents the population of the study, sample of the study, tools and technique used in this study, data collection, and plan for analysis. POPULATION: the population of this study consists of MI patient admitted in medical college attached Government hospitals in Gujarat state. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: patient who has a Myocardial infarction and hemodynamic stable admitted in medical ward. Researcher take the 35 sample that were use the purposive sampling method. TOOL USED: the investigator has prepared tool for to check knowledge as well as activities of MI patients regarding self care. For to check the knowledge she prepared structured questionnaire and for observe the practices she prepared observational checklist and performance rating scale. PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS : for testing the hypothesis of the study the investigator analyze the data using frequency, percentage, standard deviation, ‘t’ test and correlation. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: The data were tabulated, analyzed in terms of objectives of the study. Descriptive statically methods were employed for the analysis of tool. in that knowledge area mainly six area those are the related to self care, medicine, exercise, pulse monitoring, diet, stress reduction technique. Through the analysis and interpretation of data, researcher has described following major findings of the study. Findings related to knowledge and activities area:There was maximum gain of knowledge in exercise area. In the exercise area mean percentage of pretest was 11.4% and mean percentage of post test was 78.97%. It indicates that the 67.55% gain in area. According to the table it is the highest gain. Findings of sample related to knowledge of diet :There was minimum gain in the area ‘diet’. In this area mean percentage of pre test was 61.42%whereas mean percentage of post test was 99.28% which suggests that 37.86% gain in the area. Findings of sample related to activates of the self care, stress reducing exercise and pulse monitoring: There are 62.94% and 62.87% gain in area ‘ medications’ and ‘ pulse monitoring respectively. They are 2nd and 3rd in gain after the exercise. There was approximately equal gain in self care and stress reduction technique and providing information areas. It was 45.71% and 45.75% respectively. Finding of sample related to muscle starching exercise: There was maximum mean percentage of post test in muscle starching exercise All over the knowledge score of MI patients before exposing the health guideline and demonstration, mean score of the sample was 3.14 after exposing the health guideline and demonstration, mean score of the sample was 8.11 the difference in knowledge and act score suggesting the knowledge gain by sample. Interpretation through comparing the mean percentage of pre and post performance test in each task. The data suggest that there was maximum gain in pulse monitoring it was 68.93%gain. There was 57.66 % gain in stress reduction technique and 59.61% gain in muscle starching exercise. It indicate the mean 8.6 score obtained by sample before demonstrate the activities and 34.2 score obtained after demonstrating the activities. to the myocardial infarction patients. Conclusion: Knowledge deficit existed in all area of self care among samples admitted in medical ward in medical college attached government hospital in Gujarat state. The study in terms of health guideline and demonstration was found to be effective in enhancing the knowledge and skill of the samples regarding self care activities. IMPLICATIONS AND UTILIZATIONS The findings of the study have several implications in the nursing practice, nursing education, nursing administration and nursing research. Nursing practice: the study is relevant for nursing professional working in the area of cardiac center in the Indian setting. Nursing personal should plan teaching programmes and provide adequate information and guidance to such client who have myocardial infarction disease and they enhance their self care ability. Nursing education: skill development is an essential component of professional life. The responsibility of instructor is in meeting learner’s need in acquiring relevant knowledge to underpin the development skills. Attempts should be made to ensure that the learner is taught in such a way that it allows them to construct learning in a simulated context and then apply it into real situation. The focus should be on the learner under standing the process of acquisition rather than performance. They should develop health guideline, self instructional module , audio- visual materials, booklet, pamphlet i.e. video, tap, slides etc. on cardiac self care for utilize them for teaching learning activities. Nursing administration: the expressed learning need of client can be considered as indicator for planning structured health programmes. nursing administration should promote and support preparation of such instructional material by nursing personnel and they should be educationally prepared at different levels to undertake such endeavors in order to assist clients, and the community in developing their self care potentials. Nursing research: self care is a fundamental therapy for cardiac patients. Many questions remain to be answered about it. Research is needed to identify the optima ways to teach self care activities to cardiac patients. Nurses are available at all the time ti the patients in hospital. Research should be directed to exploring the nurses knowledge regarding self care of myocardial infarction patients or other cardiac diseases. There should be research studies conducted in different setting and on large sample. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following recommendations are made on the basis of the findings of the present study. A study can be replicated on a large sample, their findings can be generalized for a large population. Similar study can be conducted on nursing student. A study can be conducted develop and evaluate a self guideline n the form of pictorial booklet/ pamphlet for the illiterate group. A comparative study can be conducted for the two groups. One group gives the treatment and other group is control group. A study can be conducted to identify life style of the cardiac patients. Reference Website: www.Cardiac home care.org www.Self care of myocardial patient.org www.diet for cardiac patients.com www.excercise for cardiac patient.com www.guideline for cardiac patient.com Journals: Bennet sj, Savue MJ “ cognitive deficits among patients with heart failure”. A review of literature J. cardiovascular nurse2003. Cardiac nurse preparedness to use self help groups as a support strategy. Journal of America nursing 1995, vol 22 p 921- 928 Heart facts dallas TX; American heart association;2005 Books: Alexander R.W. and schant, Textbook of heart.8th edition, health professional division, new York: 1998 Black J.M. Medical Surgical Nursing. 5th edition W.B. Saunders company, Philadelphia: 1999 Dossey B.G. Guzzetta C.E. “ Critical care nursing Body- mind- Spirit ,3rd edition, J.B. Lippincott: Philadelphia ; 1996 Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

The concepts behind using Knowledge Management

programming assignment help The purpose of this paper is to map the contents given to the concept of knowledge management, its definition and practice, its use and implications and to point out the effect of the concept to organisations through system thinking. Many authors and practitioners have expressed their views and opines on developing soft system thinking. However the scope of the paper will be limited to the way soft system thinking is able to develop the intellectual capital of an organisation through human activities. In this context, the paper will highlight the convergence of ideas including system thinking, intellectual capital and social capital, communities of practice, information mapping and ‘balance scorecard’ that have propagated knowledge management over the past decade. To begin with, Reisman (1979) viewed systems as a set of resources organised to perform a particular task so as to attain desired results. The resources include personnel, artefacts and information. The “process of human dealing with the world” can also be recognised as a system (Checkland and Scholes, 1999). So system thinking is the systematic way of thinking and focusing on dynamic interaction and managing knowledge by individuals and the environment within which they operates (Reisman and Orall, 2005). Knowledge management can be linked to an open system whereby one exchanges its available resources with its surroundings (Reisman, 1979). However the openness and dynamism of the system is because of the human activities (Reisman and Orall, 2005) required in the process of enquiry (Checkland and Scholes, 1999). “Defining knowledge management is difficult because of its multiple interpretations” (Choi, 2000). However, Hansen et al. (1999) viewed knowledge management as a concept embedded with integrated move towards identifying, capturing, retrieving, sharing and evaluating the information assets of a business enterprise. These assets could be the workers un-capture tacit expertise and experiences, databases, documents, policies and procedures. Equally, Probst et al. (2000) express knowledge management as the whole body of cognitions and skills which individuals share and use to solve problems that will improve organisations performance. Consequently the two fundamental forms of system thinking, “hard” and “soft” are the crucial intellectual distinction of a system (Checkland and Scholes, 1999). Reisman and Orall (2005) claim that hard system thinking and soft system thinking are complementary whereby both are applicable at different stages of solving managerial problems. In dealing with either ill/well-defined problem within an organisation, soft system thinking is the prerequisite for addressing managerial issues whiles the hard system thinking is often required in the latter stages of solving the problem (Reisman and Orall, 2005). Thus the former plays the major role in identifying and defining the right problem whiles the latter solves that problem the right way. Therefore an organisation’s ability to develop depends on how knowledge is managed. According to Sherif (2006) developing soft system thinking in an organisation requires the process of managing knowledge at the individual and group level (micro) and organisational level (macro). Formerly organisations view knowledge in the traditional way whereby knowledge was considered as information and document that can be managed as objects. It was also regarded as little more than the sharing of documents and information on the intranet or through global databases (Cheuk, 2007). Knowledge unlike a raw material cannot be inventoried and stacked in warehouse to be use when required (Matesson, 2000). But knowledge as indicated by Nonaka (1994) as existing only in human brain turns to be information when stored in a computer, nevertheless when transferred to another person it becomes knowledge (Hicks, et al., 2006). Hence until information is processed by human minds to become knowledge, information is of little or no value (Ash, 1998). Infield (1997) claim that the processing of knowledge involves organising, structuring and filtering of facts and data to produce contextual information suitable for a specific community of users. The individuals’ attitudes and experiences as well as the working environment affect the transformation process. Moreover the whole process becomes valid based on the fact that the information and knowledge leads to an informed decision or action (Drucker, 1993). Knowledge and learning is not a linear process but involves system thinking. Therefore a “root definition” that captures the purpose of a good system involves input, transformation and output (Checkland and Scholes, 1990). Furthermore, Guthrie (2000) claim that an organisation’s approach for tackling real-world problems depends on how its intellectual capital is controlled. According to Edvinsson (1997) Skandia, a major insurance company defined intellectual capital as “the possession of knowledge, applied experience, organisational technology, customer relationships, and professional skills that provides Skandia with a competitive edge in the market”. Stewart (1997) identified human, structural, social and customer capital as the operational elements within the framework of intellectual capital. Nonaka (1994) identified educational background, professional training and creativity of the knowledge workers and motivation from the leadership as the keystone for an organisation to become competitive in the dynamic business environment. Employees’ are willingly to share information and experiences with each other when there is a supportive environment promoting an organisation’s knowledgebase which also fosters teamwork (Rezgui, 2007). Kennedy (2005) argue that the dynamic business environment resulting from human activities makes it vital for organisations not to work as individuals but as part of a team or community who share a common meaning or understanding in achieving a task of every situation. So the creation of strong social ties and relationships is found among members of the communities who have common history and culture. This helps organisation to manage to bridge social capital to gain access to critical resources (Rudie, 1994). On the other hand, Rastogi (2002) claim that in fact knowledge is the quintessential resource available to enterprises which can provide value creation in this capricious and highly competitive business environment and those who fail to effectively utilise their intellectual capital may decline or die in their operating industry. Citing example despite the rich pool of resources, IBM’s precipitate decline during the late 1980s. The root cause of IBM’s downfall was its failure to respond quickly to the smaller and cheaper computers from their competitors that challenged its mainframes. Thus failure to counter earlier by using their knowledgebase capital to create client-server computing and shift from centralized processing that was losing sales in the market (Kehoe, 1995). In support of this, Kotter (1996) claim that organisation that perform poorly are attributable to complacent managers that resist innovation and such organisation is characterised by poor communications, lack of vision and strategy and employees disempowerment. According to Cheuk (2007) managing knowledge in an organisation must begin with building/creating community of practices and virtual teams which provides a platform to facilitate genuine dialogue between staffs. Citing example, the British Council has adopted an overall business strategy contend/focus on knowledge management in its worldwide offices. The strategy break up the barrier of sharing relatively little contact between the UK and overseas staff to more collaborative shared documents using the website. This was achieved through social networking whereby its global leaders shares project implementation between managers in different regions/countries. Hence knowledge management processes encompass business processes, people and technology through which knowledge is created and captured, shared and transferred, embedded and used, measured and valued (Collin, 1999). Therefore knowledge is a firm’s most powerful engine of production (Marshall, 1965). Information and communication technology which is identified as a means of sharing and managing knowledge is capable of penetrating into boundaries of various organisations (Coe and Bunnell, 2003). Teigland (2000) base on research conducted in internet communities’ claim that individuals within such communities that exhibited the characteristics of communities of practice may interact but physically have never met. However, Roberts (2007) argue that the rapid technological change which is transforming the competitive landscape of the business environment is making communities of practice complex. The traditional community of practice used to be a slow community which requires a degree of trust and mutual understanding to develop overtime. But in this modern era, groups may emerge and dissolve quickly depending on the organisation of the individuals. But despite the difficulty in developing and sustaining the communities of practice, some organisations take important role in the creation of and transfer of knowledge (Roberts, 2005). Lindkvist (2005) cited example in the film industry, whereby individuals come together to temporarily achieve a particular project which is to create a film and disperse. These individuals mutually share, repertoire and transfer knowledge which provide opportunities for new members to learn and overtime become full participants. So in these current business environment, membership of a community of practice is been sustain since its seen to be vital in the lives of certain workers (Roberts, 2007). Lave and Wenger (1991) stated that community of practice emerges when an organisation set up a team assigned for a particular project, the team members then begin to interact with each other by way of sharing knowledge. The table below characterises the human activities in a community of practice through their social interaction. So the management’s contribution is to facilitate the development of the community of practice. Table 1: the characteristics of communities of practice (Source: adopted from Roberts, 2006) However the pattern has changed over recent years. According to Wenger et al. (2002) managers of organisations have developed the interest in sustaining communities of practice as being part of the knowledge management strategies to bring about value creation and performance improvement (Lesser and Storck, 2001). In support of this, Smends and Alvesalo (2003) based on research concluded that communities of practice has hugely influenced the transfer of knowledge and information in virtual organisations. Hence improving the effectiveness and efficiency in knowledge-intensive work requires the way in which people search for knowledge, learn from it and use it to solve problems with their business partners through sophisticated technologies (Cross et al., 2001). According to Wasserman and Faust (1998) it will be more suitable for an organisation to adopt a social network approach whereby every company is characterized as a set of relations among them. Thus identify the individuals as actors and the relations as the ties of social or relational network. The opportunity to interact and foster relationships between individuals in organisation relies on the physical and social distances (Zupan and Kase, 2007). In support of these Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) claim that building a collaborative relationship can add social capital to the individuals and the organisation as a whole. Similarly, authors such as (Laury, 1987; Coleman, 1988) claim that the focal point of social capital is relationship, which is the main resource for social actions. In this context, the authors viewed social capital as “the resources embedded in social networks of relationships”. So the actor’s social relation to other people lies on the structural dimension which its effect glow from the information, influence and solidarity it makes available to actor (Adler and Kwon, 2002). Thus social capital encompasses both a network and the assets that can be assembled during the network (Burt, 1992). Social capital also affects the economic performance of firms (Baker, 1990), geographic regions and countries (Putnam, 1995).Therefore social capital is recognised as acting as an engine for the sharing, continuous learning, innovation and adaptation to market opportunities (Peredo, 2003). According to Blair-Lay (2001) “who you know often has a real deal to do with what you come to know”. Hence members belonging to a particular network can gain access to information and opportunities. However the structural dimension shapes the actions of the individuals within that community (Bourdieu, 1977). Individual culture also affects how knowledge is shared, therefore inculcating the element of trust (Dasgupta and Gupta, 2009), effective communication to catch and examine ideas among the employees (Fliaster and Spiess, 2007) and care in organisational relationships (Krogh, 1998) would stimulate the creation of knowledge and innovation. Equally, collaborative innovation is greater among organisations that share knowledge with its suppliers and usually gain the advantage in delivering customer value (Mei and Nie, 2007). In support of this, Rastogi (2000) stated that “social capital of a firm denotes the orientation of its people to collaborate spontaneously and with commitment in support of its business goals”. Hence social capital equally affects both human capital and knowledge management whiles providing support for the firm’s intellectual capital. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) considered the structural, relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital in their quest of the role of social capital in the creation of intellectual capital, stating that the three clusters are highly interrelated. This is illustrated in figure 1. Figure 1: Social Capital in the creation of Intellectual Capital (Source: adopted from Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998). According to Coleman (1998) structural dimension is concern with properties of the social system and its pattern of linkage whereby the existence of network created for a purpose benefits other purposes. On the other hand, relational dimension depicts the sort of personal relationships people have developed with each other in regards to respect and friendship which influences their behaviour (Cranovetter, 1992). In support of this, McKenzie and Winkelen (2004) stated that the key components in this cluster is the issue of trust and trustworthiness demonstrated in one’s obligations and expectations and encouraging identification with norms. This ties is built through social interactions. Furthermore Cicourel (1973) viewed cognitive dimension as resources that provides shared representation through shared language, codes narrative and common etiquette. Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998) continue to argue that the cognition dimension of social capital influences the actor’s ability to combine knowledge to create intellectual capital as shown in the figure 2. Figure 2: conceptual roots of intellectual capital (Source: adopted from Roos et al., 1997 cited in Martensson, 2000) Chapman (2002) argues that in order to deal with organisational complexity, soft system methodology must be employed to holistically view problem situations. In support of this, Checkland (1999) stated that soft system methodology approach also complements strategic framework which focuses on achieving clearer understandings towards performance improvements and control of change-related issues. While individual thinking and reflection is legitimate (Checkland and Holwell, 1998), Jacobs (2004) suggested that wider involvement of actors is a crucial prerequisite for effective improvement initiatives. However Jacobs (2004) stated that the best way of tackling organisational problem is through system thinking whereby managers, customers, groups and partners share ideas to solve problems viewing the “feedbacks” as well. And this can be achieved through continuous learning. Users of soft system methodology can use a conceptual model of depicting a ‘problem situation’ such as sketch of “rich pictures” (Pidd, 2003). The conceptual model which supports ordered questioning through rich picture is the focal point of organisational improvement (Wilson, 2001). Checkland (1999) stated that “a rich picture is not simply an isolated brainstorming exercise, but an aid to analysing a problem situation through ordered thinking and reflection”. On the other hand, ‘root definitions’ evolve from the rich pictures through which actors think of ‘making sense’ out of (Pidd, 2003) in tackling problem situations to better ‘explore the real-world situation’ of conceptual models (Checkland and Holwell, 1998). Kaufmann and Schneider (2004) stated that researchers have developed various models which are capable of measuring and managing intellectual capitals. Some of the models were constructed for external reporting purposes whiles others are meant to control the intangible resources within a firm. According to Kaufmann and Schneider the model constructors were based on four schools of thoughts. The first school by (Edvinsson, 1997; Edvinsson and Malone, 1997) about Skandia Navigator suppose that transforming human capital to structural capital should be the primary responsibility of the management. The authors advocated for providing supplementary information to the annual financial report while focusing on agents within the firm. The second school is based on a developed model known as the Intangible Asset Monitor by Sveiby (1997) which provides strategic information of a firm regarding growth, renewal, efficiency, stability, and risk relating to each category of intangibles such as employee competence, internal and external structures. The third school is the model Stewart (1997) advocated for which is known as Calculated Intangible Value which is centred on quantifying the excess return on tangible assets (ROA) in terms of human, customer and structural intellectual assets, so that the reports generated can be compared to other firms. The Balanced Scorecard model developed by Kaplan and Norton (2004) is the fourth school of thought. This involves sets of financial and non-financial measures to indicate four perspectives including financials, customers, internal process and learning and growth. According to Kaufmann and Schneider (2004) the four perspectives holistically provides the strategic way of measuring company performance which goes beyond the financial perspective. Kaplan and Norton (2006) re-emphasize that the scorecard provides a management system which assist in the clarification of the organisation’s vision and strategy. Furthermore the development of the Balance Scorecard as strategic performance management tool in helping managers to monitor the direction of change and the achievement of results by linking their actions to the conceptual framework (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). According to Jacobs (2004) “the Balanced Scorecard defines performance objectives under financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives” that focuses on achieving the vision of an organisation. So the feasible improvements to problem situation in the real world as the basis for an action plan for change, is for soft system methodology users to revise their conceptual models through the process of iteration and reflection back on problem situations (Jacobs, 2004). Collin (1999) argued that knowledge-base management reflects the use of knowledge to improve upon the efficiency of customer service rather than physical resource. Knowledge shared promotes innovation or design of new products, the process of manufacturing and delivering them (Armistead et al., 1999). Collin (1999) argue that “processes are no longer only operational” but include strategic processes that serves as the keystone to the operational activities such as the human resource management and the information systems. And moreover business process re-engineering (BPR) which involved the movement of material from the upstream to the downstream has shifted to the process flow of people and information. McKern (1996) claim that powerful forces such as globalisation, changes in consumer demands, new technology, changing economic and political structures is continually affecting business processes and human resource strategy and that organisation are beginning to reckon their employees as the only sustainable competitive advantage they possess (Black and Synan, 1997). Managing knowledge in an organisation requires the ability to protect and utilize existing knowledge resources as well as facilitating the mobilization and expansion of other new knowledge resources. The knowledge resources are obtained from managing the tacit knowledge residing in the human mind explicitly (Duffy, 2000) by separating it from the knowledge workers (Kreiner, 2002). However, Tavakoli and Lawton (2005) claim that the speed and economic transfer of knowledge within the functions and levels of most firms is usually restricted by organisational inertia. Kikoski and kikoski (2004) argued that the keystone for an organisation success is by creating suitable condition that encourages and promotes individuals to verbalize their optimum tacit knowledge. This results in problem solving and the creation of new knowledge bringing about continuous improvement in business procedures leading to innovation of new products and better customer services (Alwis and Hartmann, 2008). This is evidence by the social network researchers Cross et al. (2002) who conducted a survey and found out that 85 per cent of managers success on projects was attained based on the information shared from their personal dialogue. To conclude soft system thinking helps its users to gradually develop learning process which will make them to understand any occurred or foreseeable problems. And the only way of developing soft system thinking in an organisation is by putting in place the necessary organisational structures that will facilitate the sharing of knowledge among the individuals and their surroundings and put information into action in a manner that will improve organisational performance.

Examining the generation effect

Examining the generation effect. Generation effect is a phenomenon which has been examined in this study. It has been widely found that high frequency words produce generation effect, whereas possibility of generation effect with low frequency words has been found lately. The present study was conducted to test whether generation effect is possible for low frequency words during free recall. Another purpose of this study was to check the differences between generation effect for the high frequency and low frequency words during free recall. Two different t-tests were carried out on the obtained data. Repeated measure and between subject designs have been used. Results gained support the previous findings that generation effect can be produced by the low frequency words, however this effect will be always different from the one produced by the high frequency words. Introduction The area of cognitive psychology which is interested in generation effect is quite wide. Many experiments were done but also many theories made on them. To widely examinee the whole subject about generation effect in free recall, it has to be explained what generation effect means. Very meaningful experiment was done by Slamecka and Graf (1978). According to their findings main theory about what the generation effect is has been created. Those researchers made 5 experiments in which generated words were compared to read words. What was founded is that performance in generated words was better than in the read ones. They hypothesize that information will be always better remembered if is generated than if is just read. It supports that generation effect is real. It also creates problem which is about interpretation of this hypothesis. The interest about generation effect rise when this experiment was published. Since this time this research was like a starting point for next studies. There is another experiment which has impact on the generation effect. Jacoby (1978) wanted to find out when solution of the problem will be better remembered. Two experiments on 36 students were completed. What was discovered is that remembering solution suffered in the situation when was found by remembering the final solution. While remembered solution obtained by solving the problem was better remembered. McElroy and Slamecka (1982) did experiment which obtained very consequential theories. When the experiment has been started it was believed that generation effect is due to innate differences in the process of generate and read. They did three experiments on 44 students. Firstly, it has been suggested that generation effect occurs only if during the study semantic memory in employ. Subsequently they did not find any generation effect with non-words. At the end they suggested lexical activation hypothesis. What means that for generation effect to occur the items have to be characterized in mental lexicon. However for the read condition generation emphasize lexical representation activation. This causes that memory performance is better. Different outcome was obtained by Slamecka, Fevreiski and Jacobo (1983). They wanted to examine the generation effect when generation fails. What they finally hypothesize is that generation fails, because generations where incomplete. They were incomplete, because semantic features were processed instead of surface features. In 1985 Nairne, Pusen and Widner used high frequency words, low frequency words and non-words for their experiment. What was first established is that generation effect occurs only for high frequency words. They did not believe in previous theory about lexicon representation, so according to their findings they reject lexical activation theory. Their findings showed that representation in the lexicon can not be condition which is sufficient for the generation effect. Nairne proposed different theory to replicate the one which was rejected by his team. Associative linkage hypothesis states that the fundamental is the fact that in the semantic networks are items which are related associatively with those items which are generated. According to this theory low frequency words have less associative links than high frequency words so they should show less of generation effect. Therefore, non-words do not have any representation in semantic network so they are not able to create generation effect at all. Summarizing, the generation effect in low frequency words is possible. Thus, it also means that this effect will be smaller in low frequency than with high frequency words. As shown above generation effect has been widely researched what produce the biggest evidence for the importance of this phenomenon. In addition, conduction of this study was to enrich already existing findings or to gain new significant results. Experimenter wanted to find out if generation effect is possible with low frequency words. Another reason was to check the difference in the generation effect for low frequency and high frequency words. Experimenter stated two experimental hypotheses for the present study. Hypothesis that there will be difference in the generation effect between high and low frequency words during the free recall. Null hypothesis says that there will be no differences between generation effects in high and low frequency words. Second hypothesis stated that generation effect with low frequency words during the free recall is possible. Null hypothesis says that there will be no generation effect with low frequency words during the free recall. Method Design In this research experimenter chosen combination of two designs which can be called “mixed design”. As a first repeated measures design was used in participant’s task. Stimulus list presented contained words which were read and those which were generated. In this case dependent variable was amount of remembered words in a free recall, while independent variable was either generated or read words. Second design used in this research was independent groups design. Experimenter divided two groups from the same participants as before. Allocation to those groups was made randomly. Each of the groups performed in two different conditions. One condition was list of low frequency words while second condition was list of high frequency words. The dependent variable in this case was score of recalled words when independent variable was high frequency words versus low frequency words. Dependent variable in both designs was measured by manipulation of independent variable. Participants Experimenter obtained 158 people as participants. All of those participants were psychology students from the Research Methods course at Birkbeck. Some of those students were BSc Psychology students year II and some of them MSc Psychology students. They were female and male participants. Verification of participant’s age was not done. Experimenter did not need that information, because was not interested in their influence on the study. All participants had different occupation. During the second part of experiment participants were randomly allocated in to two different groups. In group A was 80 people, in the group B was 78 participants. According to the total number of participants, the suggestion that the groups were almost equal is possible. Participation in this study was volunteer for all people. Also, they did not pay for anything such as participation or any materials used to conduct the research. When the experiment has been started the participants did not know what the purpose of this study was. In other words they were naïve about the purpose of the study. However debriefing and explanation how the first part of the study should look likes was done just before experiment begins. Materials and Apparatus To conduct experiment without problems and concerns experimenter prepared a number of materials and apparatus needed. The most important thing to carry out the study was to organize such a big classroom to fit all of the participants. Next thing was to prepare appropriate number of desks and adequate number of sits. Those procedures were done so experimenter concentrated on the rest materials needed. The person who was carrying on the study had a stopwatch and big felt-tip as a metronome (both needed during first part of experiment). As a first thing given to the students were sheets of paper one per person. All of them included list of equal number of words (28 words). There were two different lists of words given. Both types of stimulus lists contained 56 nouns which were taken from the Kucera and Francis (1967) word count (see Appendix 1 for examples of both stimuli lists). The apparatus consisted of a computer, projector and white board. As a material can be also, lecture slides about “variance” which was showed to participants during planned break in experiment. In the second part of experiment all participants were required to have pen and piece of paper to write recalled words. The last item given to the students was one sheet of document including a table to fill in by every each of participants. Procedure When experiment began, short and fairly simple instructions were given. Participants were tested all together at once. Explanation not to turn out the sheet of paper given was done. Each sheet of paper included list of words on the left side of the page. The words were written in the column one under the other. The right hand side of the same sheet was an empty, which was for participant’s responses. It was clarified that when experiment will begin the participant’s task will be to simply copy the words red to the right side of the page. The words with underlined initial letters should be transformed by reverse those initial letters and then write on the right side of the page. The instructions advised to be accurate when completing the task. Participants knew that they should not look up on collogues sheets of paper until experiment finish. Total time for this task was 2.1 minutes. The time for copying each word was signalized by experiment’s metronome. Felt-tip produced signal every 4.5 second what meant that the time for one word was finished and participant has to go to copy next one. When 2.1 minutes passed and task was completed experimenter did 10 minutes break. For the duration of this break experimenter organized the research method lecture. After the speech a free recall test was done. Every participant had time to recall all words remembered from the previous sheet of words given. When that happened one document paper was passed to the participants and person after person were asked to fill it in. The document contained table with fallowing questions: In which group the person was. How many recalled words where generated and how many where words read. Language predispositions. Results According to the experiment’s results very useful information was found. To have consistent knowledge about numerical part of the experiment it would be helpful to demonstrate the graph. Figure 1 presents mean for the recall words of high and low frequency words with division on read and generate words. As shown for the high frequency words, mean number of generated words recalled is 5.49 with standard deviation SD=2.00. Mean for the read words is 2.76 and SD=2.26. For the low frequency words, mean number of generated words recalled is 3.38 with SD=1.63. For the read words mean is 1.74 and SD=1.66. However when compare high frequency words with low frequency words the total number of words recalled is less for the low frequency words (400), than for the high frequency (660). (see Figure 1 and Table 1). After descriptive statistics are described there is a time to take in to account inferential statistics. In this experiment two t-tests were done. First dependent t-test was conducted to check if there will be generation effect with low frequency words. In this case score from both experimental conditions come from the same people because experimenter used repeated measures design. This test shows that scores from those conditions correlate. For the present study correlation coefficient yield to be quite strong r= .243, p< .05. The final results from this test report that the generated words were highly statistically significantly more likely to recall (M=3.38, SE=.183), than the words which were read (M= 1.74, SE= .188), t(77)= 7.15, p< .01, r=.64 (large effect size as it is above 0.5 which is essential finding). Subsequently independent t-test was done to check the difference in the generation effect for the high and low frequency words. They were two groups: one 80 participants, and the other 78 participants. Lavene’s test in this case is non- significant because p=.264, p>.05. Variances of two samples are not different from each other, so they cannot cause any concerns. In this situation experimenter considered equal variances assumed. When interpret this test the conclusion came that there is highly statistically significant difference between high frequency words (M=2.72, SE=.29) and low frequency words (M= 1.64, SE=.23), t(156)=2.91, p<.005, r=.23 (small effect size as it is below 0.3 which is medium effect). HF MEAN SD TOTAL READ 2.76 2.26 660 GENERATED 5.49 2.00 LF READ 1.74 1.66 400 GENERATED 3.38 1.63 Table 1. Presentation of mean and standard deviation. Figure 1. Mean recall for high and low frequency words. Discussion Data collected in the results section confirmed both hypotheses. In the present study there is generation effect for low frequency words and there is a difference in the generation effect for low and for high frequency words. Both hypotheses proved highly statistical differences. Those findings strongly support previous study: SlameckaExamining the generation effect

Drug Use by Employees Essay

Drug testing coupled with reference checks among medical practices are some of the pre-employment tactics subjected to employees. Though some may consider them as a waste of time and resources, they are a priority to various job markets. Employers have sought to use these tests in getting quality workers and improving the productivity of their businesses. They carry them out to all people seeking for jobs. They have put in place powerful gadgets that detect any signs of drug use by employees. Employers should know and monitor drug use amongst employees for the performance of any company depends on productivity of employees and inappropriate drug use may affect this. Drug use carries with it consequences, some of which are positive and others negative. The healing brought about by use of drugs can be viewed as a positive consequence whereas drugs taken to arouse feelings may be viewed as bringing a negative impact. According to the National Drug Intelligence Centre (2006), the negative side effects of drugs affect the user, his/her family and friends, as well as his/her business. Since business is among the affected areas, any employer willing to offer a job in his/her business has to know the drug status of his/her willing employees, if at all he/she is looking forward to maximising his/her profits. This on the other hand gives all employers a right to know the drug use of their employees. In a discussion like this, one student argued that not all drug uses affect the employee’s performance and according to him, if this is the case, then employers ought to show no concern to the use of drugs by their employees. This is true but to some extend. Box (2002) says, even if the employee’s drug use does not affect his/her performance, the fact that drugs affect their corresponding users is an implication that the business has to be affected at some point. “Quality results in whichever field, are only achieved by drugs-free employees” (David, 2004). These observations make it clear that employers need to consider drug use as a barrier of the performance of their businesses because there exist an unarguable negative correlation between business performance and drugs oriented employees. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some drug use constitutes a serious health risk and ultimately death. Another student pointed that, health issues are private and if the affected can rise up and carry out his/her duties, it will be against his/her rights for any person to claim the status of his/her health. Jeremy (1998) puts it clear by giving the illustration of pilots, drivers, as well as train managers. He emphasises much on consequences that arise untimely. For instance, blindness is an effect associated with the use of some drugs and shows up anytime the respective drug is used. For the aforementioned people, a case like this arising from one person can turn catastrophic. “Prevention is better than cure” (Ferroglio, 2000). This is true and to the point and if a drug test can help prevent such a disaster, then, it becomes a right for employers to know the drug levels of their employees, failure to which their businesses can fall abruptly. To sum up, as a manager, given the opportunity to address the issue of employee drug use, I would call upon all to join hands in the fight against drug use not only to employees, but to all in general. This is because it is only a few people, who are aware that, maintaining and developing ones life is the greatest business we have. The fact that we are living is a sign that we have a business to manage and among the barriers of its growth, drug use is one and ought to be fought against. That is why I, in no doubt, encourage all employers to claim their right in knowing drug use by their employees. Reference List Box, L. (2002). Drugs and Employment. New York: Heinemann Publishers. David, L. (2004). Drugs: Effects and Treatment. West Virginia: W.Va Press. We will write a custom Essay on Drug Use by Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ferroglio, P. (2000). Employers and Employees Rights. Morgantown: W.Va Press. Jeremy, O. (1998). Employment: Quality Results. Martinsburg: Appalachian editions. National Drug Intelligence Centre (2006). National Drug Threat Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/doj/department-justice-archive

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