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Kean University The Rise of Feudal System and The Roman Empire Essay

Kean University The Rise of Feudal System and The Roman Empire Essay.

I’m working on a writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Each essay MUST be properly documented with parenthetical citations, which include the name of the author and the page number – there is no need for a works cited page, as the texts are all common. For the Textbook, (Hunt, page number) is sufficient. For the Sources book (Lualdi, page number).  If you want to cite the lectures, simply reference the name of the lecture (first slide of each lecture). 
Only in the case you use outside sources do you need to have a works cited page but I strongly discourage you from using general webpages like Wikipedia. If you do use online sources you need to offer a link to them in your works cited page. As this is an exam, any instance of plagiarism or use of outside sources that are not cited will be reported to an Academic Integrity Officer. Any exam that has no citations will receive 0 points.
Please keep in mind that the strongest historical essays pay close attention to the chronology of events. An essay that moves back and forth in time period is generally a disorganized essay, so I would suggest you try your best to keep your events and examples in chronological order.
* After the Viking, Magyar, and Muslim invasions, many parts of Europe saw the creation of new systems of hierarchy and dependency, both in rural areas (often referred to as the feudal system) as well as in towns/cities. What were some of the reasons for the emergence of both the feudal system and the commercial system of guilds in medieval towns and villages? How did those systems contribute to general stability in the early medieval period, at least compared to the volatility of the preceding centuries?
For this topic, you don’t need to strictly compare/contrast the two systems. I am simply looking to see that you can discuss the general organization of medieval society both on the village and the city/town level.
Kean University The Rise of Feudal System and The Roman Empire Essay

Human resource management is the process of managing workforce in an organization. HRM is responsible for utilization of a firms human resources to achieve organizational objective. This make HRM responsible for hiring the right people with right skills for the job and developing to make them to achieve the corporate Goal or objective. So HRM is very closely aligned to the Organization’s Mission and Vision. The word strategy means a plan of action or a long term plan to achieve organization’s mission. Strategic human resource management (SHRM) is one of the most important aspects of HRM practices that facilitates implementation of effective HR policies to meet the requirements of employees, while proceeding ahead to accomplish the organizational goals (Mathis and Jackson, 2008). Armstrong (2006, p.115) defines Strategic HRM is an approach to making decisions on the intentions and plans of the organization in the shape of the policies, programs and practices concerning the employment relationship, resourcing, learning and development, performance management, reward, and employee relations. As a strategy, an organization can use their Human resource competency to gain or keep a competitive edge over their rivals. E.g. Many companies give stock option plans (ESOP) for their employees as part of their HR reward policy. This is again a HR strategy to motivate employees to work towards achieving the corporate objective thereby increasing the company market share value. The importance of Strategic Human Resource Management in Organization As mentioned before, strategy is a long term plan of actions to achieve the Corporate Mission and Vision. In this competitive world it is very crucial that corporate vision and mission (corporate strategy) is cascaded down to the functional level. It is important that HRM strategy is in line with the corporate strategy. Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) helps the organization to achieve corporate objective by making HR strategies in the form of policies and procedures. As per (Walton (1999), cited in Armstrong 2006, p.533) “Strategic human resource development involves introducing, eliminating, modifying, directing and guiding processes in such a way that all individuals and teams are equipped with the skills, knowledge and competences they require to undertake current and future tasks required by the organization”. The fundamental aim of strategic HRM is to generate a view in which the critical workforce issues can be addressed. SHRM helps the organization by making strategies which have a long term impact on corporate culture and success of the organization by ensuring that the organization has the right skilled , motivated and committed employees to achieve the competitive edge. So SHRM is an integral part of the business. TESCO’s corporate strategy is an international expansion by diversifying. It is important that TESCO’s HR strategy to be in line with its corporate strategy to achieve its corporate goal. TESCO believes that employees are the asset of the company and they should be made motivated , trained and developed well to achieve their corporate strategy. The company allow the employees to grow within the organization by giving them training , empowering and motivating. In 1997, TESCO set out a strategy to grow the core business and diversify with new products and services in existing and new markets. This strategy enabled them to deliver strong, sustained growth over the past 14 years. The strategy now has seven part as given below. To grow the UK core To be an outstanding international retailer in stores and online To be as stronger in everything as well as we are in food To grow retail services in all our markets To put our responsibilities to the communities we serve at the heart of what we do To be a creator of highly valued brands To build our team to create more value (TESCO Marketing Strategy 2012, Online) Business factor corroboration in HR Planning in TESCO HRM planning is not an easy task as it is influenced by both internal and external factors. The Government law and regulatory is one of the major external factor which affect an organization directly when they make decision on hiring, firing, promotion etc. As TESCO is expanding rapidly, they need a long term plan to recruit on a regular basis for its Food and Non-food division. To achieve this goal TESCO uses a workforce planning table to meet the growing demand for new staff. Looking at the above requirement, following factors should be considered during the human resource planning. Business location Since TESCO is expanding internationally it is very important to understand the country’s Law and local Talent availability. Introduction of new technology In this ever changing technology world demands more efficient human resource planning. This will help the company to oversee the requirement well in advance and take necessary action. Nature of work Employees identify roles in which they would like to develop their careers with Tesco. In this way employees get motivated and thus improving their performance and thereby achieving company’s business objective. Talent Planning The company believe that employees are asset of the company, so it is important that they get sufficient opportunity to get trained and grow within the company. TESCO practices “Talent planning’ to encourage and motivate people to work their way through and up. Adhere to Government Regulations TESCO strictly follows the Government law and regulation when it comes to human resource planning. This means that TESCO determined to give equal opportunities to all, irrespective of race, nationality , religion ,sex, disability, marital status or age. This means the organization do not permit direct or indirect discrimination against any employees on above grounds. Employee development Knowledge workers are the key resources of a company that are trained and developed through formal education and training. Highly motivated and satisfied employees are considered to be the best resources one organization can use to perform the allocated task in an optimal way. (TESCO Employee Development 2012, Online) Assessing Human Resource Requirement in TESCO As per TESCO’s growth plan, human resource requirement can be assessed in following ways Projection of manpower requirement Manpower requirement planning is one of the main task of HR division. They should continuously assess the business requirement and align their plan accordingly. Based on the expansion plan HR team should discuss with each department in the organization to understand the manpower requirement. Developing Plan to execute projected requirement In order to execute the manpower requirement a carefully tailored execution plan is required. It is very important manpower requirement period is clearly mentioned in the plan. A plan without target date is useless. The plan also should be reviewed depending on the ever changing manpower requirement. Human Resource Plan for TESCO Workforce planning will help companies to have the flexibility to realign the plan according to the demands for staffs time to time and give sufficient time to train existing staff to take new responsibilities and to recruit new staff to fill vacancies. As mentioned before TESCO believe that employees are asset of the company, so it is important that they get sufficient opportunity to get trained and grow within the company to retain them. TESCO can develop following HR Plan to keep competitive edge with other market players. However HR plan should be reviewed time to time. Develop a clear and transparent HR policies across the business – Most of the employees are not aware of their right and what they are entitled for. Develop an employee communication strategy – Proper communication plan is necessary to cascade down management decision/ plan to the lower level so that everyone can work towards achieving a common company goal. Health and safety awareness program – By providing safe and healthy work environment the company can increase the productivity and efficiency of the employee as a result of reduced sickness or accidents at work place. Policy against discrimination – Direct discrimination takes place when a person is treated less favorably than others are, or would be, treated in similar circumstances. Reward Program – To motivate the employee How SMART is the Plan Most of the organization reward their employees once they achieve their objective. Objective describe something that has to be accomplished. Many organizations use ‘SMART’ mnemonic to summarize the criteria. As per the above HR Plan, each employees tasks/objectives are clearly identified by their job description (i.e. Specific). By providing safe and healthy work environment employee productivity can be improved thereby , tasks can be completed with quality and time (i.e. Measurable). Communication is the key to successful completion of any job. Proper communication between Employees and management are very crucial in completing very challenging tasks. By providing proper guidelines and/or assigning a task to a group with proper information, employees can complete the task without any confusion. (i.e. Achievable). Highly motivated employees can achieve relevant objectives of the organization so that the goal of the individual is aligned to corporate goals (i.e. Relevant) Healthy , Motivated and focused employees can complete their tasks within an agreed time scale(i.e. Time framed) TESCO conduct special surveys to analyze the information from a number of sources, e.g. Performance Reviews, to identify corporate and group learning and training needs. Moreover Tesco Managers and team members hold weekly meetings to review the status of KPIs (Key performance indicators) set by the company. The feedback of the meeting is used to analyze the current situation and plan further course of action in terms of employee development and training. This kind of structured and continuous analysis helped TESCO to build a strong foundation on employee satisfaction and its growth (Expansion) plans. Contribution of SHRM to the achievement of the organization’s objectives The HR function provides guidance and training and will develop and help to introduce and maintain formal processes. As per (Armstrong 2006 ,p.771) HR function can and should play a major part in developing employee relations strategies and policies that aim to: achieve satisfactory employment relationships, taking particular account of the importance of psychological contracts; build stable and cooperative relationships with employees which recognize that they are stakeholders in the organization and minimize conflict; achieve commitment through employee involvement and communications processes; develop mutuality – a common interest in achieving the organization’s goals through the development of organizational cultures based on shared values between management and employees; clarify industrial relations processes with trade unions and build harmonious relationships with them on a partnership basis. TESCO provide equal opportunity every employee to learn and grow within the organization. Customers are at the top of TESCO’s organization structure. The company believe that right people with right skill at the right place or role is the success of its high customer satisfaction rating. TESCO has six work levels in the organization and each level is clearly described. Every employee falls under one of the six levels. This will help the employees to understand whether they have the right knowledge and skills or resources to carry out their roles.(TESCO skills and behaviors 2012, Online ) The Purpose of SHRM in an Organization The overall purpose of human resource management is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. As (Ulrich and Lake (1990), cited in Armstrong 2006, p.8) remark: HRM systems can be the source of organizational capabilities that allow firms to learn and capitalize on new opportunities. People are the organization’s key resource and organizations performance largely depends on them. Therefore, effective development and implementation of HR Policies and procedures can make a significant impact on organization’s performance. TESCO has clear organizational structure , detailed job descriptions and person specifications. SHRM practices are also important to the improvement of organizational learning. An integrated learning organizational model can be developed by the organizations to stimulate positive development of the employees on the basis of better and faster learning. TESCO should conduct various health and safety training programs for their employees to make sure that proper safety work environment is created. Moreover HR should take a lead in communicating company events/ happenings and major changes / decision in the organization to its employees. This can be through announcements or news bulletins. HR should play major role in implementing reward program for employees. e.g. Employee of the Month Award etc. Being a multinational company TESCO also focus on cross cultural training needs analysis covering organizational analysis and requirements, assignment analysis of key tasks and individual analysis of skills.HR should play a key role in organizational transition and transformation programs. It can provide help and guidance in analysis and diagnosis, highlighting the people issues that will fundamentally affect the success of the programs. According to Delany (2001) successful organizations keep people issues at the forefront of their thinking and at the core of their decision making and planning. The organizations that get the people things right are the organizations likely to be around in the future (Delany (2001) cited in Mullins 2005,p.748). TESCO takes this challenge seriously and find solutions through continuous training, development programs as part of their HR policy and government recommendations towards a learning society. This made TESCO one of the major player in the world of retail market. Impact of regulatory requirements on TESCO The Government law and regulatory is one of the major external factor which affect an organization directly when they make decision on hiring, firing, promotion etc. TESCO strictly follows the Government law and regulation when it comes to human resource planning. TESCO determined to give equal opportunities to all, irrespective of race, nationality , religion ,sex, disability, marital status or age. Company policies and procedures are fully comply with the regulatory requirements. This means the organization do not permit direct or indirect discrimination against any employees on above grounds. Direct discrimination takes place when a person is treated less favorably than others are, or would be, treated in similar circumstances. Strict implementation of Policies and procedures provide a healthy and positive atmosphere within the organization. Effectiveness of HRM is monitored in TESCO Communication The need for effective Employee Communications is no longer restricted to simply informing employees about their benefits. The major TESCO challenge is to ensure that every employees , wherever they work , are aware of the company policies and procedure. A proper communication strategy needs to be developed to inform the employees about the changes in policies and procedures. e.g. A weekly news / update bulletins to be circulated among the employees around the world so that everyone is updated about the company development. Urgent and important announcements or news items will be issued in a Bulletin, as and when the need arises. This could be achieved in the form of a Company’s staff intranet portal, notice board or internal Bulletins. Health and Safety Health and safety are workplace issues with considerable organizational and legal implications for HR and other managers. Perhaps the most regulated realm of the HRM field is maintenance (or benefits), safety and health, and employee/management relations. Chief among regulations in this arena is the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, which established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. That act was designed to force employers to provide safe and healthy work environments and to make organizations liable for workers’ safety. (Naidoo and Wills (2000), cited in Health and Safety 2012, Online) identify a number of benefits to organizations from the promotion of health in the workplace: ‘Hard’ benefits – such as improvements in productivity as a result of reduced sickness, absence and staff turnover. ‘Soft’ benefits – including enhanced corporate image. Policy Administration HR policies can be expressed as overall statements of the values of the organization. HR policies and procedures should made up to date by paying attention to the change in State laws relating to employees such as discrimination, family leave, payroll administration, health and safety. The policy manual should be equipped in such way that any challenge to the policy on employee related or discrimination issues are taken care consistently and fairly. The company policy should be detailed and updated enough to cater employees day to day issues. Recommendation TESCO should implement more comprehensive health and safety policy. e.g. A fully documented health and safety system, constantly updated as legislation changes. This includes, but is not limited to General Health
Florida Atlantic University Material Requirement Planning Discussion Responses.

I’m working on a business question and need guidance to help me study.

Respond with 150 words – JohnAn MRP system is a production dependent technique also known as Materials Requirement Planning that is necessary for utilizing in organizations that carry a variety of products. MRP benefits organizations such as providing better customer response with orders through enhanced devotion to schedules, quickly responding to market changes, improved utilizing with labor and facilities, and maintaining reduced inventory (Heizer, Render, & Munson, 2017, p. 566). MRP systems are effective when the five following requirements are met: master production schedule (MPS), specifications or bill of material (BOM), inventory availability, purchase orders outstanding, and lead times. An MPS guides what is required by the aggregate plan which can consist of customer demand, financial data, variety of inputs, engineering capabilities, inventory fluctuations, supplier performance, and labor availability. MRP must also ensure scheduling goes in accordance with the aggregate plan, otherwise it won’t be able to disaggregate the plan successfully. For BOM, it lists the required materials, quantities of components, or ingredients to create the product and specifies any unique processing. In other words, BOM defines the creation of the product’s structure (Heizer, Render, & Munson, 2017, pp. 568-570). Inventory availability is essential for organizations to know what components or materials are on hand to ensure production is not interrupted by any shortages. Purchase orders outstanding depend on adequate information shared with production personnel so that orders can be produced and delivered in a timely manner. Lastly, lead times consist of when to begin production and the amount of time required to move, setup, and assemble to obtain the final product (Heizer, Render, & Munson, 2017, p. 570).Respond with 150 words – ShilaniMaterial requirements planning (MRP) is a computer-based inventory management system designed to improve productivity for businesses. Companies use material requirements-planning systems to estimate quantities of raw materials and schedule their deliveries. There are five specific requirements to ensure that the MRP system is effective. A master production schedule is important in an MRP system because it specifies what is to be made and when. A bill of material is a list of quantities of components, ingredients, and materials required to make a product. Individual drawings describe not only physical dimensions but also any special processing as well as the raw material from which each part is made. Accurate inventory records is important in an MRP system because if the firm does not exceed 99% record accuracy, then material requirements planning will not work.Knowledge of outstanding orders exists as a by-product of well-managed purchasing and inventory-control departments. When purchase orders are executed, records of those orders and their scheduled delivery dates must be available to production personnel. Only with good purchasing data can managers prepare meaningful production plans and effectively execute an MRP system. The last part of an effective MRP system is lead times, which is aquiring products.
Florida Atlantic University Material Requirement Planning Discussion Responses

Conceptual Assignment in linear Algebra.

Conceptual Assignment in linear Algebra.. I’m studying for my Algebra class and need an explanation.

Recent Concepts:
For this assignment, you will write a document explaining the connections between the following course concepts:
Solutions to systems of linear equations, including how many and how to find them
. Intersections of planes and lines
. Row operations
. Elementary matrices
. Matrices and pivots
. Invertibility of matrices
Conceptual Assignment in linear Algebra.

Writer’s Choice Essay

cheap assignment writing service Writer’s Choice Essay. Develop a clinical practice question using PICO(T) that focuses on a clinical issue to improve the quality of care. This is a group project and my part is to focus on the “P” P (Patient, population or problem) Who or what is the patient, population or problem in question? The question we are focusing on is, Do Obsese people suffer more from Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Please have the first slide be just information about what DKA (diabetic ketoacidosis) is. The other two slides can focus on the patient, population, and problem. -The presentation should be original work and logically organized in current APA style including citation of references. -Incorporate a minimum of 2 current (published within last five years) scholarly journal articles or primary legal sources (statutes, court opinions) within your work. -Speaker notes expanded upon and clarified content on the slides.Writer’s Choice Essay

FIN 645 University of Maryland Behavioral Finance & Capital Budgeting Decisions Essay

FIN 645 University of Maryland Behavioral Finance & Capital Budgeting Decisions Essay.

1. “Since capital budgeting decisions involve the estimation of a project’s future cash flows and the rate at which they should be discounted is still a relatively subjective process, the behavioral traits of managers still affect this process.” Discuss this statement and suggest how managers can better improve their ability to eliminate biases in their forecasting.
2. 23 July 2002 an article entitled “Investors Appreciate Dividends Again, See Them as Safer Bets in Bear Market,” appeared on Associated Press Newswire. The article described two reasons why financial planners have routinely recommended that investors hold dividend-paying stocks, especially in bear markets such as the period 2001-2002: First, retired investors use quarterly dividends to augment their income find dividends to be more attractive during bear markets. Second, investors search for a bird in the hand, which dividends represent. In this respect, dividends provide investors with the ability to be patient, and wait out the market decline. The article quotes Steve Wetzel, a professor of finance at New York University’s School of Continuing Education and a certified financial planner, and Arnie Kaufman, editor of Standard & Poor’s newsletter The Outlook. Discuss both reasons mentioned above, in the context of this week’s assigned readings.
3. Discuss the merits of the following statement:  Inside directors should constitute the majority of a corporate board, because insiders have superior understanding of the firm’s business operations.  What evidence can you cite in support or in opposition to this assertion?
The above questions requires to be answered putting in mind that Turnitin is active.
Attached are modules that might be of assistance to the questions.
FIN 645 University of Maryland Behavioral Finance & Capital Budgeting Decisions Essay

Colonisation and Drug Trade Term Paper

Abstract The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. Consequently, this paper traces the influence of colonialism in the emergence and growth of the drug trade. Comprehensively, this paper shows that the influence of colonialism on drug trade centres on the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade. Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers. Introduction The emergence and growth of the drug trade stems from the willingness of drug addicts to pay for drugs at any cost. Indeed, Shmoop University (2010) affirms that drug addicts are very good customers because they are not motivated by reason but rather, by a need to fulfil their addictive desires. Consequently, drugs are among the most lucrative products in the global market because drug cartels and drug companies make handsome profits from the sale of legal and illegal drug types (Rexton, 2009, p. 7). Profits realised from the sale of drugs even rival some of the world’s most lucrative legal trades such as the sale of coffee, corn, or even gold. Currently, the sale of petroleum and coffee (in the same order of dominance) dominate the biggest global markets. Even though the drug business trails these products (in terms of market size), undoubtedly, drugs are more precious today than most products around the world. Shmoop University (2010) even says, some drugs (like cocaine) are more precious than gold because a gram of Cocaine may cost $100 while a gram of gold may cost $25. Other drugs such as marijuana have a very high value in certain parts of the world such as the US where Shmoop University (2010) considers it the most valuable cash crop. Marijuana growers in the US rake in about $36 billion annually. Most of these sales link to illegal marijuana sales. Corn is the second most valuable cash crop in the US and it is worth only $23 billion (Shmoop University, 2010, p. 1). From these statistics, there is little evidence to contradict the belief that the trade is among the most lucrative business in the world. Even though it remains destructive to human life, the drug trade will not end. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One question many people ask is how this trade started and became so profound in the global market today. Since some of the most notorious drug cartels emerged from the colonial era, there is a strong indication that colonialism has a huge role to play in the emergence and sustenance of the drug trade. This paper explores the influence of colonialism and the dominance of colonial powers in supporting the drug trade. Role of the Colonial Powers in Aiding Drug Trade The emergence of colonial powers in the 15th century heralds the birth of colonisation and the dominance of European powers around the world. However, colonisation is not the only product realised from the emergence of colonial powers; the emergence and growth of the drug trade is also a conspicuous product of colonisation (Rexton, 2009, p. 7). Before colonisation, there was little distribution of drugs beyond western nations; however, the growth of the drug trade filled the voids of this trade. This happened mainly through wars and conflicts such as the opium wars. The Opium Wars By far, the opium wars are among the most notable atrocities committed by the British. This war traces its origins to the 19th century when Britain fought with China over the sale and distribution of Opium and heroin (Compilation Group, 2000, p. 1). At the time, Britain had a strong monopoly over the supply of both drugs. Britain’s control over the supply of both commodities culminated through the control of the drug production process by British trading houses and banks. Most banks involved in this trade engaged in the laundering of drug money, while the trading houses dealt directly with the control of the trade (regulation). The dominance of Britain over the supply and distribution of Opium stemmed from its influence and control of the Indian peninsula, including the biggest Opium producer known today as Afghanistan (Annu, 2009). When the Chinese empire banned the sale of Opium within its borders, the British felt greatly threatened because they were already involved in the trade of tea in silver with the Chinese empire. The British perceived the trade of tea as a big threat to its future sustenance because the Chinese only accepted silver in exchange for tea (Annu, 2009). Britain was paying a lot of silver to the Chinese who did not do much with it. We will write a custom Term Paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the trade between the Chinese and the British counteracted through a new trading paradigm where the British could get their silver back. The opium trade was a perfect opportunity for the British to do so. Before the opium war, the Chinese consumed only small proportions of the drug. Somewhat, the consumption of opium was considered to have a religious significance to some Chinese communities. However, Compilation Group (2000) explains that broadly, the Chinese did not know much about opium. The opium war however changed this situation. The British waged an all-out-war on the Chinese empire where millions of Chinese people died. Chouvy (2010) explains that the Chinese empire was no match for the world’s most powerful country (Britain) and therefore, the Chinese had to concede defeat in an embarrassing way. This defeat led to the enslavement and colonisation of the Chinese empire (plus the exertion of British dominance in the once flourishing empire). Through this dominance, China became the biggest drug zone on earth because the British exploited their newly found dominance to encourage the trade of Opium (Compilation Group, 2000). The unrestricted access, distribution, and sale of opium to the Chinese people (with little regard for their social or economic well-being) simplified this trade. Chouvy (2010) says that wealthy Chinese people could afford the drug but poor Chinese people could spend up to two-thirds of their earnings on this drug. Therefore, most Chinese families became neglected, broken, and abandoned because of the trade. Even though the British claimed they were trying to protect the sovereignty of the Chinese to use Opium as a religious practice, Polachek (1992) says the motivation of the British to engage in the war was far more than protecting the religious rights and freedoms of the Chinese. Consequently, the British conveniently established their trade imbalance with China and recovered their silver from the tea trade. The Chinese population was distraught from the consumption of Opium (it was not until Mao Zedong won back the sovereignty of the Chinese people did they understand the meaning of sobriety). Comprehensively, through the opium war, the British supported drug trade. Afghanistan and the Opium Drug Trade In many debates regarding the war on terror, people see terrorism as a product of the drug trade. Indeed, the link between Afghanistan and the drug trade is because Afghanistan enjoys a strong monopoly in the production of Opium around the world. In fact, it is estimated that close to 95% of the world’s opium comes from Afghanistan (Annu, 2009). Not sure if you can write a paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The equivalent of this output is 3,500 tonnes of the annual drug shipment out of Afghanistan. United Nations (U.N) says that the opium market in Afghanistan is worth $65 billion every year (about 15 million opium users depend on this market) (Annu, 2009). When the Afghan government had a strong control on legal opium production, illegal opium production had a very severe penalty (death or the loss of a limb). This period was especially characterised by the control of opium production by the Taliban regime. According to Annu (2009), the decline of opium production affected western world powers. Through the influence of the Taliban on the opium drug trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror to safeguard western interests in the opium trade. To further cement accusations that Western powers had a huge role in protecting their interest on the opium trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror. Within the western sphere of influence, it was completely unacceptable for a country that did not have any army (navy or air force) to impede the flourishing drug trade that formed the bedrock of western civilization (Annu, 2009). In fact, the above ideas informed the argument of the western world to seek the support of the U.N in invading Afghanistan. The west got its way because the U.N practically gave the west an unregulated mandate to invade Afghanistan. Western-allied forces therefore forged a war against Afghanistan and attacked many defenceless citizens. After the war, the Taliban control over the opium trade ended and the production of the drug recovered. Today, Britain and America account for the biggest markets for heroin and opium. Their consumption increased with the demand of the drugs from other European countries. Consequently, the biggest drug traders and beneficiaries come from the US and Britain. In fact, Annu (2009) says that these traders are among the most powerful and influential people today. Some of them trace their dominance to the opium wars of the 15th century. Others trace their notorious heritage to drug trafficking cartels that ruled in the early 20th century. Pundits accuse the U.S CIA of being at the helm of this drug trade as demonstrated by the Iran-gate Contra scandal where critics accused the CIA of protecting the drug trade to further selective political activities (Annu, 2009). This accusation also spread to the British M 15 and M 16, which links to the drug business (Annu, 2009). Proceeds accrued from the drug trade (by the CIA and other security organs) fund illegal political and business ventures (Annu, 2009). Some of these illegal activities include organising assassinations, coups, and similar activities. Tobacco and American Colonisation The colonisation of America further led to the emergence and spread of the drug trade within Europe and the rest of the world. Shmoop University (2010) says Virginia and New England mainly depended on the drug trade because their economies were quickly collapsing after other economic ventures failed. After the first tobacco grower in Virginia (John Rolfe) made handsome profits from the sale of tobacco to Europe, other farmers around the state quickly embarked in farming the product. In fact, Shmoop University (2010) says tobacco occupied every empty space in Virginia. Virginia’s tobacco production peaked to 20,000 tonnes annually. In 1619, colonialists started using tobacco as a currency to buy women because women offered a natural way to sustain Virginia’s natural production. About 120 pounds of tobacco bought a woman. The introduction of slavery heralded the onset of women trade and tobacco became a currency to pay for the slaves. The introduction of the slave trade led to the expansion of the tobacco industry because slaves worked on tobacco plantations. Concerning the rapid expansion of the tobacco produce, Shmoop University (2010) says the slave trade helped expand the drug trade. The rapidly expanding tobacco trade also complemented the growth of the opium trade because the consumption of tobacco complemented opium consumption. Furthermore, the colonisation of America supported the drug trade because the colonial powers provided a ready market for American drugs in some of their major colonies (including China). Colonial Labourers The link between colonialism and cocaine trade stems from the labour practices implemented by colonial powers. Throughout the colonial period, there was a thriving slave trade where traders sold labourers throughout the world to work in cotton fields, sugar plantations and other agricultural industries (Jankowiak, 2003). The human conditions that the slaves experienced were demeaning and inhuman. These conditions posed a threat to the colonialists because it demoralized their workers. A demoralized work force was also disastrous to the colonial powers because it would decrease their industrial output. To correct this imbalance, the colonial powers introduced several drugs to motivate slaves to work harder. These drugs ranged from marijuana, opium, to cocaine. The drugs provided psychological relief for the slaves. The productivity of labour increased in this regard and colonial powers benefitted from improved productivity (Jankowiak, 2003). The manipulation of colonial labourers to join the ever-expanding group of drug users was not a secretive affair. The use of drugs was an effective strategy employed by colonialists to keep the expanding workforce captivated and rewarded for their hard work. Once this tool gained acceptance among colonial powers, the labourers started influencing one another to engage in drug consumption. For example, Jankowiak (2003) says, Caribbean labourers influenced Indian labourers to consume rum instead of marijuana (for optimum satisfaction). Jankowiak (2003) says the involvement of colonial labourers in the drug trade was unavoidable because the pain of working hard on the fields and the psychological torture of separating from their families were bound to have a strong psychological effect on the labourers. Often, these labourers worked in the new colonial territories and lived in appalling conditions, which were characterised by poverty, disease, and death. Drugs therefore helped the labourers to blot out or deflate this psychological pain and accustom themselves to psychological pain. Their physical pain was also suppressed in the same regard because the labourers were able to work longer and harder (Jankowiak, 2003). Cocaine Trade The ability of colonial powers to control international drug trade increased their dominance in the world. This dominance was especially conspicuous since most of the major cocaine producing territories such as Columbia and Peru were under European colonisation. After the establishment of the cocaine trade, predominant international drug trafficking cartels that controlled the opium trade also started to get a strong hold of the cocaine trade. However, in the early eighties and late nineties, this control fizzled out to local criminal cartels. There is however a close relationship between drug cartels in cocaine producing countries and international drug traffickers. For example, the notorious Columbian cocaine drug lord, Pablo Escobar, had a strong link with international drug trafficking cartels (Gootenberg, 2008). South America has the highest incidences of drug crime. Marcy (2010) says the most worrying issue about the cocaine drug trade is the sophistication of drug cartels and their penetration of government institutions and agencies. The penetration of drug interest in British and American intelligence manifests in this study. These government institutions enjoy a very high security clearance, which has given them the power to influence drug trade. The involvement of the CIA on the use of drug money to finance political interest is one example. However, the involvement of western powers in the drug trade does not match the influence of drug traffickers in the governments of some drug producing nations. For example, the influence of drug cartels in the Mexican, Columbian and the Afghan government is very high. Comprehensively, dominant drug cartels from the colonial era still engage in the sale and distribution of cocaine and other illicit drugs around the world. Conclusion The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. This paper demonstrates the influence of colonialism on the emergence and growth of the drug trade through the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade. Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers. From the evidence provided in this paper, drug trade played a pivotal role in the economic expansion of colonial powers. The introduction of European drug trade to new colonial territories either significantly transformed local drugs or completely replaced them. The role of colonialism in increasing the growth of trade manifests through its influence on increasing trade and the intensification of labour productivity. The link between trade and drugs occurs through the increased dependency of new colonies to their colonial powers for drugs. This was especially vivid through the opium wars where China was heavily dependent on Britain for the supply of opium. Britain controlled most of the opium supply. In addition, the colonial powers used drugs to increase the intensity of labour by providing drugs to slaves and other labourers so that they were relieved from the burden of intense labour and psychological torture. Comprehensively, from the role of the opium war in increasing colonial domination of the drug trade, the link between war and the flourish of drug trade manifests (Kan, 2009). The opium war strongly compares with the ongoing drug wars in Latin America because these wars offer the instability needed for the growth of drug trade. References Annu, O. (2009). What is the American Army Doing in Afghanistan? Web. Chouvy, P.A. (2010). Opium: Uncovering the politics of the poppy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Compilation Group. (2000). The Opium War. New York: The Minerva Group, Inc. Gootenberg, P. (2008). Andean cocaine: The making of a global drug. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Jankowiak, W. (2003). Drugs, Labor, and Colonial Expansion. Arizona: University of Arizona Press. Kan, P. (2009). Drugs And Contemporary. London: Warfare Potomac Books, Inc. Marcy, W.L. (2010). The politics of cocaine: How U.S. foreign policy has created a thriving drug industry in central and South America. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books. Polachek, J. (1992). The Inner Opium War. Massachusetts: Harvard University. Rexton, P. (2009). Drugs and Contemporary Warfare. New York: Potomac Books, Inc. Shmoop University. (2010). Economy in History of Drugs in America. Web.

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