This discussion topic is to be reflective and will be using your own words and not a compilation of direct citations from other papers or sources. You can use citations in your posts, but this discussion exercise should be about what you have learned through your viewpoint and not a re-hash of any particular article, topic, or the book.Items to include in the initial thread: “Interesting Assignments” – What were some of the more interesting assignments to you? “Interesting Readings” – What reading or readings did you find the most interesting and why? “Interesting Readings”“Perspective” – How has this course changed your perspective? “Course Feedback” – What topics or activities would you add to the course, or should we focus on some areas more than others?Course Name: Data Science and Big Data AnalyticsReadings: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/su101037782. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSCEE.2018.85384133. https://doi.org/10.1145/33038684. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true…Need 400 wordsNo plagarism
Data Science and Big Data Analytics Course Reflection Activity Discussion
Ashford University Organizational Policy Critique Presentation
Ashford University Organizational Policy Critique Presentation.
In preparation of the final assignment where you have an opportunity to design organizational policy, you will evaluate organizational policies designed to foster and enhance family-friendly, diverse, or woman- and minority-friendly relations. Select a company’s organizational policies for critique then create a multimedia presentation for company leaders that presents the benefits, drawbacks, and recommendations for their current policies.As you evaluate the policies, be sure to reference scholarly work to support the integration of the following:sociological theories of workthe experiences and effects of policies on disenfranchised groupsthe need to sustainably support and leverage the talent of employeesPrepare a presentation that you could deliver to the Board of Directors in 5-7 minutes. Be sure to properly cite all sources and use slide notes to include the script that accompanies the slides.Feel free to be creative in how you choose to deliver the presentation. It could be a PowerPoint or Prezi presentation using slide notes to include the script that accompanies the slides; compose a full script; develop notes for index cards; and other options as approved by your instructor.
Ashford University Organizational Policy Critique Presentation
France: Applying Macroeconomic Concepts Research Paper
online homework help Table of Contents Introduction Socio-Demographic Information Economic Information France – the United States Comparison Trading Issues Conclusion References Introduction France is a European country that is mainly located on the west of the continent and also includes several overseas territories like French Guiana in South America and some land in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. Its continental borders are the North Sea (north), the English Channel (north-west), the Atlantic Ocean (west), the Bay of Biscay (south-west), Spain, Monaco, and Andorra (south), the Mediterranean Sea, and Italy (south-east), Switzerland and Germany (East), and Belgium and Luxemburg (north-east). France has an advantageous location due to the possibility to divide maritime borders with the United Kingdom and establish neighbor relationships with such European leaders as Germany, Italy, and Spain. In this report, the analysis of socio-demographic, economic, and trading factors of France will be developed along with the comparison of this country’s economic situation to the one in the United States. Socio-Demographic Information The analysis of socio-demographic factors helps recognize an overall situation in the country and its living standards. In 2017, the population of France constituted approximately 67 million, with around 63 million living in the metropolitan region (World Bank, 2019a). French people are mostly the representatives of Celtic, Latin, Slavic, and North African ethnic groups who officially speak French (black, white, mulatto, and Chinese) (“France demographics profile,” 2018). Compared to the gender structure that is equal in France, the age varies, including 0-14 years (18.5%), 15-24 years (11.8%), 25-54 years (37.8%), 55-64 years (12.4%), and older than 65 years (19.5%) (“France demographics profile,” 2018). The birth rate is higher than the death rate, which results in sustainable population growth each year. In rural areas, sanitation facility access remains unimproved in 1.1% of the population, whilst in urban areas, this rating is a little bit higher – 1.4% (“France demographics profile,” 2018). The majority of people are Christians, but there are also some Muslims, Buddhists, and Jewish in the country. Health and education are two crucial areas of development in France. According to the latest records, 5.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is spent on education, and 11.5% – on health expenditures (“France demographics profile,” 2018). Obesity in adults remains a serious problem, and multiple nutrition and health education programs are in progress. Higher education is usually introduced in public universities and prestigious facilities. The Ministry of National Education made primary and secondary education compulsory for children from six to sixteen years. Economic Information The economic situation in the country undergoes considerable chances because of recent political decisions and an overall global situation. France’s economy takes fifth place in the world and demonstrates strong steps to endure the current economic crisis (“France economic outlook,” 2019). The official currency is Euro which is equal to about 1.14 USD. During the last five years, the GDP of France stays at the same level, demonstrating about 2% increase annually. In 2017, the GDP was about 2,300 billion Euros that equals about 20 trillion dollars (“France economic outlook,” 2019). GPD per capita is 35,387 EUR or $40,050. The unemployment rate continues to fall up to 9.4%, and the inflation rate rises to 1% annually (“France economic outlook,” 2019). Effective export and import strategies contributed to stability in the country. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being the country with a diversified economy, France demonstrates good results in several industries. For example, the chemical industry promotes the development of the country and its other areas like automobile, electronics, textiles, food, and machinery, which are the country’s exports up to 30% of the total GDP (“France economic outlook,” 2019). Tourism is also an essential part of the French economy and its key export. Additional effective exported services are from the business and transportation industries. As for imports, they include vehicles, aircraft, and other travel services and constitute about 68% of the total GDP (France economic outlook,” 2019). In both export and import cases, France develops continuous business relationships with such countries as Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Spain. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic that supports strong democratic traditions. The current president, Emmanuel Macron, and the Government that is led by the Prime Minister introduce an executive branch of the country with evident political influence on the work of the Parliament and senators. France also plays an important role in international relations with a number of diplomatic missions. It is a part of such international organizations as the United Nations (UN), the World Bank, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Trade Organization (WTO). At the regional level, France is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nationals Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Asian Development Bank, and the Council of Europe. France – the United States Comparison Economic conditions in the United States (US) and France have certain similarities and differences. In 2017, the US GDP was 19.391 trillion, which made the country the first on the global list, while France was only in sixth place (World Bank, 2019b). GDP growth (2.9%) is also higher in America, as well as its GDP per capita $58,270 (Bureau of Economic Analysis; World Bank, 2019b). Inflation and unemployment rates are 2.1% and 8.1%, respectfully, which proves that the US economy to be better than the one in France (World Bank, 2019b). One of the methods to deal with unemployment in the US is to promote electronically mediated work that counted about 1% of total employment in the country in 2017 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018). However, being powerful in the technological sphere, the US faces certain barriers in foreign markets. In general, the economic ratings of France cannot be defined as poorer compared to the US regarding their populations, geographical locations, and international relations. However, health and education expenditures remain higher in the US, as well as sanitation standards in rural and urban areas. Trading Issues Regarding the above-mentioned investigation and evaluation, it is wrong to say that France has better or worse ratings compared to America. Both countries demonstrate sustainable development in a number of spheres. In 2017, France improved its budget deficit to 2.7% of the GDP due to regular economic reforms by Macron (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). Its foreign investments at home increase annually with $858.3 billion in 2017 compared to $807.4 billion in 2016 (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d.). Regardless of the global world crisis and unstable political and international relations in Europe, France continues developing its trading relations with a number of countries. The top export destinations of the country are Germany (as its closed and the most stable partner), Belgium, Italy, Spain, and the US. Import destinations are almost the same with the only replacement – the United States to China. Conclusion Despite the existing economic challenges, France demonstrates rather good results in coping with a crisis. The country does not stop its foreign trade relations with its regular partners and improves its leading industries like cars, chemistry, and food. Compared to the United States, France cannot be defined as an evident leader due to its size, geographical location, and population. However, having one of the leading economies in the world proves that the majority of French attempts have positive results and further potential. We will write a custom Research Paper on France: Applying Macroeconomic Concepts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Bureau of Economic Analysis. (2019). New dates set for GDP, personal income, and international trade. Web. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Electronically mediated employment. Web. Central Intelligence Agency. (n.d.). The World factbook: France. Web. France demographics profile 2018. (2018). Web. France economic outlook. (2019). FocusEconomics. Web. International Monetary Fund. (2018). United States. Web. World Bank. (2019a). France. Web. World Bank. (2019b). United States. Web. Not sure if you can write a paper on France: Applying Macroeconomic Concepts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Use of DNA Technology to Reduce Tumor Size
1. Introduction: Objective: Pfizer have developed a new drug that appears to reduce the size of specific tumors but are concerned about what effect the drug might have on normal tissue. Outline how you would use DNA technology to address this issue. Cancer disease has large complexities in terms of genome variations at genetic level and epigenetic level. Immortalization and tumor genesis are the two fundamental characteristics of cancerous cells. This disease is caused by mutations in genes such as oncogenes, DNA repairing genes and tumor suppressor genes. Recent researches suggested that more than one mutations are needed for the cancers. One of the major drawbacks of the medicines or drugs that are used to treat cancer is its side effects on normal cells. The cells which are mostly affected by drugs are rapidly dividing cells such as blood cells, hair follicles cells, cells found in tract of reproductive organ and digestive system, and cells from immune system. Side effects on normal cells due to chemotherapy has become major challenges for researchers. Transcriptome or protein expression profiling for cancerous cells treated with specific drugs may provide useful information about possible side effects on normal cells. When any drugs or medicines are given for the treatment of any specific tumor disease, it binds with specific receptors (cell surface receptors, Cytoplasmic receptors or nuclear receptors) and leads to transcription and translation process and generate specific proteins that can be able to stop the cell cycle or initiation of apoptosis. But generally these drugs may also responsible to translation of unwanted proteins that can cause side effects on normal tissues. 2. Approach: Mode of action of many drugs that reduces the size of tumor are related to growth cycle (like mutagen, MAP kinase pathway) or DNA modifications (transcription, translation etc.). This method is more suitable for in vivo testing in rats or mammalian cancerous cell lines which has been described here. The added tumor size reducing drug must bind with specific receptors on the tumor cells. So first step is the identification of pathway via which it acts. In the downstream signaling of the pathway, some transcription factors will be activated and will bind to target promoter and reduces the size of tumor. So then transcription factors need to be quantified by qPCR as well as the sequence of their promoter through DNA Foot Printing. Now two plasmids need to be constructed (minimum two plasmids, if there are more transcription factors and promoters, more plasmids with different fluorescent proteins are needed) containing above identified promoter coupled with red fluorescent protein (RFP) and containing a tumor inducible promoter coupled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Now for in vivo testing, mutant mouse are created and transfected with above two plasmids. During the growth, the known tumor inducing compounds/radiation is given to the mouse to induce the tumor. As the drug is added, it will cause induction of RFP through the body but level may be higher in tumor cells but GFP should be induced only in the tumor cells. If GFP is induced in other normal cells it means that this drug may cause side effect on that cells. A fluorescent mapping of mouse will reveal the efficacy and side effects of drug based on RFP and GFP intensity. Figure 1: Schematic presentation of approach. The image of mice is taken from internet which has been used to explain the method. 3. Method: This method is suitable for in vivo testing in mice or mammalian cells culture. The main steps include quantification and identification of transcription factors and promoter sequences respectively, construction of suitable plasmids coupled with red and green fluorescent proteins, transfection of plasmids in mice body, tumor induction in mice body followed by drug injection and last fluorescent mapping using fluorescent detector. The instruments and techniques which will be used in this methods are qRT-PCR, DNase Foot Printing assay, Suitable plasmids vector, microinjections, Chemicals, fluorescent proteins (red and green), capillary electrophoresis, tumor inducing cells or chemicals or radiation and fluorescent detector. Validation of this method is important so validation could be possible by using this method for any known drug which side effects on normal cells has been identified completely. 3.1. Quantification of Transcription Factor: The exact quantification of transcription factor is the most important part of this method. Micro array or PCR is the good technique for quantification of transcription factors but in this method qPCR/QRT-PCR will be appropriate technique. First step is isolation of cancer cells from mammalian cancerous cell lines. Then inject target anti-cancer drug and incubate for some time because these drugs takes some time to start their function. After proper incubation, total or poly A RNA extraction is the next step. The solution which is used in extraction process should be RNase free otherwise it can degrade our RNA so that exact quantification could not be possible. Sample should be treated with DNase to remove genomic DNA contamination. Flow Chart 1: Steps involved in quantification of Transcription factors Electrophoresis and qPCR methods could be used for determination of purity and accurate concentration because these factors are very important for proper gene expression profiling. Then C DNA synthesis and validation of C DNA quality and quantity could be done by using qRT-PCR. For performing qRT-PCR assay there are two important steps such as selection of appropriate reference genes and designing of PCR primer labeled with fluorescent dye must be needed. For data analysis fluorescent detector can be used to detect transcription factors and their associated genes. Now once genes have been identified by using above method so the identification of their promoter sequence DNA Foot Printing assay will be performed. 3.2. Identification of Promoter Sequence: DNase Foot printing assay method can be used to identify target promoter sequence. Steps involved in this method is amplification of target DNA through PCR using fluorescent labeled primer at 5’ end. Then cleavage of the amplified DNA by using DNase enzyme followed by the capillary electrophoresis. The cleavage pattern will vary due to the presence of transcription factor, because the binding sites are protected by the protein from the cleavage. By using this method we can identify the promoter sequences. By using capillary electrophoresis we can identify the amount and size of DNA fragments and about the bases which are not cleaved by the DNase enzyme. Figure 2: Identification of promoter sequences through DNA Foot Printing assay. The graph between amount and size of DNA fragments in this figure is showing the bases which are protected by the transcription factor against DNase enzyme. 3.3. Construction of Suitable Plasmids: Construction of suitable expression vectors for mammalian cells, that can carry the desired promoter sequence coupled with fluorescent protein must be needed. The most important characteristics of vectors is presence of all elements that is suitable for expression in host cells. The important elements are promoter, stop and start codon, binding sites for ribosome, ORI region and appropriate selection markers. Some examples of vectors like adenoviral, PSV and pCMV are generally used for expression in mammalian cells. In this method, our expression vectors should contain promoter sequence labeled with red and green fluorescent protein and other important elements. Minimum two type of plasmid vectors need to be constructed. One plasmid should have promoter coupled with RFP which has not induced by the tumor inducible transcription factors. Other plasmid should have tumor inducible promoter coupled with green fluorescent protein. Our main idea is to inject these vectors into the mutated mice body so that we also need to remove the other elements of vectors that can cause any unwanted diseases in mutated mice. The vectors like pED and Pz can be used for the expression in mammalian cells. Figure 3: Construction of plasmids containing promoter coupled with Red and Green fluorescent protein. The very first step for the construction of the recombinant plasmid is the cleavage of both plasmid and target DNA with promoter sequence coupled with fluorescent protein using suitable restriction enzymes. The restriction enzymes creates sticky or blunt ends (depends on type of restriction enzyme used) in both plasmid and target DNA. Next step is the hybridization of both DNA and plasmid using DNA ligase enzyme. Selection of cells having plasmid with desired sequence is very important so further we need to selection of appropriate vector by using selection markers like antibiotic resistance genes. 3.4. Transfection: The transfer of desired plasmid inside the mice body could be possible through many ways such as microinjection, electroporation, shotgun method, through chemicals and viral infections. Transfection through viral infection has some limitations like limited carrying capacity of desired gene and unwanted inflammatory mutations. However, transfection through viral infection have some advantages like easy to handle, easy preparation and easily monitoring during the process. So, in this method transfection of plasmid in mice should be done directly through microinjection into the mice body. One another way for transfection of recombinant plasmids in mice is through recombinant Baculovirus. Baculovirus infects insect cells. Purified budded virus can be isolate from the infected insect cells with recombinant Baculovirus. This purified budded virus can be introduced inside the mice body. For the study of side effects on normal cells in whole body of mice it is very important that this recombinant plasmids will reach every parts of body along with tumor affected parts. 3.5. Induction of Tumor in Mice: Mammalian cancerous cell lines or cell DNA extracted from virally infected cells can be able to induce cancer in mice. Once theses tumorgenic cells is injected inside the mice body it develop specific tumor. After developing cancer in mice body, anti-cancer drug is administered through injection to show the efficacy and side effects on cancerous and non-tumor cells. When drugs binds with specific target receptors, it will induce both promoters but with varying intensity. The promoter coupled with RFP will show intensities in both normal and tumor cells but may be higher in tumor cells. But GFP should be induced only in tumor cells if it is inducing in other normal cells with high intensity then it may cause side effects on those normal cells. 3.6. Fluorescent Mapping: Analysis of fluorescent mapping of these promoters in different locations of the mice body can provide useful information about possible side effects against designed anti-cancer drugs. For example if GFP will be induced in other cells like hair cells, heart cells, bone marrow cells than we can predict the side effects on these cells because the drug should not induce translational process in normal cells. If this drug induces promoters only in tumor cells then the chances of side effects may be less. We can study possible side effects against various drugs by using this method. Figure 4: This picture has been modified for illustrating the possible results that can be produced by this method. Region B and C in this figure are representing the cancerous cells where GFP has been expressed. Region A is representing the normal cells where GFP has been also expressed so this drug may cause side effects on this cells. 3.7. Validation of the Method: This approach has not been validated because this is the hypothesis only. For the testing of this method whether it is working efficiently or not need to be validated. An efficient approach has been described here. For the validation of this method we need to perform this method on known anti-cancer drugs for specific type of cancers. This method can be apply for known drugs which side effects on normal cells have been identified completely. If fluorescent mapping provide exact location in the body where GFP has been induced and if these locations are related with those areas where this specific drug causes side effects then this method will be validated. But proper validation need to be tested for various anti-tumor drugs which side effects has been completely known. 4. Discussion: There are so many side effects associated with anti-cancer drugs because these drugs mainly affects rapidly dividing cells and immune system. The drugs or medicines that are currently used have always some common side effects like typhlitis, diarrhea and hair loss but sometimes these drugs cause serious side effects like liver damage and cardiac arrest because these drugs are unable to differentiate rapidly growing normal and cancerous cells. So that development of proper efficient method for testing possible side effects for any anti-cancer drugs should be developed. In this section a good approach has been described for the identification of possible side effects on normal cells. The idea is based on the role of transcription factors induced by the drug- receptors interactions. As instance certain anti-tumor drugs causes anemia when used for the treatment of specific tumor. Generally the gene called HBB is responsible for anemia because this gene encode beta globins protein. It means that these drugs also induces transcription factor that is responsible for activation of HBB gene. The fluorescent mapping of unknown anti-cancer drug against specific cancer can provides useful information about possible side effects. The figure 4 which has been modified to illustrate the possible results that can be achieved through this method. If the drug is not inducing GFP in normal cells except cancerous cells it means drug will not cause any side effects on normal cells but vice versa if GFP is expressing in other cells along with tumor cells so we can predict possible side effects on those cells because this method is also useful to find out what type of protein or transcription factors are expressed. By using bioinformatics data bases like PDB, Gene bank etc, functions of expressed proteins or transcription factors can be easily predict. The method which has been described above has not validate yet because this method is only a hypothesis that need further advancement and validation. 5. References: Lohmann, S., Herold, A., Bergauer, T., Belousov, A., Betzl, G., Demario, M., Dietrich, M., Luistro, L., Poignée-Heger, M., Schostack, K., Simcox, M., Walch, H., Yin, X., Zhong, H. and Weisser, M. (2013). Gene expression analysis in biomarker research and early drug development using function tested reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR assays. Methods, 59(1), pp.10-19. Swartzman, E., Shannon, M., Lieu, P., Chen, S., Mooney, C., Wei, E., Kuykendall, J., Tan, R., Settineri, T., Egry, L. and Ruff, D. (2010). Expanding applications of protein analysis using proximity ligation and qPCR. Methods, 50(4), pp.S23-S26. Genetics Home Reference, (2014). HBB gene. [online] Available at: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/HBB [Accessed 23 Nov. 2014]. Dubensky, T., Campbell, B. and Villarreal, L. (1984). Direct transfection of viral and plasmid DNA into the liver or spleen of mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 81(23), pp.7529-7533. Caldana, C., Scheible, W., Mueller-Roeber, B. and Ruzicic, S. (2007). A quantitative RT-PCR platform for high-throughput expression profiling of 2500 rice transcription factors. Plant Methods, 3(1), p.7. Kim, T. and Eberwine, J. (2010). Mammalian cell transfection: the present and the future. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397(8), pp.3173-3178.
Auditing Inventory, Warehousing, and Payroll Accounts
Auditing Inventory, Warehousing, and Payroll Accounts.
Consider and discuss the specific risks and nature of the company you will be auditing and create comprehensive work programs for the Inventory, Warehousing, and Payroll accounts and cycles.Submit a 700- to 1,050-word document that includes the following: Audit steps for tests of controls, balances, transactions, analytical procedures, etc. as well as other considerations such as sample size and sample methodology.A brief summary page should be included in this document, 525 to 700 words, for each of the work programs. Include in this summary specific financial information gleaned from the current Form 10-K used to perform an analysis of work program steps. For example, if the team noted significant swings in the Inventory balance year-over-year, identify these swings and how you address them in your work program (this is in essence an audit procedure – analytical review).
Auditing Inventory, Warehousing, and Payroll Accounts