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John Wycliffe The Forerunner Of The Reformation Religion Essay

John Wycliffe The Forerunner Of The Reformation Religion Essay. By the start of the fourteenth century, Christianity, led by a powerful papacy, had seen 250 years of growth Perry 274. This time also marked the decline of the Christendom papacy in part due to independent Christian philosopher’s ideas on faith and reason. One such heretic, according to the Catholic Church during this time, was John Wycliffe. John Wycliffe was born around 1324 in Yorkshire, England. Little is known about Wycliffe’s early formative years, but he is known to have attended Oxford University in 1345. Wycliffe also went to Balliol College where he was a scholar, master and later became the headmaster in 1360. In 1361 he was given the parish of Fylingham in Lincolnshire and by 1365 was named the head of Canterbury Hall. Wycliffe obtained his doctor of theology in 1372 while leading the rectory of Ludgershall in Buckinghamshire near Oxford ( While Wycliffe was a brilliant scholar, teacher, and preacher, he is most remembered for three other accomplishments. In 1366, Wycliffe made known his reformative ideals against the papacy. He believed the teachings of the church were not in line with the bible. Wycliffe served as a theological counsel for England against Pope Urban V concerning unpaid tributes for 33 years. Wycliffe’s stand probably led to him serving England at the peace congress in Bruges. In 1374, during the peace talks between France and England, he served as the theological counsel to the England alongside persons trained in the law. Even though Wycliffe represented the other side in this ordeal, the Roman Catholic Church did not recognize him as being a threat ( Wanting to find a better way to voice his ideas, Wycliffe returned home and began distributing his thoughts and ideas in tracts and eventually in the Summa Theologiae, Wycliffe’s summary of theology. Wycliffe opposed the temporal rule of the clergy, the papacy’s attempt to rule the political world. Using the “government of God and the Ten Commandments”, Wycliffe announced his displeasure against the clergy’s temporal rule. Wycliffe forcefully stated the king should be above the Pope and all gifts and indulgences given to the church hierarchy was bribery. Wycliffe entered the political world with the release of De Civili Dominio, Wycliffe’s expression of how the government should be run which included the removal of the church from temporal things. Wycliffe’s greatest arguments were expressly written concerning the State’s business of changing the Avignon’s system of wasting the Church’s property. While the papacy was located in France, the church continually misappropriated funds and lands. If the Church cannot legitimately control its own assets, the control must be taken away and the king is negligent if he doesn’t do something about it. De Civili Dominio includes 18 theories opposing the current governing methods by the clergy. Wycliffe spent the last six years of his life writing tracts and books opposing the theocracy of the Church. He truly believed the Bible contained the answers to governing a person and society, not the organized Church. Wycliffe’s thoughts, words, and actions made him a predecessor to the Protestant Reformation ( A second reason John Wycliffe is remembered today is his contribution to the first English language transcripts of The Bible. While it is not known exactly how much of the actual work Wycliffe did, he is credited with being the leader and organizer of the event. Wycliffe believed all people should have access to The Bible, regardless of political or social status. He thought all Christians should possess the Bible in their own language. Until now, only the rich and noble owned Bibles and these were in French. Wycliffe only had access to the Latin Vulgate and that is what he translated into the day’s English. The Church was strongly opposed to Wycliffe, his translation, and the thought of commoners possessing copies saying, “The jewel of the clergy has become the toy of the laity”. Even though the Church tried to destroy Wycliffe’s versions, there are approximately 150 copies still to this day. Men who owned copies of Wycliffe’s Bibles were called “Bible men” and these English versions of the Bible greatly influenced the language of the day ( In 1381, the chancellor of the University of Oxford declared some of Wycliffe’s thoughts on the Lord’s Supper heretical. Wycliffe appealed to the king, Richard II, instead of Pope Urban and published his writings to the people. He gained many followers who were named Lollards. Also in 1381 there was the Peasant’s Revolt, English peasants revolted against Richard’s new poll tax. Although Wycliffe did not approve, he was blamed for this event. Of the 24 theories said to be from John Wycliffe, fourteen were declared inaccurate and the other ten heretical. Anyone caught holding these ideas were subject to arrest because the king issued a decree assisting the Church. Ironically, the opposition to the reformers was based at Oxford, where John spent most of his life and where most of his followers were ( Wycliffe was summoned to Oxford in November of 1382 to appear before a special council on religious issues. Wycliffe had just suffered a stroke but had enough composure to win the favor of the council. On December 28, 1384, Wycliffe suffered a second stroke while at church and died 3 days later on December 31, 1384. Thirty years later on May 4, 1415, Wycliffe was branded a heretic and a decree was issued to burn his books and exhume his body. It took twelve years, under Pope Martin V, before his body was exhumed, burned, and distributed in the river Swift ( A third and much lesser known contribution of John Wycliffe is the bifocal, a two-part lens in eye glasses helpful in reading. Most literature today attributes the invention of the bifocal lens to Benjamin Franklin in 1760. However, there are those who believe John Wycliffe invented the lens out of necessity while translating the Latin Vulgate into English ( It seems the bifocal could be another proof to Plato’s The Republic, “Necessity, the mother of invention”. John Wycliffe was not a man of physical stature but people of political and social status often took council with him and hung on his every word. William Thorpe said, “From him one could learn in truth what the Church of Christ is and how it should be ruled and led” ( Wycliffe held on to Jesus Christ’s teachings and Word and truly believed and taught the Bible is authoritative and capable of being fully involved in the government. It was Wycliffe who started the Reformation thought “-the unique authority of the Bible for the belief and life of the Christian” ( John Wycliffe The Forerunner Of The Reformation Religion Essay
Human beings are social creatures spending a lot of time socializing, interacting and participating in activities that involve others. A family is a unit, a close organization of people who are related by blood and genes and so have a unique common trait that makes them a single “organism”, with own culture, beliefs and traditions. Families and life partners get each other through some of the roughest times, and this is especially true for African-American families. The African American society has been the target of discrimination, stereotyping and racism for a long time. They are still suffering from the fact that their families and relatives grew up in a segregated and separated America, but the support that was between the community members has shown to be of great strength. It helped people to have some joy in their lives and health to fight for freedom that still continues today. One of the greatest problems was the system that treated African-Americans in a predisposed and stereotypical manner. Very often, law authorities resorted to racial profiling and thus, contributed and reinforced the negative statistics and views of the rest of society. The work market was also slanted to the negative side, so the support of families was the only counter action that could be taken. As such, African-American couples stayed closer together, tried to raise strong and proud children. As described in the “The Union of Two for Life and Jake” men and women were together, went through joy and sadness, tears and hardships, but managed to survive and look into the future. Marriage was another supporting factor for the Afican-American community. It is a union between two people, which is unique through the qualities that each person brings into the relationship. This helps people to put their strengths and knowledge together and get through the hard and oppressing times. Even though every marriage will definitely have points of conflict, which will test the strength of each person’s feelings towards their partner and the marriage in general, a strong bond is unlike anything else. “The Bean Eaters” talks about a couple who grew old together, and simply because dinners have become routine, and the time spent together is expected, the union still exists. This shows that people are meant to be more resistant to the hardships of life as a unit. Unfortunately, children who are the future creators of families and couples are susceptible to the bad influences of the community and society. When a person sees how their family suffers, they feel the need to do something. Often, a single parent experiences difficulty in raising a child. While paying for food and shelter, spending many hours working, it makes evident the fact that there is very little time to spend child-rearing. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The values and behaviors that a child learns early on are very important. Character forms in the beginning years of life and it is very hard to change later. The ghettos of African-Americans who were forced into segregated areas with little or no employment and poor housing slowed down the process of children becoming successful in life. This led to couples having several children, so that they could support each other, and be more productive as a family. The interconnection between siblings can be seen from Toni Morrison’s “Sula” and how the two children support each other. One is emotional and the other controls feelings, but their bond is just as strong. Even when a traumatic event of a boy drowning takes place, the stay as one, and do not let each other fall into psychosis. Once again, this proves that the ties between siblings and families are inseparable. A major breakthrough happened in the 1980’s, which is sometimes called the “golden ages”. This was the active time in the fight for the rights and freedoms of black community. There was a great involvement from the American society, where African American history became a study of the society and the unfair treatment they have been experiencing. Their culture was recognized as a key part of the United States. There were a number of reforms in the education system that limited and regulated any form of discrimination. There was a lot of African American women’s publishing about the history of the people. And because families have been around since the beginning of human history, individuals in secluded African-American communities depended on family, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, and even far off relatives. The only way to survive was though the cooperation and unity. They lived together, worked and were the first people who would offer help in case of need. The more friendly, healthy and close a family is, the more they can achieve, because with a shared goal they become more productive and directed, as everyone contributes to the matter. Throughout time African-American family has stayed one of the strongest building units of their society. It carries its unique originality and culture which is of great importance not only on a personal level but public as well.

FSCJ ABC Organization Pay Structure Analysis HRM Research Paper

FSCJ ABC Organization Pay Structure Analysis HRM Research Paper.

1. An Introduction of your company (ABC Organization) i.e. type of business, # of employees, etc 2. Describe in details your company’s pay structure. Please use your textbook and outside resources to elaborate on this type of pay structure. Please describe pros and cons. 3. Based on your opinion does the company’s pay structure align with its’ strategies, i.e. vision, mission, etc. Please explain your answer in great details. What’s your company mission statement?4. Describe the type of employees that are being attracted and retained i.e. Baby Boomers, generation x, y, Millennial. (Who is staying and who is leaving). How much is invested i.e. training, recruiting etc.. per employee. ROI. 5. Based on your knowledge and what you have learned please redesign your pay structure or chose another so that it attracts the desired applicant as well as retain them. The pay structure must be effective and efficient. Support your decision with information from your text and outside resources. Purpose of this research paper is for you to use compensation as a strategy to improve your company’s brand. The paper is worth 25% of your final grade. Section 1. should be a minimum of 2-3 paragraphs and Section 2-5 should be at least one page each. So your paper should be between 4. to 5 pages excluding cover sheet and reference paper. APA format required. You are required to support your ideas with information from your textbook and at least (3) outside resources. So I should see at least (3) different citations within your paper
FSCJ ABC Organization Pay Structure Analysis HRM Research Paper

INT 113 SNHU Economic Measures and Physical Infrastructure Discussion

best assignment help INT 113 SNHU Economic Measures and Physical Infrastructure Discussion.

Use this discussion sample as a guide when completing your own analysis.Economic measures are an important piece of the market assessment process. In this discussion, you will work on the following critical elements of the final project: Economic Measures, and Transportation and Telecommunication. Using The World Factbook, World Bank (World Bank Video Transcript: INT-113 Geek out with Tariq – The Geek and the Internet Transcript), Trading Economics, and Santander Trade Markets, find the following economic data on your project country:Interest rates UnemploymentInflationGDPGDP growth rateExchange rates against USDExchange rate regimeLabor force major industriesFDI ratesUsing The World Factbook, identify the following elements of physical infrastructure:Major airports and seaportsRailway stations (government websites)Internet usersMobile providers (use GSMA Network Coverage Maps)Logistics performance index rating (use The World Bank Logistics Performance Index)Consider the data collected and make some observations on the stability and strength of the economy in your project country. What do high and low levels of unemployment indicate? What does the exchange rate regime tell you about the economy? Consider the presence of existing industries and identify areas of opportunity or risk. Also consider the logistics of shipping and distribution based on physical infrastructure.Respond to two of your classmates and share a business observation based on the data provided. This is a great opportunity to share examples from history or the current news.Once you have received feedback from your peers and instructor, you will insert your data and summarize your analysis findings in the Final Project Presentation Template provided. This is your fifth step toward the comprehensive final project presentation. Your second final project checkpoint submission will be submitted in Module Six.Note: You will not be able to see any of your peers’ discussion posts until you have created and posted your own discussion thread.To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.
INT 113 SNHU Economic Measures and Physical Infrastructure Discussion

Customers and their Needs Report

Introduction Financial services organizations are among the fast growing industries. Competition is so high in this industry forcing organization to be aggressive in meeting customer needs without comprising quality and profitability. Creating appropriate delivery channels, sound selling strategies, and building viable market relations are some of the important strategies t5he organizations should adopt to ensure they remain competitive. The following is a discussion of how these organizations can deliver quality services, boost their sales and profitability while meeting customer needs in an efficient and effective manner. Delivery Channels A delivery channel refers to mechanism used by organizations to reach the consumers. Financial services organizations need to identify customer needs and then design the right channel to use in order to reach their customers in an efficient and effective way. In addition, the financial sector can use either face-to-face channels or remote channels. Face to face channels These include branch networks, personal services, and third party agencies. Branch networks refer to a situation where a financial organization sets up physical premises where the customers can be served; personal services requires that a representative from the organization arranges to meet the customer either by booking an appointment or via cold visit; while third party agencies refers to use of agents such as insurance brokers,. Remote channels Remote channels include multimedia, telephone, and paper, whereby, multimedia incorporates use of the internet, websites, ATMS, television, as well as mobile sms. In addition, telephone is about having call centers from which, customers can make calls or called and these centers can be used to conduct telesales or provide customer support among other functions; and paper channel involves use of brochures and catalogues. Factors to consider in evaluating a delivery channel It would be unrealistic for a firm to take on a distribution channel without evaluating how it will affect the business. The following factors must be put into consideration: cost of the channel, expected outcome i.e. how effective will it be in satisfying the customers while minimizing costs, effect of new technology, channels used by competitors as well as the nature of the product. (Havaldar and Cavale 12-2) and Proper evaluation of delivery channel gives the company a chance to cut down on costs such as opening of a new branch where internet can be used to serve the same purpose, save on staff costs while maximizing on profits and ensuring customer needs are taken care of. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under normal circumstances, conflicts are inevitable hence, it is important to manage channel conflicts. All channel members should work closely towards some common goals and objectives having clearly stated roles and responsibilities. Impact of technology on delivery channels The impact of new technology has been felt in financial services organizations; indeed, there have been opportunities as well as challenges and threats. Use of new technology such as internet has allowed online marketing, which is faster and cheaper as compared to some other marketing approaches. Eliminated geographical areas and transaction can be done without physical contact. It has also increased competition in the market; however, personal contact with customers has been lost leading to weak personal relationships. People have also been reluctant in embracing the new technological changes due to security reasons while others lack technical know how (Sharma 288). Financial organizations are however required by law to ensure customer privacy breach of which can lead to legal suit by the customer. According to the Data Protection Act, organizations should hold personal information of their customers in a proper way and incase of processing of such information, the eight principles should be followed. In addition, customers have a right to know information held about them and correct such information if need be. Privacy and Electronic communications regulations give the customer the mandate to stop electronic marketing messages that they are not interested in (Information commissioner’s office, para1) Selling Financial sectors need to understand that selling is not all about getting customers to purchase their products. Costs incurred in the process are high and require the organization to come up with a mechanism to offset them while still maintaining quality. According to lamb, Daniel and McDaniel (459), selling is a seven-stage process. First, prospecting and qualifying implies searching for new clients and assessing their potential by knowing whether they have a need, their financial ability to satisfy that need as well as whether they have the mandate to so. The second stage is the Pre- approach and this requires proper preparation before meeting the customer. We will write a custom Report on Customers and their Needs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Booking and confirmation of appointment is vital, the seller should also have excellent product knowledge and the objective to be met by the end of the meeting. Approach follows the pre-approach; the sales person should have good communication skills, create a good first impression, and establish a rapport with the prospects. Presentation and demonstration should follow which involves an analysis of prospects need through questioning and listening professionally. The product offered should match clients need and show the benefits. The fifth step involves handling objections from the client that should be done in a professional way after which it is time to close the sale. Close of sale literally means the actual purchase or placing order by the client. The final step is to follow up with the clients and know whether there are any complaints or issues from the client. According to Pezzullo (213), the financial organizations should ensure that they have quality sales people. This implies that they have good personal attributes such as proper planning skills, integrity, healthy, hardworking, and courteous and so on. Selling skills are also very important such as good negotiation skills, ability to listen and make a decision. Sales person should also go through vigorous training to equip them with product knowledge and organizational knowledge. Managing customer interface Managing customer interface generally refers to application of the appropriate selling techniques and skills when dealing with a customer at all stages in the selling process. The sales person has a duty understand both the buying and selling processes well in order to match the selling process with the buying process. The financial services organizations are at liberty to adopt either a hard selling approach or a soft selling approach. The later is highly recommended since it focuses on relationship marketing rather than aggressive sales closure. Establishing a relationship with the customer and follow up are key in this approach and it normally starts with the pre-approach step. Hard selling approach focus on closing the sale fast thus transaction based and it normally starts with the approach step. The decision-making unit According to Peck et al (42), it is important that the sales person understands the decision-making unit (DMU), which refers to a person or a group of people that influence the buyers’ decision-making process. In managing customer interface, it is important to identify, communicate all the members of the DMU. Decision making unit comprises of seven elements: initiators, users, influencers, deciders, approvers, buyers, and gatekeepers. Initiators are the pioneers of the original idea to purchase. Users are the consumers of the product or service and they influence the purchase decision. Influences can be either external or internal persons of the organization with special or expertise knowledge who can play a role in the purchase decision. Deciders have the authority to make the purchase decision and are often the buyers while approvers exercise some form of management such as authorizing payment. The buyers have formal authority to handle the purchase transaction and select where to buy. Finally yet importantly are the gatekeepers such as personal assistant. These make it difficult to access other members or else withhold necessary information. Not sure if you can write a paper on Customers and their Needs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Managing selling activities Having the right salespeople on board and following the sales procedure is not enough to drive sales and maintain quality. Financial organizations need to adequately manage the selling activities that focus on various aspects – planning, monitoring and evaluating as well as enhancing sales performance. Planning means that clear objectives of what the firm aims to achieve are laid down and proper sales forecasts are conducted. The set objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and time bound. Monitoring ensures that the progress is in line with the plan and addresses any problem that may arise and hinder achievement of goals set. It also ensures that sales team meets the targets and gives a justification for any incentives that may be given. Performance of the sales team need to be evaluated regularly which translates to measuring of actual performance against the set standard. it shows the difference between the highest and lowest performing sales person which then allows a corrective measure to be taken. The corrective measure taken should start with problem identification as proposed by Watkins (1999 p.165). It is important to note that the sales team should be well trained and training is an on-going process (should be done regularly). Management and Leadership A sales manager normally leads a sales team; it is therefore important that such managers have both management and leadership skills. A leader can be defined as someone who influences others to follow a particular direction. A good leader has certain characteristics such as integrity, good communication skills, self-confidence, ability to inspire, enthusiastic and maintains a positive attitude. On the contrary, management entails planning, organizing, coordinating, monitoring and evaluation. A sales manager must be able to plan and also do research i.e. what the competitors are doing, how are the customers’ responses and so on. Financial organizations need to understand the roles of a sales manager since he is a key position in determining the sales volume and profitability of the firm. The main role of a sales manager is to design a sales force. The main components of a sales force are objectives, strategy, structure, size, and compensation. It is indisputable that customer objectives define what is to be achieved while strategy defines the way to achieve those objectives. Sales force structure explains how the sales team will be assigned tasks i.e. geographically, product line and so on. The size of the sales force should be determined with care since the larger the size the higher the costs. Costs should be minimized and profits maximized while still delivering quality to satisfy customer needs in a competitive way. an optimal sales force is therefore one that serves the customers adequately to generate target sales at minimal cost. The sales force also includes compensation. The manager should design a compensation scheme that will attract the best sales people who in return will generate sales. It is at the discretion of the manager to decide the best compensation strategy to adopt. Motivating Sales Personnel The importance of motivating sales personnel cannot be underestimated since it is motivation that gives them the morale and agility to do their work in an excellent way. Lack of motivation kills their morale resulting to poor performance that can make the firm close down. Sales is a very demanding job, at times , the sales people meet very rude clients while at times, they lose orders without any good reason hence need continuous motivation. Sales managers should devise remuneration and incentive scheme and this requires them to know motivational theories such as Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs and the two factor theory (Herzberg’s hygiene factors) (Watkins 150). Relationship Marketing Relationship marketing is one way in which organizations establish and sustain relationships with customers. According to Christopher, Payne and Ballantyne (76), the main purpose of businesses is to establish and maintain relationships that are mutually beneficial, with all market domains. In the financial sector, relationship marketing helps in winning and maintaining customer loyalty, establish a positive reputation and reduce customer defection. Relationship marketing focuses on various aspects such as; customer retention, emphasize on relationship as opposed to transactions, acknowledges good relationship with other stakeholders other than customers, and appreciates the importance of internal marketing in achieving external marketing. Financial organizations are required to identify the needs of their customers and develop products that will satisfy their customers. However, the profitability of each customer group is varied though all the customer groups are important in the financial sector. This poses a challenge since the financial services organization should strike a balance between the revenue generated and the efforts extended in generation of that revenue. According to Buttle (420), there are five requirements for successful relationship marketing namely: supportive culture, internal marketing, and understanding customer expectations, maintaining a sophisticated customer database and new organizational structures and reward schemes. Relationship marketing strategy has its pros and cons, some of the benefits include; improved customer retention, reduced marketing costs, improved customer loyalty and a better understanding of customer needs and wants. However, it might call for purchase of new equipment and systems, hiring of new employees with the necessary skills, training to the existing work force as well as time investment. Therefore, it is recommended that the organization should select and screen the target customers. Relationship life cycle The relationship life cycle comprises of four stages, the first stage being exploration where company factors such as strategy play an important role. Second is the build up stage, which calls for honesty and efforts from the salesperson to make the customer satisfied with the relationship and the products or service. Third is the maturity stage at which customer satisfaction is still positive though marginally reduced due to factors such as changing customer expectation. The last stage is the decline stage, at this point; either of the party may have contributed to the decline. However, the sales person can still mend the relationship by trying to change customer’s perspective or follow an orderly termination strategy. Importance of service quality It is the obligation of financial services organizations to provide quality customer service to their customers and ensure that all complaints are handled within the shortest time possible. If customer service is integrated with quality and marketing, it is possible to retain customers. Importance of building relationship with key market domains Christopher, Payne and Ballantyne (2002) identified the six markets framework that could help improve effectiveness of financial services organizations market which include internal markets, referral markets, customer markets, influential markets such as shareholders, recruitment markets and supplier markets. They emphasized that organizations should identify the importance and main participants of each market, know what they expect as well as their needs, and then focus on building strong relationships in each market. Segmenting markets by relationship marketing According to piercy (420), markets segmentation can be done based on customer relationship requirement. From his analysis, four categories of buyers may emerge as discussed below. Relationship seekers, they want to be close and establish a long-term relationship. Relationship exploiters are interested in having a close relationship and short-term transaction. The other category is the loyal buyers. These invest in long-term relationship but are not interested in being close to the supplier. The final category is arm’s length transaction customers who just want short-term transaction and are not interested in establishing a close relationship. It is therefore necessary to analyze the customers and determine those who are worth the relationship. Internal stakeholders Relationship marketing requires that financial marketers create and maintain a conducive environment. All employees should understand and support the idea and this can be achieved through motivation, incentives, and rewards being extended not only to the marketing department but also to other departments that put efforts to generate sales. Senior management should also be in support of relationship marketing philosophy while the marketing team should be well trained to equip them with the necessary skills. Conclusion Financial services organizations are faced with a challenge on how to generate sales, ensuring that they deliver quality service and satisfy customer needs. It is therefore important that they identify their customer needs and then come up with ways to satisfy them in an effective and efficient manner. They need to device the right channels to reach their customers, recruit sales people with the required skills and expertise, manage the selling activities and then establish and maintain relationships with all the market domains. Works Cited Buttle, Francis. Relationship marketing: theory and practice. London, Sage. 2007. Web. Christopher, Martin, Payne, Adrian and Ballantyne, David. Relationship marketing: creating shareholder value. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. 2002. 12 Web. Havaldar, Krishna K. and Cavale, Vasante M. Sales and Distribution Management. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill. 2006. Web. “Information commissioner’s office.” What is the Data Protection Act? 2010. Web. Lamb, Charles W., Hair, Joseph and MCDaniel, Carl. Essentials of Marketing. Florence KY, Cengage. 2008. Web. Peck, Helen et al. A. Relationship marketing: strategy and implementation. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. 1999. Web. Pezzullo, Mary and American Bankers Association. Marketing financial services. London, Kogan page publishers. 1998. Web.. Piercy, Nigel. Market-led strategic change: a guide to transforming the process of going to market. MA, Butterworth-Heinemann. 2002. Web. Sharma, Abhay. Management of Financial Institutions: With Emphasis on Bank and Risk Management. New Delhi, Learning Pvt Ltd. 2008. Web. Watkins. Michael. The first 90 days: critical success strategies for new leaders at all levels. New York. Harvard Business Press. 2003. Web.

Internal Environment and External Environment management

A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. For many people, this is their first step into a management career. Managers may direct workers directly or they may direct several supervisors who direct the workers. The manager must be familiar with the work of all the groups he/she supervises, but does not need to be the best in any or all of the areas. It is more important for the manager to know how to manage the workers than to know how to do their work well. A manager may have the power to hire or fire employees or to promote them. In larger companies, a manager may only recommends such action to the next level of management. The manager has the authority to change the work assignments of team members.!/editors-picks/ Responsibilities:- a) A manager should and must be proactive with verbal and written communicator skills, including good, active listening skills. b) A manager should take all the details of the project end to end and decide what work need to be done. Recruit, interview and hire the best people. c) Divide the work in modules and assign the work to team members and keep track of what everyone in the team is doing. Make sure the team gets their work done. An individual who works as manager has to face daily two types of Environment namely Internal Environment and External Environment. Under Internal Environment: Internal structure: A manager has to work in the internal structure of the organization.He cannot behave independently.he has to follow procedure code set by the Organization. Infra structure: A manager has to work under the Infrastructure given to him by the organization.He cannot misuse the resources allocated to him. Value system: A manager has to practise strong value system and behave impartial with all of his colleagues to maintain friendly relation. Timings: A manager has to be disciplined and punctual so that he can become role model not only for subordinates but also for organization. Nature of product : a manager had to perform tasks related to nature of product ,which is needed by the company. Organizational structure: A manager in an organization has to follow structure as designed by the company. He can only report to the immediate boss as designed in the organizational structure.He cannot over lead his immediate boss. Hirerachy: A manager in organization has to follow hirerachy so that there will be smooth functioning of the individuals,subordinates, Seniors Heads. If Hirerachy is not followed , relationship between top ,middle and supervisory management effects the growth of company. Department centralization: A manager who works in a centralized department cannot involve and interfear in other department. External Environment: Micro environment Macro environment Customer: A manager has toface various customers of the company.he has to stasify the needs as required by the customer. Social and cultural Environment: A manager has to follow the socialcustoms,beliefs and tradition inorder to maintain harmony among Individuals. Dealer: Manager has to face many dealers of the organization.he has to negiotate with them not only in price , and aslo in coordinating them to satisfy the customers. Technological Environment: A manager has to update Knowledge of Technology changes so that effective use of technology yield good results for the organization. Supplier: manager has to deal with suppliers who provide raw materials for manifacturing goods . Economic Environment: A manager has to act according to the economic conditions of organization. Banks: Manager has to make payments through banks to all dealers,suppliers. Political and Legal Environment: A manager has to face all political and Legal issue related to organization and also rules set by Government. Financial institution:manager has to deal with financial Institutions like LIC,Banks which finance organizations. International Environment: A manager has to observe FDI ‘s coming to the country and also observe MNC competitors for his organization inorder to maintain sustainbility Natural Environment: NATURAL disaster like earthquakes, TSUNAMI,Fire catching accidents hamper the growth of MNC economically. General role and responsibilites of Manager: According to Henry mintzberg study on nature of Managerial work ,he identified ten basic roles performed by managers and classified them under Interpersonal skills Informational skills Decisional skills Interpersonal roles are as follows A manager is a figure head. This role is necessary because of the position occupied. It consists of such duties as signing certain documents required by law and officially receiving visitors. A manager’s works as a leader that is hires, trains, encourages, remunerates, and Judges the subordinates. A manager serves as Liasion outside contacts such as the community, suppliers and others and organization. Informational roles found by Mintzberg include the following, 1) As Monitors, managers gather information inorder to be well informed 2) Managers are disseminators of information flowing from both external Internal sources. 3) Managers are spokes persons or representatives of the organization. They speak for subordinates to superiors and represent upper management to subordinates. The decisional roles are as Under Managers as Entrepreneurs are initiators, innovators, problem discoverers and designers of improvement project that direct and control change in the organization. As disturbance Handlers, managers react to situations that are Unexpected, such as mass absenteeism, resignation of subordinates or losing of customers. Managers are resource allocator. Managers are negotiators. At Times, this role can be partially delegated; however, managers assume it when conflicts arise. In addition managers in any organization work with eachother to establish the organization’s long range goals and to plan how to achieve them. They also work together to provide one another with accurate information need to perform tasks. Thus managers act as channel of communication within the organization. The brief description of these managerial roles and responsibilities shows that managers must “change hats” frequently and must be alert to the particular role needed at given time. The ability to recognise the appropriate role to be played and to change roles readily is a mark of an effective manager. five major challenges that we facing in terms of human resources and human resource management. Managing Knowledge Workers Essentially, here we are looking at different kind of people who does not obey the principles of management for the traditional group. This boils down to higher educational qualifications, taking up responsibilities at a lesser age and experience, high bargaining power due to the knowledge and skills in hand, high demand for the knowledge workers, and techno suaveness. The clear shift is seen in terms of organization career commitment to individualized career management. Managing this set of people is essential for the growth of any industry but especially the IT, BPOs and other knowledge based sectors. Managing Technological Challenges In every arena organizations are getting more and more technologically oriented. Though it is not in the main run after the initial debates, preparing the work force to accept technological changes is a major challenge. We have seen sectors like banking undergoing revolutionary changes enabled by technology. It is a huge challenge to bring in IT and other technology acceptance all levels in organizations. Competence of HR Managers As it is more and more accepted that lot of success of organizations depend on the human capital, this boils to recruiting the best, managing the best and retaining the best. Clearly HR managers have a role in this process. Often it is discussed about lack of competence of HR managers in understanding the business imperative. There is now a need to develop competent HR professionals who are sound in HR management practices with strong business knowledge. Developing Leadership It is quite interesting to note that there is less importance given to developing leadership at the organizational level. Though leadership is discussed on basis of traits and certain qualities, at an organisational level it is more based on knowledge. The challenge is to develop individuals who have performance potential on basis of past record and knowledge based expertise in to business leaders by imparting them with the necessary “soft skills”. Managing Change Business environment in India is volatile. There is boom in terms of opportunities brought forward by globalisation. However this is also leading to many interventions in terms of restructuring, turnaround, mergers, downsizing, etc. Research has clearly shown that the success of these interventions is heavily dependent on managing the people issues in the process. HR has a pivotal role to play here. MicroMax INFORMATICS LIMITED:- Our Company was incorporated as”Micromax Informatics PrivateL i m i t e d ” on March 29, 2000 in New Delhi, under the Companies Act, 1956, as amended (the “Companies Act”) with the Registrar of Companies, National Capital Territory of Delhi and Haryana( “RoC ” ). Subsequently, our Company became a public limited company pursuant to a shareholders‟ resolution dated June 26, 2000 and the name of our Company was changed to „Micromax Informatics Limited‟ pursuant to a fresh certificate of incorporation from the RoC on August 3, 2001. Registered Office: Block A, Plot No. 21/14 Naraina Industrial Area Phase II, New Delhi 110 028, India; Tel.: (91 11) 4979 0020; Fax: (91 11) 4979 0010; Corporate Office: #697, Udyog Vihar, Phase V, Gurgaon 122 015, Haryana, India;T e l . : (91 124) 400 9600;F a x: (91 124) 400 9603;W e b s ite : Role of HR manager with respect to Organization EMRI HR MANAGER The overall organisational manpower requirement and recruitment process is driven by the vacancy requisitions rather than a budgeted plan towards recruitment. The vacancies are raised based on the Organization growth plans. Critical vacancies are raised by HR Manager and are monitored by the HR recruitment personnel for Sanctioned and Non-Sanctioned vacancies. The Resource Request Form is raised by HR manager RESOURCE REQUEST FORM TO: Manager – HR DATE: ___________________________ FROM: DEPARTMENT: ___________________ JOB TITLE: REPORTING TO: NEED BY(DATE) CHECK ONE: FULL TIME PART TIME TEMPORARY NUMBER OF YEARS EXPERIENCE IN RELEVANT FIELD: EDUCATIONAL / TECHNICAL QUALIFICATIONS: __________________________________________________________________________________________ RESPONSIBILITIES INVOLVED: SIGNATURE Manager – HR DATE: DATE: _________________ Openings may arise within an organization when an employee resigns, retires or is involuntarily terminated. The staffing/ manpower need may require an additional regular monthly paid employee, an hourly paid employee, a part-time employee, or an independent contractor. HR department personnel The HR department checks if the vacancies for which Resource Request Formraised is sanctioned or unsanctioned. Sanctioned vacancies are vacancies which are budgeted during annual Manpower planning. If the vacancies for which Resource Request Form is raised are Sanctioned Vacancies, HR validates the Job description. In case Job Description doesn’t exist, it is developed. Resumes from Database Search, Employee Referral, Advertisement in Different media and from Recruitment agencies are matched against the requirement. And resumes are short listed. If the vacancies for which Resource Request Form raised are not sanctioned, HR sends it for CEO’s approval. Short listed candidates resumes are sent to HR MANAGER by HR department personnel. After the resumes are approved by HR MANAGER, the process is taken forward by HR personnel. HR manager Once the HR MANAGER approves the Resumes of the candidates. HR Interviews, Technical interviews and personal Interviews are conducted. HR interviews are conducted in person and also by phone. In the HR interview, communication Skills, Attitude, Willingness to work, current CTC are evaluated. Technical interviews are conducted by HR manager on relevant technical skills. Written Tests, preparation of PPT Presentation are also included in the same. Resumes of the candidates who clear all the rounds are sent to CEO by HR MANAGER for approval, based on the criticality or significance of the role. On approval from the CEO, Offer letter is given to the right candidate. After the candidate accepts the offer letter, Background check and medical check up for fitness is done. Once the candidates clear Back ground check and Medical Check up for fitness, Date of Joining is intimated. Candidate is sent for Induction after joining. In case candidate doesn’t accept the offer, review is done on rejection reasons by HR recruitment personnel and HR manager. After review, the revised offer can be made once again to the candidate or the process is terminated. Question.2(b) Management Organization Structure:- Micromax INFORMATICS LIMITED:- Our Company was incorporated as”Micromax Informatics PrivateL i m i t e d ” on March 29, 2000 in New Delhi, under the Companies Act, 1956, as amended (the “Companies Act”) Naraina Industrial Area Phase II, New Delhi 110 028, India; Tel.: (91 11) 4979 0020; Fax: (91 11) 4979 0010; Corporate Office: #697, Udyog Vihar, Phase V, Gurgaon 122 015, Haryana, India;T e l . : (91 124) 400 9600;F a x: (91 124) 400 9603;W e b s ite : (function() { var scribd = document.createElement(“script”); scribd.type = “text/javascript”; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = “”; var s = document.getElementsByTagName(“script”)[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() OF Top-level managers, or top managers, are also called senior management or executives. These individuals are at the top one or two levels in an organization, and hold titles such as: Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operational Officer (COO), Chief Information Officer (CIO), Chairperson of the Board, President, Vice president, Corporate head. Often, a set of these managers will constitute the top management team, which is composed of the CEO, the COO, and other department heads. Top-level managers make decisions affecting the entirety of the firm. Top managers do not direct the day-to-day activities of the firm; rather, they set goals for the organization and direct the company to achieve them. Top managers are ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization, and often, these managers have very visible jobs. Top managers in most organizations have a great deal of managerial experience and have moved up through the ranks of management within the company or in another firm. An exception to this is a top manager who is also an entrepreneur; such an individual may start a small company and manage it until it grows enough to support several levels of management. Many top managers possess an advanced degree, such as a Masters in Business Administration, but such a degree is not required. Some CEOs are hired in from other top management positions in other companies. Conversely, they may be promoted from within and groomed for top management with management development activities, coaching, and mentoring. They may be tagged for promotion through succession planning, which identifies high potential managers. 1.Anita Goel, Chief Financial Officer and Company Micromax 2. Rahul Sharma, is an Executive Director in Micromax 3. Sumeet Kumar, is the Chief Technical Officer in Micromax 4. Vikas Jain, is an Executive Director in Micromax Top-Level Managers Responsibilities: Basic supervision. Motivation. Career planning. Performance feedback Middle-level managers, or middle managers are those in the levels below top managers. Middle managers’ job titles include: General manager, Plant manager, Regional manager, and Divisional manager. Middle-level managers are responsible for carrying out the goals set by top management. They do so by setting goals for their departments and other business units. Middle managers can motivate and assist first-line managers to achieve business objectives. Middle managers may also communicate upward, by offering suggestions and feedback to top managers. Because middle managers are more involved in the day-to-day workings of a company, they may provide valuable information to top managers to help improve the organization’s bottom line. Jobs in middle management vary widely in terms of responsibility and salary. Depending on the size of the company and the number of middle-level managers in the firm, middle managers may supervise only a small group of employees, or they may manage very large groups, such as an entire business location. Middle managers may be employees who were promoted from first-level manager positions within the organization, or they may have been hired from outside the firm. Some middle managers may have aspirations to hold positions in top management in the future. Aditya Sheel, General Manager-Human Resources in Micromax Sudhir Gaur, National Sales Head in Micromax Pooja Verma, General Manager in Micromax Vikas Sahni, General Manager-Export Sales in Micromax Ritesh Arora, General Manager-Testing in Micromax Ashwani Kumar Dagar, General Manager-Retail

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