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Job Satisfaction and Motivation Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Hofstede’s Dimensions The Highest Level of Job Satisfaction Conclusion References Introduction Job satisfaction and motivation are highly important issues that contribute to the development of any country. However, these aspects depend on the specificity of a culture (Huang

Through the Eyes of Tim O’Brien Literature Study Essay (Critical Writing)

Through the Eyes of Tim O’Brien Literature Study Essay (Critical Writing). The book by Tim O’Brien is made up of short stories compiled in several chapters. The stories in this book are about the American war in Vietnam. The soldiers are seen to have gone through a lot during that time and Tim lives to tell the story (O’Brien 4). This paper will look at three short stories from the book and will look at three elements that are treated similarly in the stories. The elements that will be studied are the language used, the style and the effects that the stories have on the readers. The things they carried In this story, the author uses figurative language in order to bring some nebulous concepts to life and give it substance. This helps him express himself to the reader effectively. This is seen whereby O’ Brien describes some of the things that the soldiers carried. Some of the things carried by the soldiers were physical objects while others were not but the author describes them as if they were. He uses phrases to give them some physical attributes. Tim O’Brien talks about a group of soldiers who are matching through Vietnam and he describes the things each of them carried (O’Brien 13). O’Brien believed that the things that the soldiers carried were dependent of their personalities since each carried something different owing to the fact that each had set different priorities. Some people carried tangible items while others carried intangible ones. Those items were considered the basic needs of the particular soldier and they had to carry the things that would enable them to survive the hard times in Vietnam. Figurative speech is used in that the feelings such as rage, shame and grief are described as if they were tangible. The difference between the physical and the abstract items is that the abstract ones are not easily cast away. Someone cannot easily do away with them or forget about them. Many critics have praised this introduction and have seen it fit and insightful to the recurring characters in the book. When O’Brien gives a description of the tangible items, he bluntly talks about them and describes them the way they are. He does not give his feelings or sentiments about the particular items. For example, when he describes the items carried by the first lieutenant and army leader, he only gives straightforward descriptions of the items. He describes his weapon as a 45 (c) caliber pistol that weighed 2.9 pounds when fully loaded but he says nothing more about it. He does not show any attachment to it. He simply listed down the items if they were the physical ones. However, whenever he talked of the intangible ones, his writing was a lot more in tune with the feelings of the characters. O’Brien was emotionally attached to the feelings of those particular characters because he had experienced the challenges in Vietnam. He describes the emotional and physical burdens to have been amazingly heavy. This way he gives physical attributes to things that are not. As O’Brien describes the love that Jimmy had for Martha and as he described the things that went on when they were together, he talks more sentimentally and adds a lot of emotional weight to the reader. This difference in narrative style was necessary to show the emphasis to the intangible items that the soldiers carried (Charters 636). In the story, there is also the use of flashback. Jimmy flashes back at the events that occurred while he was with Martha. He cross-remembered touching her knee and describes Martha’s reaction as she turned and looked at him in a sad but sober way causing him to remove his hand. He then goes into the fantasy world and starts thinking of the things he would have rather done. The author uses flashback to show the difficulties that the soldiers were going through that made them think of life at the other side. Critics argue that the authenticity of a story is mostly based on the effects it has on the reader. This story has an effect on the reader since the style used in the story makes the reader realize that the greatest weight is not in the tangible items but the intangible ones. The author talks of the heavy things the men carried including the weapons, ammunition, (magazines) and describes the gravity of the situation especially that from the environment. However, he acknowledges that the greatest weight carried by the soldiers was nothing they could physically carry. The terror, love, and grief were the things that burdened them the most. The emotional burdens are said to bare the greatest weight since they are not tangible and therefore, cannot be gotten rid of or disposed. This means that the people would have to live with them. The physical items are easily discarded at will. The characters of the story tried to weigh down some of the emotional burdens by getting rid of the physical ones but this did not work so well. Spin In this story, the author also uses figurative language to compare different things. O’Brien gives a comparison of the war to other things in order to give the reader a better understanding of the situation in Vietnam. This is seen through the way O’Brien uses similes to describe war. He describes war and says that at times war was like a ping-pong ball. He says that one could put a fancy spin on it. He also uses personification since he says that one could make the war dance. He gives war the attribution of a human character. He uses this to dull the abstract notion of war, especially as a rhetorical feature. At some point in the story, the men are seen playing checkers. This gives them an assurance of some sense of order in the world because there is always a loser and a winner in every game. There is the use of flashback as a style in this story. The use of storytelling and memory by the author has led other critics to compare his work to those of Joseph Conrad and Marcel Proust. O’Brien flashes back on some of the effects of the war. He is disturbed by the thought of the death of some of his friends such as Kiowa. However, he explains that war was not such a bad thing after all. He remembers a time when they hired an old man from Vietnam to guide them through an area that had been infested with mines. There were mines everywhere but no one ever got hurt and that made them to love the old man. O’Brien tries to bring a good story from Vietnam and to prove that not everything was that bad. A soldier is described to have gone absent without leave and had a good time with a Red Cross nurse and when he goes back to war, he becomes even more ready to fight than previously. O’Brien remembers the fine details of the events during the war in Vietnam. He remembers the stories about Kiowa teaching the other soldiers how to dance the rain dance. He also flashes back at the story about Azar blowing up a puppy that belonged to Lavender. He believed that the past somehow linked to the future. He believed that they helped someone understand where he or she was going. O’Brien is unable to forget the finest of details from the days of the war. They appear all over in his writing and he is helpless to contain them. He acknowledges that the beautiful and ugly things that happened in Vietnam would remain in his memory forever and will be part of him. The effect this story has on the reader is that it acknowledges that some of the things that happen in life would be there to stay. Such things may not be easily erased or forgotten. Many bad things happen to people in life but on thinking about them, one might realize that they were not so bad after all. Some things happen for a reason and have some good effects in the end. The things that happen now have an effect on the things that are to happen in the future. Love In this chapter, there is also the use of flashback. The use of this technique by O’Brien has led critics to compare it with the Civil War stories told by Ambrose Bierce. Others have compared it with the classical stories of Homer. As Jimmy went to visit Tim some years after the war, they start talking about the war. They have a look at the photographs taken during that time and they discuss the events. Jimmy points out some of the ugly moments and swears never to forgive himself for the death of Lavender. Tim also shared the same sentiments about some things that he allowed to happen in Vietnam. After some drinks, they both become drunk and Tim surprises Jimmy. He asks him about Martha. Jimmy was caught off guard because he was surprised that Tim even remembered her. To share the memories, Jimmy goes to his room to get a framed picture of her. It was a picture taken in 1979 at a reunion. Martha was a Lutheran missionary then and practiced nursing. Jimmy remembered that she had never been married and she could not understand why. He fell in love with her and finally confessed his feelings towards her. When he did this, Martha simply shrugged him off. She did not love him back and this explains the dull look in her eyes whenever she looked at him. He got that picture from her when she gave him the picture and told him not to burn it. Critics have applauded O’Brien’s ability to memorize his wartime experiences and have considered the book his finest work of fiction. The story Jimmy was giving started turning emotional and personal so Tim avoided the topic for the rest of his visits. Jimmy then asked Tim to write a story about him and Martha. He thought that somehow this would change Martha’s mind. Tim promised that he would and that he would make him look good. He would do this by not mentioning some of the things that actually happened. Therefore, the reader cannot be sure about Jimmy’s character because if Tim actually decided to keep his promise and keep quiet about some things that happened in Vietnam, it would mean that there are certain things that we would not know about Jimmy. The reader would also not know if Tim broke the promise when he talked about Ted Lavender’s death. Therefore, there is the use of suspense since the reader can only speculate and imagine what could have happened. Conclusion The book by O’Brien is an interesting one and is properly written to tell the story in the best way possible. The author uses several styles throughout the story and this includes the incorporation of flashback to tell the things that occurred in Vietnam. Figurative language is also used in various occasions. The reader’s attention is captured by the captivating story and some lessons are also learnt. Works Cited Charters, Ann. The story and its writer. Boston: Bedford/St, 2011. Print. O’Brien, Tim. The things they carried. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1990. Print. O’Brien, Tim. “The Vietnam in me.” The New York Times, 1994: 4. Print. Kennedy, X.J. Giora, Dana. Literature- An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama and Writing. New York: Longman, 2010. Print. Through the Eyes of Tim O’Brien Literature Study Essay (Critical Writing)

Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada Essay

online homework help Introduction The initial contact of Europeans with North America can to a large extent be credited to the 15th century explorer, Christopher Columbus. He discovered the North American continent and reported his findings to the king and Queen of Spain. His depiction of the land as possessing many riches and habouring a timid people no doubt contributed to the enthusiasm with which future voyages to these lands were made. Over the course of the next four centuries beginning from the 15th century, many European nations were involved in widespread exploration of The North American continent. These expeditions resulted in significant changes in the local traditions as the new arrivals settled and traded with the natives. This new relationship between the North American natives and the Europeans led to an offsetting of the balance that had once existed among the people with far reaching consequences over the years. Brown and Sides note that this contact which began amicably as a trade relationship ended up with the destruction of the once powerful tribes of the Pequot, Narragansett, Mohicans and many other Native Northern American Tribes (1). Monumental changes occurred to the lives of the First nations of Canada as a result of their contact with Europeans. This paper shall set out to give a detailed description of the significant changes that arose as a result of this contact. This paper shall also investigate the means by which the traditions and cultures of the First Nations managed to survive despite the assault on them by the Europeans. The significance of a lack of writing traditions by the First Nations to the preservation of their history shall also be explored. It is hoped that this discussions shall lead to a greater understanding of the First Nations people and especially the significance of their encounter with the Europeans. First Nations Encounter with Europeans The Ojibway Historic Organization notes that the Ojibway and Lakota people are a part of a large linguistically related group of Native Americans and First Nation people who are collectively referred to as the “Algonquin” which loosely translates to “Family” (Ojibway Organization). These natives occupied the parts of Canada extending from Saskatchewan to Southern Ontario. The land was viewed by the First Nations as a gift form the Great Spirit and as such, the land belonged to every member of the tribe. The native inhabitants of the Northern American land came to be called “Indians” mostly as a result of the misclassification by the Spanish explorer, Christopher Columbus on his discovery of the New World. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first Europeans to venture into the land of the Ojibway were the French explorers and missionaries. Schell documents that the French explorers and missionaries were the only Europeans acquainted with the wild regions of North America as many considered the land too wild and dreary at all seasons to be made a permanent home by the civilized men (162). This explorers and missionaries sent home reports of the huge great lone land that they had encountered. Due emphasis was placed on the abundance of a great variety of fur-bearing animals such as the bear, wolf and lynx. The great rivers and lakes which formed a natural highway into the more remote parts of the continent also made it easy for the early explorers, missionaries and traders alike to venture deeper into the American Indians native land (Schell 163). Result of First Nations Contact with Europeans Increased trade was one of the major outcomes of the interaction between the First Nation and the Europeans. The native tribes of the far north were a peaceful people and they were friendly towards the white traders with home they cane into contact with. The commercial relationship that was proposed was accepted wholeheartedly since it was perceived to be advantageous to the First Nation. The primary good that was desired by the Europeans was fur and to this end, fur companies were established by the Europeans which operated throughout the vast territory of North America. Schell records that the Hudson’s Bay Company based in London and the North West Fur Company of Montreal were the first European agencies established to exploit the trading opportunities afforded by the American continent. The new trade relationship between the Europeans and the First Nation people led to a reliance on foreign commodities by the Natives. More time was therefore dedicated to the securing of fur and its subsequent preparation for the new trade. This led to an erosion of other activities such as pottery making, basket weaving and embroidery practices which had been an inherent part of life of the Ojibway and Lakota people (Ojebwe Organization) Inevitably, as the trade advanced, there arose a greater demand for the fur products by the Native tribes. On the other hand, the European traders who were made up of mostly French, Dutch and British nationals wished to have a greater share of the products from the Natives. The Europeans formed great companies to further their trade interests and ventured deeper into the Ojibway and Lakota people’s land as their sought trade commodities. The developing trade rivalries among the Europeans led to European groups allying themselves with different Indian groups so as to safeguard their business interests. We will write a custom Essay on Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Europeans pressured their business “allies” to venture into new hunting territories so as to provide a steady supply of fur. This led to war among tribes as they competed for the dwindling fur-bearing animals. The European allies not only encouraged these wars but they also equipped their native friends with weapons to given them an advantage in the confrontations. As has been stated in this paper, among the early European visitors were missionaries. As was the norm, the primary objective of the missionaries was to spread the white man’s religion, Christianity, to the heathen natives. In the pre-contact years, the Indians did not practice any one major religion as a people. However, this did not mean that the people were godless as they believed in a creator and had their creation stories. Owing to the perception of the Native Indians as heathens, the Europeans set out to convert them into their Christian faith. This was to be followed by an initiation into the ways of the Europeans which was considered to be civilized as opposed to the barbaric ways of the Natives. Missionaries engaged in the preaching of the gospel which resulted in the conversion of a significant number of the Native Americans (Schell 118). While conversion into Christianity did give the Natives some measure of dignity in the face of the Europeans, it did not lead to their being treated as equals as they were still exploited and their land taken over. From the very onset of the contact with the Europeans, the Natives of America were abducted and taken off to the lands of the Europeans as “specimen”. Columbus in his famous expeditions is said to have “kidnapped ten of his friendly Taino hosts and carried them off to Spain” (Brown and Sides 1). Here, it was hoped that the natives would be taught of the white man’s ways and especially his religion since they were observed to be a heathen tribe. While the initial contact with Europeans was a peaceful process, it gradually degenerated to untold violence as the Europeans demanded more from the First Nations. Of all the European nations that made contact with the First Nation, the Spaniards left an especially murderous legacy. The Spanish in their quest for gold and gems undertook indiscriminate raiding and plundering of the native’s villages. This led to the natives putting up fights for survival against the White man. Most of this fights turned out fatal for the First Nation as their weaponry was outmatched by the European guns. Brown and Sides suggest that the slow speed of communication between the Native tribes in North America was partly responsible for the ill effects of the encounter with Europeans since news of the barbarities of the Europeans did not reach other tribes from their neighbors’ in time (2). As a result of this lack of communication, thousands of villages were destroyed and villagers exterminated. Their sites of worship were plundered and burnt and the people enslaved. To give a feeling of the effect that the confrontation in battle between the Europeans and the Native Americans, Brown and Sides cite Tecumseh who laments: Not sure if you can write a paper on Result of the First Nations Contact with Europeans in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mohican, the Pokanoket, and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and the oppression of the White Man, as snow before a summer sun. (1) Slavery was one of the darkest realities of the European contact. While slavery was operational among the Native Indians in the pre-contact years, it became rampant after the arrival of Europeans. In the pre-contact era, Slaves were mostly made up of captives taken in attacks upon enemies whereby the captives were brought to the home villages and used as laborers. The Indian slave trade increased enormously with the European presence as Europeans undertook slave hunting expeditions or encouraged the Indians to raid their enemy tribes for captives. These captives would then be exchanged for goods such as whiskey, guns and clothes (Rodriguez 37). An increase in slavery had the effect of not only lowering the population of the Natives but also bringing about mistrust and fighting amongst natives, most of whom had coexisted peacefully before the contact with Europeans. This is because most tribes set out to arm themselves and later on conduct raids on their neighbors so as to sell them off to the Europeans. Despite the contact with Europeans leading to the raising of the standards of living for the North American natives in the initial years, this contact also led to large number of deaths due to diseases. These diseases were brought by the Europeans who surprisingly enough did not seem to succumb to the diseases as easily as the Natives did. As such, European infectious diseases such as measles, mumps and smallpox continued to take their toll on the Native Americans leading to large number of deaths (Francis 218). Thornton notes that: In any event, Native Americans lacked prior exposure to disease from Europe and Africa such as smallpox and measles which typically confer lifelong immunity on anyone who recovers from them. (21) It is theorized that these diseases were some of the factors that led to the relatively easy invasion of the First Nations by the Europeans since the disease led to a significant reduction of the Native population as well as the weakening of the spirit of the Natives leading to a resignation to their fate in the hands of the Europeans. Another feature that came about as a result of contact with the European is that the Aboriginal people of North America were deprived off their land. Oommen notes that the earliest settlers of the Northern America were gradually displaced from most of their ancestral territory and bundled off to reserves (95). The First Nations resented this and put up spirited fights to try and defend their land. However, their efforts did not succeed since the Europeans were better armed. In the end, the Natives were striped off citizenry to their land and it was not until the early 20th century, approximately 500 years after contact, that the Aboriginals were granted citizenship in Canada and the USA. Survival of the First Nations Traditions and Culture In the pre-contact years, the First Nation people lived in relative isolation from one another over the great stretch of the land. Numerous bands undertook independent hunting expeditions and fishing trips since the land was peaceful. However, as a result of contact with the Europeans, large groups of Indian people grouped together and formed unions so as so strengthen their positions. In 1579, the Ojibway and Dokata people made an alliance so as to strengthen their position against the other Eastern tribes which were becoming powerful as a result of the guns and knives obtained from their trade with the Europeans. This change in the communal structure aided the survival of the First Nation and therefore the survival of their traditions and cultures which they continued to practice through the years. Another factor that has contributed to the preservation of the culture of the Ojibway and Lakota is the spirit of oneness that is engendered by the Aboriginal people. This view is best articulated by Thornton who suggests that “kinship might even be the essence of individual identity for Native Americans” (134). This kinship which places great emphasis on family and community is the bound that has held the Native Americans together through the years of turmoil in the hands of the Europeans. The First Nation tribes were kin to preserve their traditional ways of life even as the Europeans sought to convert them into their alleged civilized ways of life. The role that oral history and tradition has played in the preservation of the traditions and culture of the First Nations cannot be overstated. Since the First nation lacked the means to record their history, it is plausible that their culture and tradition would have been completely lost as they were uprooted from their Native homelands by the Europeans and forced to abandon their ways for the ways of the white man. However, despite these occurrences, the Natives continued to pass on the stories of their traditions to their children through generations. Crowshoe and Eagle who are modern day Native Americans confirm the power of oral tradition in preserving their culture by stating that “as we listen to our stories, speak our language, sing our songs, and participate in our traditional societies, we gain insight and extract the understanding we need to live well and keep our ways alive”. (Four Directions Teachings) Effects of Lack of Written Traditions by the First Nations The First Nations who form the Aboriginal groups within North America did not have a symbolic system of writing up until recent centuries. This implies that they had no method of documenting and preserving their own cultural history. The history of the Ojibway and Lakota was contained in their oral and traditional history. Oral history is made up of stories of significant events such as migration, wars and epidemics while oral tradition represents folklore that makes reference to legends, myths and stories held sacred by a people. Wilson notes that the Ojibway and Lakota history was contained both in the oral history and oral tradition (27). She further expounds that there was a clear understanding among the people of what passes for folklore and what was considered a historic truth. As a result of the lack of symbolic writing system by the First Nations, most of what is learned today about this people has been written by anthropologists. The lack of a written history by the First Nations has affected the level of knowledge that exists today. This is because most of the accounts given about the First Nations were from outsiders who did not understand the culture of the people and normally took events out of context or viewed them with bias. For example, there exist scattered references in historical records on the role of women in the Ojibway economy. Nichols notes that due to the frequency with which women engaged in hard and heavy work, some observes began to fashion an image of the Ojibway woman as a burden bearer and in essence a slave to men who were engaged in hunting, chiefhood and other flamboyant roles (30). While the assertions about the economic role of the women of the First Nations was right, the historical recording greatly distorts the status of women in the traditional culture. This was because the writer’s ideal of women stemmed from the privileged classes of Europe who were frail dependent people in need of male protection. Comparison between the content of this course and the Elder’s teachings The Four Direction Teachings is a website that is dedicated to the celebration of “indigenous oral traditions by honoring the process of listening with intent as each elder shares a teaching from their perspective” (Four Directions Teachings). This website places great emphasis on the oral traditions of the Aboriginals and tries to emulate the manner in which information was passed by the First nation. This course on Native-American Studies on the other hand places a greater emphasis on the work of anthropologists and historians who have documented the history of the Aboriginal people through the centuries. Owing to the differing bias between the teachings at the fourdirectionsteachings.com website and this course, there are similarities as well as differences from the content of the two. The Four Directions Teachings demonstrated that the Ojibway and Lakota people had an instructional approach for teaching their children through storytelling which encompassed methods of observation and direct involvement (Wilson 27). This is evident from the manner in which the narrator personalizes the story by using terms like “I’ve been told ever since I was a young girl by my parents…” (Four Directions Teachings).The stories would therefore be expected to have differing versions depending on the teller. This is in contrast to the contents of this course which have been written in an objective manner. There is no personalization of events as each is told in a clearly objective manner. Another significant difference arises from the reasons that the teachings were given by the Aboriginal people. From the content of the stories, it is clear that a major role of the narratives was to enable people to attain and retain a good moral value that would then be passed on to subsequent generations. This is contrary to the contents of this course which are not aimed at propagating any moral teachings. Contrary to this, the contents of this course are aimed at providing a historically accurate depiction of the First Nations and their way of life. As such, the content of this course are devoid of any moral overtones that are the major characteristic of the stories that are present in the teachings of the elder’s website. For all their differences, there exist similarities between the elder’s teachings and this course’s contents. The fact that the Native Indians were a peaceful people who believed in the equality of all people and the spirit of brotherhood is a concept that is shared by both the content of this course and the Four Directions Teachings. This is contrasted with the European’s philosophy which emphasized the dominion of the white man over the world. As such, both sources record how the Indians welcomed the Europeans with hospitality as they would their own brothers. Conclusion This paper set out to give a detailed account of what resulted from the First Nations of Canada’s contact with the European. The paper began by giving a brief overview of the First nation tribes so as to shed light to their ways of life in the pre-contact years. From the discussions presented herein, it is clear that the immediate result of contact between the Europeans and the First Nations was increased trade activities which resulted in abandoning of the First Nations previous ways of lives. However, it has been demonstrated that the results of this contact were mostly negative to the First Nations who not only lost their land but were also sold into slavery and exposed to diseases which led to the rapid decrease in their population. As a result of lack of a writing tradition by the Natives, the paper has highlighted how the history of their traditions has at times been misrepresented as a result of ignorance by the European historians. Despite the great atrocities that the Native Indians were subjected to, this paper has discussed the means by which the First Nations people were able to preserve their culture and tradition to the present times. Today, these traditions and cultural ways remain unknown to most of the descendants of the great Native tribes of North America. However, their preservation has meant that the history of this people will never disappear as it would have if the Natives had failed to ensure its survival in the earlier years. While it cannot be disputed that most of the contact with the Europeans led to great wrongs against the First Nation, it was this interaction that led to the formation of the formation of the great North American nations of Canada and the USA. Works Cited Brown Dee and Sides Hampton. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: The Illustrated Edition: An Indian History of the American West. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2009. Four Directions Teachings. Aboriginal Online Teaching and Resource Center. 2006. Web. http://fourdirectionsteachings.com/transcripts.html Francis, R. et al. Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning, 2009. Nicholas, Rogers. The American Indian: past and present. VNR AG, 1986. Ojebwe Organization. More Ojibwe History. 2010. Web. http://www.ojibwe.org/home/pdf/More_Ojibwe_History_Summary.pdf Oommen, T. Citizenship, Nationality, and Ethnicity: Reconciling Competing Identities. Wiley-Blackwell, 1997. Schell, J. In the Ojibway Country: A Story of Early Missions on the Minnesota Frontier. Read Books, 2008. Thornton, Russell. Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1998. Wilson, W. Remember This! Dakota Decolonization and the Eli Taylor Narratives. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.

management Information system, I attached the file.

management Information system, I attached the file.. I need help with a Management question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Part 1: Goal Seek
The purpose of this project is to practice and apply what you have learned about using the Goal Seek tool in Excel. In this project, you will create a spreadsheet to help determine what score you need to earn on a final exam or project to get the desired letter grade in one of your classes. Please read the instructions carefully because you will have to customize your worksheet to fit your own needs and the class you choose.
Requirements:
Open a new Excel workbook. Use “GoalSeek” for the name of the spreadsheet—you will add additional spreadsheets to this workbook in parts 2 and 3.
Choose any one of your current classes and create a spreadsheet that includes at least the following headings: Category, Points Possible, Estimated Percentage, Estimated Points. You are free to include any additional headings that are useful to you.
Under Category, list the categories of the major components (assignments, quizzes, projects, exams, etc.) that make up your grade for that class. You don’t need to list the individual items in that category, just list the category (i.e., use “Quizzes” instead of “Quiz 1”, “Quiz 2”, etc.). However, list the final exam or final project separately from your other exams, as shown in the example screenshot. (If you don’t have any exams in the class, use the final project or whatever major graded activity that falls near the end of the semester.)
Under Points Possible, enter the total number of possible points for each category. (If you have ten quizzes in the class and each quiz is worth 10 points, the points possible for quizzes is 100.) When you get to the final exam or project, list the possible points for that one exam or that one project and be sure to exclude those points from the general exams category.
Under Estimated Percentage, enter your best guess for the percentage of points you think you will earn for each category. If you think you will average 80% on the quizzes or the other exams, enter in 80% for that category.Do this for all the categories in your spreadsheet.
Use a formula to calculate the estimated points using the points possible and the estimated percentage. Do this for all the categories in your spreadsheet.
In the three rows immediately below the last grade category in your spreadsheet, enter three labels: Total Points, Points Possible, and Percent Score. In the column directly to the right of those labels, use formulas or enter the total estimated points, the actual points possible for the class, and the percentage score (Total Points/Points Possible) based on your estimated points for the categories. The screenshot below shows a partial version of the table you are creating. Yours should not be exactly like this, but it should have at least the headings and labels as shown.
Use the Goal Seek tool to determine the percent score that you need to get on the final exam or project to get an A (90%) in the class. In a cell beneath the table you just created, record what score you need to get on the final exam to earn an A in the class and also comment on whether you think it is likely you will achieve that.
Use the Goal Seek tool again to determine the percent score that you need to get on the final exam or project to get a B (80%) in the class. In a cell beneath your first comment, record what score you need to get on the final exam to earn an B in the class and also comment on whether you think it is likely you will achieve that.
Save your progress and proceed to Part 2.
Part 2: Solver
The purpose of this part of the project is to practice and apply what you have learned about the Solver tool. You will use Solver to determine an optimal combination and number of products to produce to maximize profit.
Requirements:
Add a new spreadsheet into your project 4 workbook and name it “Solver”.
Enter in the labels and numbers as shown in the following screenshot. This table shows the profit and requirements for three different products. Each product requires a certain number of hours and materials. The company only has so many resources available, so the solution has to fit within what is available.
Cells F5, F6, and G8 use functions or formulas. All other numbers should be entered in exactly as shown in the screenshot.
Cell F5 holds the calculation for the total number of hours used, based on the production size for each product. This is calculated by taking the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 1, added to the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 2, added to the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 3. The easiest way to calculate this is to use the SUMPRODUCT function for the hours cells and the production size cells. (Look up the SUMPRODUCT function on Google if you need help figuring out how to use it.)
Cell F6 holds the calculation for the total number of materials used, based on the production size for each product. Use the SUMPRODUCT function to calculate this value similar to what you did with hours.
Cell G8 is the total profit. It is calculated using a formula that takes the sum of the product profits multiplied by the production sizes. Use SUMPRODUCT for this cell as well.
Use the Solver tool to determine the optimal mix and number of products to produce.
Your goal is to maximize total profit.
You achieve this by allowing Solver to change to production sizes for all the products.
You must implement the following bounds and constraints:
You cannot use more resources than you have available.
The minimum production size for each product is 5.
The production size must be in whole numbers or integers—no partially products produced.
After you have successfully used Solver to maximize total profit, save your spreadsheet in that state without changing the numbers or your Solver settings. The optimal total profit should be around $6,700.
Save your progress and proceed to Part 3.
Part 3: Data Tables
The purpose of this part of the project is for you to practice and apply what you have learned about data tables. You will create two different data tables that show how loan interest rates and terms affect your total and monthly payments.
Requirements:
Add a new spreadsheet to your existing project 4 workbook and name it “DataTables”.
Copy a mortgage table from a previous example or project or create a new one. Your table should be similar to the one in the screenshot below. Be sure to use $300,000 for the home price, a 20% down payment amount, a 3.5% interest rate, and a 30 year loan.
To the right of the mortgage table, create a one-variable data table using the Data Table tool that shows the monthly payments and total amounts paid for the range of interest rates between 3.250% and 4.000%. Your completed data table should match the one below. You must use the Data Table tool; do not simply manually enter the numbers into the table.
Below your first data table, create a second data table. This should be a two-variable data table that shows how the number of years determines the total amounts paid for the loan for the interest rates between 3.250% and 4.000%. You must use the Data Table tool, and your completed table should match the one below.
Save your progress and workbook.Part 1: Goal Seek
The purpose of this project is to practice and apply what you have learned about using the Goal Seek tool in Excel. In this project, you will create a spreadsheet to help determine what score you need to earn on a final exam or project to get the desired letter grade in one of your classes. Please read the instructions carefully because you will have to customize your worksheet to fit your own needs and the class you choose.
Requirements:
1. Open a new Excel workbook. Use “GoalSeek” for the name of the spreadsheet—you will add additional spreadsheets to this workbook in parts 2 and 3.
2. Choose any one of your current classes and create a spreadsheet that includes at least the following headings: Category, Points Possible, Estimated Percentage, Estimated Points. You are free to include any additional headings that are useful to you.
3. Under Category, list the categories of the major components (assignments, quizzes, projects, exams, etc.) that make up your grade for that class. You don’t need to list the individual items in that category, just list the category (i.e., use “Quizzes” instead of “Quiz 1”, “Quiz 2”, etc.). However, list the final exam or final project separately from your other exams, as shown in the example screenshot. (If you don’t have any exams in the class, use the final project or whatever major graded activity that falls near the end of the semester.)
4. Under Points Possible, enter the total number of possible points for each category. (If you have ten quizzes in the class and each quiz is worth 10 points, the points possible for quizzes is 100.) When you get to the final exam or project, list the possible points for that one exam or that one project and be sure to exclude those points from the general exams category.
5. Under Estimated Percentage, enter your best guess for the percentage of points you think you will earn for each category. If you think you will average 80% on the quizzes or the other exams, enter in 80% for that category. Do this for all the categories in your spreadsheet.
6. Use a formula to calculate the estimated points using the points possible and the estimated percentage. Do this for all the categories in your spreadsheet.
7. In the three rows immediately below the last grade category in your spreadsheet, enter three labels: Total Points, Points Possible, and Percent Score. In the column directly to the right of those labels, use formulas or enter the total estimated points, the actual points possible for the class, and the percentage score (Total Points/Points Possible) based on your estimated points for the categories. The screenshot below shows a partial version of the table you are creating. Yours should not be exactly like this, but it should have at least the headings and labels as shown.
8. Use the Goal Seek tool to determine the percent score that you need to get on the final exam or project to get an A (90%) in the class. In a cell beneath the table you just created, record what score you need to get on the final exam to earn an A in the class and also comment on whether you think it is likely you will achieve that.
9. Use the Goal Seek tool again to determine the percent score that you need to get on the final exam or project to get a B (80%) in the class. In a cell beneath your first comment, record what score you need to get on the final exam to earn an B in the class and also comment on whether you think it is likely you will achieve that.
Save your progress and proceed to Part 2.
Part 2: Solver
The purpose of this part of the project is to practice and apply what you have learned about the Solver tool. You will use Solver to determine an optimal combination and number of products to produce to maximize profit.
Requirements:
1. Add a new spreadsheet into your project 4 workbook and name it “Solver”.
2. Enter in the labels and numbers as shown in the following screenshot. This table shows the profit and requirements for three different products. Each product requires a certain number of hours and materials. The company only has so many resources available, so the solution has to fit within what is available.
3. Cells F5, F6, and G8 use functions or formulas. All other numbers should be entered in exactly as shown in the screenshot.
A. Cell F5 holds the calculation for the total number of hours used, based on the production size for each product. This is calculated by taking the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 1, added to the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 2, added to the hours required multiplied by the production size for Product 3. The easiest way to calculate this is to use the SUMPRODUCT function for the hours cells and the production size cells. (Look up the SUMPRODUCT function on Google if you need help figuring out how to use it.)
B. Cell F6 holds the calculation for the total number of materials used, based on the production size for each product. Use the SUMPRODUCT function to calculate this value similar to what you did with hours.
C. Cell G8 is the total profit. It is calculated using a formula that takes the sum of the product profits multiplied by the production sizes. Use SUMPRODUCT for this cell as well.
4. Use the Solver tool to determine the optimal mix and number of products to produce.
A. Your goal is to maximize total profit.
B. You achieve this by allowing Solver to change to production sizes for all the products.
C. You must implement the following bounds and constraints:
1. You cannot use more resources than you have available.
2. The minimum production size for each product is 5.
3. The production size must be in whole numbers or integers—no partially products produced.
5. After you have successfully used Solver to maximize total profit, save your spreadsheet in that state without changing the numbers or your Solver settings. The optimal total profit should be around $6,700.
Save your progress and proceed to Part 3.
Part 3: Data Tables (10 points)
The purpose of this part of the project is for you to practice and apply what you have learned about data tables. You will create two different data tables that show how loan interest rates and terms affect your total and monthly payments.
Requirements:
1. Add a new spreadsheet to your existing project 4 workbook and name it “DataTables”.
2. Copy a mortgage table from a previous example or project or create a new one. Your table should be similar to the one in the screenshot below. Be sure to use $300,000 for the home price, a 20% down payment amount, a 3.5% interest rate, and a 30 year loan.
3. To the right of the mortgage table, create a one-variable data table using the Data Table tool that shows the monthly payments and total amounts paid for the range of interest rates between 3.250% and 4.000%. Your completed data table should match the one below. You must use the Data Table tool; do not simply manually enter the numbers into the table.
4. Below your first data table, create a second data table. This should be a two-variable data table that shows how the number of years determines the total amounts paid for the loan for the interest rates between 3.250% and 4.000%. You must use the Data Table tool, and your completed table should match the one below.
5. Save your progress and workbook.
management Information system, I attached the file.

Congressional Ethics and Third-Party Candidates Research Paper

Table of Contents Congressional Ethics Third-Party Candidates Federal and State Authority References Congressional Ethics Congressman Charles Rangel was representing New York in the House of Representatives for over 40 years. After published reports of receiving rent-stabilized apartments below market value from a real estate magnate, Rangel asked the Office of Congressional Ethics to investigate the issue. Further charges were made against Rangel providing evidence of failure to pay income tax, mention income on financial declarations, using Congressional resources to solicit donations. A major corruption accusation stated that Rangel supported tax loopholes worth hundreds of millions of dollars for an oil company that chose to donate to his education foundation. Congressman Rangel was found guilty of 11 ethical violations that involved financial matters and were sentenced to Congressional censure (Gordon, 2013). The concept of Congressional censure is considered a serious matter. It is a formal declaration of condemnation by the legislative body. However, no direct consequences or disqualifications are resulting from this punishment. It simply remains a political ignominy that does not necessarily impact the political career. Usually, the condemnation results in pressure to resign from leadership positions and committees (Maskell, 2013). The only financial penalty required Rangel to repay the income taxes that he avoided, without any additional fines. Throughout the investigation, he faced political pressure to resign from a highly coveted position at the Ways and Means Committee (Gordon, 2013). These punishments were justified, but were disproportionate to the damage that Rangel caused, both financially and ethically to the Congress of the United States. At the time, the Congressional Ethics Committee had just undergone reform, and many Americans expected justice. However, the system failed to adequately punish an act that was unethical at the very least and considered borderline criminal. Charles Rangel remained in office, continuing his career and being re-elected for the next term before retiring. The use of Congressional resources and political capital for personal ambitions is not uncommon becoming a part of the quid quo pro culture in the government (Menzel, 2013). Despite the seriousness given to Congressional censure, there are essentially no concrete consequences that give the impression that the system protects the political establishment. Third-Party Candidates Third-party or independent candidates fail to succeed in presidential elections in the United States. Despite some election cycles attracting a respectable social following of these candidates, the current system makes it nearly impossible to get elected outside the two primary political parties. The primary reason is the existence of the electoral college during the voting which creates barriers to external candidates. The plurality-based electoral college rewards all the votes of a district to the candidate who reached the slightest majority in the popular vote. This creates a paradox known as Duverger’s law which causes voters to consider casting ballots for one of the two major parties, knowing that a third-party candidate cannot win. Therefore, it is in the best interest of a voter to select a party capable of winning that might accurately represent them. Also, third-party candidates face tremendous financial and logistical challenges to run campaigns. One needs a vast number of signatures to qualify for a place on the ballot and federal campaign funding. The costs of running modern political campaigns are tremendous and independent candidates lack the funding of super-PACs and established political institutions. Furthermore, if the third-party can qualify, they are faced with a shortage of administrative and political staff which would be necessary to run any level of government and fill legislative seats (Hershey, 2017). Federal and State Authority Illegal immigration into the United States is a complex and controversial issue that has been part of the public discussion and legislative agenda. The country has a historical foundation in immigration and prides itself on the cultural and ethnic diversity of the population. However, illegal immigration is a national problem that is politically and ideologically sensitive, causing a confrontation between supporters of diversity and those fearful of losing the national identity. Several socio-economic and security concerns further exacerbate the issue as there is research supporting both sides of the argument (Payan, 2016). Overall, it is evident that there is no clear policy or solution on how to address illegal immigration which results in an intergovernmental approach between state and federal governments. Various levels of government play a different role in addressing illegal immigration. The federal government is responsible for maintaining border security which ensures that illegal immigration does not occur. That task is difficult due to the sheer size of the border, so the government focuses on tracking down those with criminal intentions. The federal agencies are responsible for all citizenship and immigration processes, including registering and documenting any arrivals into the United States. It is their responsibility to overlook national interests regarding immigration statistics, refugee status, and provide funding for maintaining the logistics and security of the process. Meanwhile, states are directly impacted by the effects of immigration causing their governments to focus on more practical solutions. States implement various programs that aid immigrants and provide shelter, health care, and education to families. States are forced to provide for immigrants the resources made available for its citizens without the compensation of taxes. The federal government enforces the U.S. Constitution which does not directly address immigration. Courts must base their judgment on a loose framework that protects citizens and human rights. Numerous laws have been passed regarding immigration on all levels of government. However, there may be disagreement as federal courts find state laws unconstitutional. Meanwhile, localities may choose to challenge federally mandated programs as a violation of the state’s rights (Shafritz, Russell,

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