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The parents of Millie and Jerry had both been slaves. During the early 1 ass’s, slavery had only been replaced by sharecropping. African Americans were free only in theory. Jerry worked hard as a farmer and ended up abandoning his family six months after his final son was born.

Jackie Robinson was the fifth of five children born in Cairo on January 31, 1919. When Jackie was one year old, the Robinson family relocated to California in hope of a better life (Stout & Johnson 13-27). The Robinsons lived in an all white neighborhood. As expected, a great deal f segregation was directed towards the African American family.Caucasian families of that Pepper Street neighborhood even attempted to buy out the Robinsons. Before entering school, Jackie was diagnosed with diphtheria and nearly died. After recovering, Jackie became obsessed with sports and was able to stand out from other students.

Being much more athletic, white students often bribed Jackie to be on their team. Sports allowed Jackie to feel a small amount of equality. Unfortunately, when the competitions ended, so did Robinsons equal opportunity (Stout & Johnson 31-34). Throughout high school, Jackie excelled in four sports: Football, basketball, baseball and track.Because of his athletic ability, Robinson received an athletic scholarship to attend The University of California at Los Angels. While at CALL, Robinson still participated in all four sports. Surprisingly, Jackie struggled in baseball.

He had a dismal . 097 batting average his first year in Los Angels. Nevertheless, Robinson was the first athlete at UCLA to letter in four sports. Before graduating from UCLA, Jackie Robinson dropped out of college, a very curious decision. According to his autobiographies, “l left cause I was convinced no amount of education would help a black man get a job.. Could see no future in college or athletics” (Stout & Johnson 56).

For a short time, it appeared as if Robinson had given up hope of making an impact for African Americans. After dropping out of college, Robinson was drafted by the Army and assigned to a segregated unit. He faced extreme racism while being a soldier. Standing up to racism led to his transversal south to Fort Hood, Texas. Most soldiers stationed in Fort Hood went directly overseas. While in Texas, Robinson created a battalion baseball team, a decision that allowed him to regain his baseball skills.On July 6, 1944 Robinson made a decision to stand up against segregation and ended up paying a price of it (Stout and Johnson 62).

During the 1 ass’s, African Americans were required to sit in the back of military buses. Blacks were also mandated to give up their seat to a white person if a bus became crowded. On that day in July, Jackie made the decision to sit in the middle of the bus. The driver immediately stopped the bus and ordered Jackie Robinson to give up his seat move to the back. By acting similarly to Rosa parks, Jackie was arrested and facing legal harass.His military career was ruined. On November 28, 1944, Jackie Robinson was honorably relieved from active duty.

The “Black Press” played a big part in publicizing Robinsons story. He became a symbol of hope for many African American people (Remaindered 29). After being dismissed from the Army, Robinson needed some type of job. Not surprisingly, the Negro Baseball League attracted Jackie. He verbally committed to a contract with the Kansas City Monarchs for $400 a month (Doris & Wormwood 102). At a time when the Negro Leagues were at its weakest, Robinson shined wrought the season.He racked up totals in hits, stolen bases, but struggled in the field.

It was obvious that he had spent time away from the game. Nonetheless, Robinson earned a meeting with the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickety (Reappears 43). The meeting began with Rickety questioning Jackie Robinson about his background. History tells, though, that Rickety had already investigated Jackie and knew the answer to each question. Suddenly, Rickety began insulting Robinson by shouting out racial slurs. Confused, Jackie asked, “Mr..

Rickety, what do you want? Do you ant a ballplayer who is afraid to fight back? Rickety responded, “l want a ballplayer with the guts enough not to fight back. ” (Doris and Wormwood 138). These two quotes make up the most famous moment of the first exchange between Robinson and Rickety. The Dodgers owner then made Jackie Robinson an offer of $600 a week to play for the Montreal Royals (Stout & Johnson The Royals were the Brooklyn Dodger’s Triple A affiliate team. Robinson wasn’t even guaranteed a spot on the roster. During spring training, Robinson struggled. He made errors in the field, struggled at the plate, and he other players felt as if Jackie was receiving special treatment.

Speed was the only thing Robinson was able to display, and it is a big reason why he made the team. Robinson made improvements throughout the season but faced extreme hardships. Many times Jackie wasn’t able to stay at the team’s hotel. The Royals had to cancel a trip to Texas because the teams refused to play the Royals, and Southern crowds booed and heckled Robinson with every opportunity they got. Through the difficulties, Robinson was able to have a very successful season. He finished with a . 349 batting average, 40 towel bases, and the Most Valuable Player award.

With Robinsons great achievement in Montreal, promotion to the Big Leagues was inevitable (Widower 54). On April 11, 1947, the color barrier Of the ML was finally broken by Jackie Robinson, something that had never been done. The African American ballplayer went hitless in his debut, but the day remains historic. Mixed emotions greeted Robinson throughout the season. Dodger fans loved number 42, but southern crowds continued to treat him with extreme cruelty. Some of his teammates even threatened to quit rather than to be on the name team as a black man. Branch Rickety did a great job standing by Robinson.

He threatened to trade the players if they refused to play (Toggle 1 10). Somehow, Robinson wasn’t named to the National League All Star team during his rookie season. He led the Dodgers to the National League Pennant but couldn’t lead the squad past the New York Yankees. The 1947 Dodgers blew away the expectations put on them and overcome a large amount of distractions. They were able to take the Yankees to seven games, something that hadn’t been done in twenty one years. Amazingly, Robinson won the Rookie of the Year award. He was able to succeed against all odds (Widower 77).

Even after his success in the 1947 season, “l was a black man in a white world. Never had it made (Stout & Johnson 125). Jackie continued to gather large crowds, inspire young children, and shatter barriers. In 1948, Robinson was voted the National League MAP. He was named to the All-Star team for six consecutive years, 1949-1954. Many began to view him as one of the best players to ever play the game. After 8 years of being in the Major Leagues, Robinson and the Dodgers finally won the World Series.

Number 42 retired two years later. Robinson lived the rest of his life spending time with his wife and son.Jackass’s health slowly deteriorated throughout the years. His years playing baseball as a black man took a toll on him. Jackie Junior’s death in 1971 also had a severe impact on Jackie Sir. On October 24, 1971, the man who changed baseball collapsed in his home. He was pronounced dead on his way to the hospital (Widower 103).

Every year, Major League Baseball honors Robinson on Jackie Robinson Day. Each player in professional baseball wears number forty two on April 15th. Recently, Marino Riviera was the final layer to ever wear Robinsons Old number.

Insert surname1 Professor’s name Student’s name Course title Date Possible shortcomings of

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Possible shortcomings of primary leadership and systemic issues

Leadership and learning don’t have to be difficult. In fact, for them to work they should be simple. When every individual focuses on the same goals, vision and has a clear picture of what those are, that is when leadership and business success is achieved. However recognizing traits and skills that good leadership share is a priority for any management to thrive. Familiarizing with good leadership qualities and traits helps to identify weaknesses and develop strong management and leadership style (Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs & Fleishman, 2000).

Successful primary leaders possess passion for the work they do, strong and effective communication style, show commitment to their staff and they are quick, analytical and committed in making their decisions. Public health leadership possesses its own challenges. Lack of emotional intelligence; it’s very essential for a leader to possess emotional intelligence traits, being self aware, able to regulate and have social awareness and regulations. Leading and managing change effectively; it’s a fairly global challenge where up to 70% of all change efforts fail. Developing leadership skills and confidence within health sector related organizations can be a challenge.

Real leadership makes great demands on individuals. Primary leaders are responsible for their group’s vision and mission, to uphold standards and being the group representative to the rest of the world as well as protecting the entire organization (Topol, 2014).

Strategies for improving leadership using systems thinking approach

Effective leadership in the health sector services must continually ensure that safety, high quality and compassionate care is the top priority in the health organization. The voice of patients must be heard consistently at each and every level. Patient needs concerns, experiences and feedbacks whether positive or negative must be attended to without delays and with consistency.

Systematic thinking approach may be used as a strategy to improve leadership in any healthcare organization. It’s not enough to develop managers to become leaders and leave them to work on what to apply. Leadership must be treated as an important organization resource and managing it, it means, improving leadership culture, dynamics and relevant systems, identifying what are organization’s enablers of leadership, what are the obstacles and ways of removing them, and targeting the improvement action in both leadership development and its applied practices (Nahavandi, 2014).

Work cited

Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., Jacobs, T. O., & Fleishman, E. A. (2000). Leadership skills for a changing world: Solving complex social problems. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 11–35. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Nahavandi, A. (2014). The art and science of leadership (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. 

Topol, E.J. (2004). Failing the public health—Rofecoxib, Merck, and the FDA. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351(17), 1707–1709. 

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.