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IT120 Cybersecurity Principles

IT120 Cybersecurity Principles.

Malware has been around for a long time. You are asked to investigate a particular malware and answering the following questions (in complete sentences) based on Internet research: Backoff malware What is the common name and any pseudonyms or variant names?What type of malware (virus, worm, etc)?When was the malware released and, if known, by whom?How was the malware distributed?What type of computers were vulnerable (hardware, operating system, etc)?What was the vulnerability that was exploited?How extensive was the attack (location, number of computers, etc)What is zero-day attack? Was it a zero-day exploit? Why or why not?What was the motive for the virus?List some security solutions that could have taken to prevent the distribution of the malware?
IT120 Cybersecurity Principles

The atonement is a very debatable theme in theology primarily because of the importance of the doctrine itself. According to Caleb Burge, this very doctrine is “the foundation of all the doctrines of divine revelation which respect the salvation of mankind: the grand pillar on which they are supported” (1822). In other words, the doctrine of atonement is foundational one, on which a number of other doctrines stand. Moreover, it is directly related to the meaning of death of Christ on the Cross. That is why people, especially theologians, are so much concerned about the rationale behind it. Interestingly, the term “atonement” is of Anglo-Saxon origin, not a Biblical word as such (Bingham, 2001). According to Bingham, this term “acts as an umbrella to cover a number of other words such as reconciliation, expiation, propitiation, and the like” (2001). Besides, reconciliation is “a result of Jesus’ mission in which the enmity or hostility between God and humanity is overcome and set aside so that they can have a good relationship”, expiation – “an effect of Jesus’ death on the cross in which humanity’s sinfulness is covered and set aside so that reconciliation between God and humanity can take place” (Grenz, 1998), and propitiation is Christ’s death on a cross “to appease God’s wrath against sin” (Bawulski, 2012). Honestly speaking, I never ever engaged in thinking about atonement before having Theology class. In addition, I am still not committed to Christianity for a number of reasons though do believe in something beyond our world so to say. However, there were a lot of Christians in my surrounding including my grandmother and to some extent my mother. I also actually read Bible, even more than once: first time when I was a kid and had Bible in pictures adapted for children, then we were studying some parts of it in school at literature classes, and lastly we were studying Bible very closely at our university. So, I was introduced to idea of atonement but was unaware of the theological debate around it. What influenced me to choose this very topic to research was not our lesson actually, but an extra-credit assignment on penal substitution theory. Reading an article by Schreiner I first of all got more information about the doctrine of atonement and the theories around it, and also got personal insights concerning this theme. So, when choosing a topic I decided to take one I am already more familiar with and have more thoughts about. What I think is surely true is that complexity of atonement is a mystery beyond our understanding that nobody is able to explain sufficiently (except only God). Interestingly, Schreiner builds his theological argument on theological concepts that are also arguable, for example the nature of God’s love, and the assumption that forgiving without sacrifice violates God’s holiness. God for some reason needed this sacrifice, but are we really able to explain it? Interestingly, searching for the meaning of atonement I saw it also has a meaning of compensation. However, as I mentioned above already atonement is purely Anglo-Saxon term, thus, in Hebrew or Greek versions of the Bible there might be no compensation implied. Nevertheless, the atonement as compensation to the Father (Christ died to satisfy a principle in the very nature of God) is consistent with the Substitutionary or Satisfaction Theory (Keating, 2002). My idea of the rationale behind the question of atonement (though I do not actually believe any idea can be proved) is that Jesus took the original sin (that was brought to us with Adam that is also debatable though) from humanity, but we ourselves still will have to die, so maybe we have die for our own sins, not the original one, now. Also, Christ’s life and death have a moral effect on us and demand following Jesus’ example. So, my idea is more or less close to Christus Victor theory of atonement and surely reflects the main ideas of example theory and moral influence theory of atonement. So, among major views on the atonement are: Christus Victor theory, Example theory, Moral Influence theory, Satisfaction theory, Penal Substitution Theory, Ransom theory, Governmental theory, Mystical theory, and Vicarious Repentance theory. According to Christus Victor theory “in Christ, God triumphed over the law, sin, death and the devil – the evil powers of the world, the ‘tyrants’ under which mankind is in bondage and suffering, and in him God reconciles the world to himself” (Aulen, 2010). According to Example or Socinian theory, the atonement is “a perfect example of the type of dedication to God that we are to practice” (Keating, 2002). According to Moral Influence theory, the atonement is “a demonstration of God’s love and should inspire us to love him in return” (Keating, 2002). According to Satisfaction theory, Christ in his suffering “restores or rehabilitates God’s offended honor and dignity” (Bingham, 2001). According to Penal Substitution theory, Christ “died for man, in man’s place, taking his sins and bearing them for him that takes the punishment of them, and sets the believer free from the penal demands of the law, thus, the righteousness of the law and the holiness of God are satisfied by this substitution” (Bingham, 2001). According to Ransom theory, the atonement is “a victory over the forces of sin and evil because Christ’s death ransomed us back from Satan” (Keating, 2002). According to Governmental theory, the atonement is “a demonstration of divine justice, of what will happen to us if we continue to sin” (Keating, 2002). Bingham says that “God is a governor that determines and requires; he can abrogate the law, or rather its total punishment; Christ on the Cross bears a nominal punishment, thus showing that God views sin seriously, however forgives it having put his safe-guard around his law” (2001). According to Mystical theory (Gradual Extirpation of Depravity), Christ “entered the world in the flesh of fallen humanity, but brought a new factor, a new kind of life, which destroys original depravity on the Cross, so that a new humanity emerges through Christ; by identification with us, and we with him, man is gradually sanctified, and his sanctification becomes, in fact, his justification” (Bingham, 2001). According to Vicarious Repentance theory, “perfect repentance is all that is required for forgiveness that Christ showed on the Cross, where he identifies with man under condemnation; man, thus being forgiven, has an impetus to holiness” (Bingham, 2001). Support To start with, I want to say that I do not really stick to one position concerning the atonement, or one particular theory, but choose a couple of them that seem to me to be the closest ones to my personal point of view. As I mentioned before, my idea is that Jesus saved humanity from the original sin with his death on the Cross, but as we still have to die, we supposedly are not saved from our own sins. Probably, we have to die to conquer our own sins ourselves following the example of Jesus who conquered the original sin (let’s suppose its trueŠ ). Moreover, the fact that we understand we have to struggle with our sins can be a result of moral influence of Jesus’ death. So, my support would focus on defending mostly elements of Christus Victor theory, and give some support to Example theory and Moral Influence theory. First of all, according to Scriptures, the penalty for sin is death – “And the Lord said, ‘The man has now become like one of us, knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and leave forever'” (Genesis 3:22). This sentence from the Book of Genesis clearly says that people became mortal as a result of disobeying God, sinning in other words. Consequently, to become immortal again people have to overcome sin. So, judging from the fact that we are all still mortal, Jesus’ death on the Cross did not take all the sins from humanity. Either way, I suppose we would be immortal again. On the other hand, eternal life is promised to people after death. Considering that, we have to die. But death is the result of sin, so we in a way follow Jesus’ example as we die and overcome some part of sin that is still in us that is consistent with Example theory of atonement – “To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps” (1 Peter 2:21). From the first sight it seems that in such situation Jesus’ sacrifice is not necessary, as we all die in the end, thus, overcome sin ourselves. However, the thing is that we are unable to take the responsibility for the original sin, so something else, that is Jesus’ sacrifice, is needed. What is hard for me to explain in my theory though is the connection between Adam and Eve’s sin and Jesus’ ability to defeat it. Nevertheless, the very fact that Jesus suffered and died on the Cross implies that there was some connection. This is also evidence for the fact that sin could not be just pardoned “for no one can rationally suppose, that the Son of God would have left the bosom of the Father, and the glory which he had with him before the world was, to take on him the form of a servant in this world, and subject himself to the pains and sorrows incident to human life, if such humiliation had not been indispensably necessary, in order that the purposes of grace, in the salvation of sinners, might be answered” (Burge, 1822). The idea that Jesus took only original sin from us is similar to some extent to Christus Victor theory – “The Son of God,” we read in 1 John 3:8,” was revealed for this purpose: to destroy the works of the devil.” The works of devil are primarily the deception of Adam and Eve from where the original sin comes. One may think that if we are free from original sin, why then we continue to sin in the eyes of God. To answer this question I came up with an idea that sinful acts or thoughts are the result of socialization – the process by which an individual learns to live in accordance with the expectations and standards of a group or society, acquiring its beliefs, habits, values, and accepted modes of behavior primarily through imitation, family interaction, and educational systems; the procedure by which society integrates the individual (“Socialization”). At the moment of Jesus’ death people already had a sinful culture so to say that included the possibility of sinning. So, even when people became free of the original sin, they still remained in this culture that is the result of the original sin. Maybe this is the main reason for the necessity of Jesus’ second coming – the need to renew the earth and the heavens that would result in destroying this sinful culture. The main objection to Christus Victor theory is that “Satan or the “powers of Evil” must be satisfied rather than God, whose command was originally ignored in the Garden of Eden, and who is continually ignored by all mankind” (Glynn, 2002). The cosmic significance of Christ’s work is more fundamental than its soteriological significance (Bawulski, 2012). This objection is consistent with Satisfaction theory of atonement. However, I do not see any problem with that – in my view, people were unable to give to God his due (that is the definition of sin according to Satisfaction theory) primarily because of the works of Satan. Thus, when evil is defeated God should be already satisfied. Conclusions Jesus died on the Cross to defeat the works of devil that is Jesus freed humanity from the original sin. His death and resurrection obviously had an effect on people – a positive moral influence as a result of understanding that righteousness brings eternal life. Also, in order to have this eternal life people should follow Jesus’ example – live a righteous life, die and resurrect then immortal and free of any sin. All of this is consistent with Christus Victor, Example and Moral Influence theories. My rather innovative idea is that we are released only from original sin, and have to die overcome our own sins. We continue to sin regardless of being free from original sin because of having sinful culture that probably would be destroyed with Jesus’ second coming. This way to see the doctrine of atonement emphasizes the importance of second coming of Jesus and explains in a way why it has to take place. Probably, it makes no differences in other areas.
CS 7642 Reinforcement learning – MDP – Finding the Optimal State-Value Function.

ProblemDescription The game DieN is played in the following way: You will be given a die with N sides. You will know the size of N, and can assume that N is a value greater than 1 and less than or equal to 30.You will be given a bit mask vector isBadSide representing the sides of a die that will make you lose. The vector will be of size N, and 1 indexed. (there is no 0 side)You start with 0 dollars.At any time you have the option to roll the die or to quit the gameIf you decide to roll:And you roll a number not in isBadSide, you receive that many dollars. (eg.if you roll the number 2 and 2 is not active — meaning the second element of the vector is 0 — in isBadSide, then you receive 2 dollars)Repeat step 4.And you roll a number in isBadSide, then you lose all money obtained in previous rolls and the game ends.If you decide to quit:i. You keep all money gained from previous rolls and the game ends. Procedure ● For this problem, determine an optimal policy for playing the game DieN for N sides. You will be given N and the array isBadSide which indicates which sides are bad. As you will see, the optimal policy for this game will depend on your current bankroll.● You can try solving this problem either by creating an MDP of the game (state, action, transition, reward function, and assume a gamma of 1) and then calculating the optimal1 state-value function or you can plug-in values and solve directly using the Bellman Equations. ● What is the expected amount of dollars for this game if you follow an optimal policy? That is, what is the optimal state-value function for the initial state of the game? Provide answers for the problems you are given in the “Solve for Code” tab on the Heroku site. Your answer must be correct to 3 decimal places. Examples The following examples can be used to verify your calculation is correct. ● Input: N = 21, isBadSide = {1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,0,1,0}, Output: 7.3799● Input: N = 22, isBadSide = {1,1,1,1,1,1,0,1,0,1,1,0,1,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0}, Output: 6.314● Input: N = 6, isBadSide = {1,1,1,0,0,0}, Output: 2.5833ResourcesThe concepts explored in this homework are covered by:● Lectures○ Lesson 1: Smoov & Curly’s Bogus Journey ● Readings ○ Littman (1996)(chapters 1-2) page 65 in the link would be of additional help and aditionally you can also use Pymdptoolbox
CS 7642 Reinforcement learning – MDP – Finding the Optimal State-Value Function

University of Phoenix Wk 5 Education Code of Ethics PPT.

Wk 5 – Education Code of Ethics [due Mon]
Assignment ContentMany educators believe there is a need for an ethical code for educators. Others believe it may be too restrictive and infringe on teacher dispositions. Based on what you have learned and researched in this course, complete the following: Consider your position regarding the creation of educational codes of ethics. Create a 7- to 8-slide presentation to summarize and defend your position using secondary resources. Address the following based on your position: Why a code would or would not address personal and community valuesWhether a code would or would not assist in professional decision makingHow a code would or would not assist in the potential conflict of ethical and legal concerns Include
University of Phoenix Wk 5 Education Code of Ethics PPT

Grammar Is One Of The Most Controversial Issues Education Essay

Grammar is one of the most controversial issues that has been debated along the history of language teaching and learning. The grammar debate has brought about two extreme positions “those who hold that grammar should receive a central attention to language teaching and those who hold that grammar should not be taught at all” (Mukminatien 2008: p.80). On this basis, grammar teaching has undergone a variety of changes that have influenced its role and status in second and foreign language contexts. In fact, all language teaching approaches ranging from the highly structural ones to the highly communicative ones, have assigned varying degrees of prominence to its teaching. Traditional teaching approaches namely the grammar translation method and the audio-lingual method emphasized the centrality of grammar to the extent that grammar teaching “had often been synonymous with foreign language teaching” (Celce-Murcia 1991: p.459). However, with the advent of the natural approach along the deep end version of the communicative approach, the value of grammar was undermined, based on the assumption that a good knowledge of grammar does not guarantee a good mastery of the target language and that language learners need to make sense of grammar rules in more communicative and interactive ways (Tütünis 2012). Nonetheless, in the last two decades grammar has been reconsidered again in language teaching as being ” an essential inescapable component of language use and language learning” (Burgess

Who can do this journal entry for me ?

nursing essay writing service Who can do this journal entry for me ?.

The project includes 10 required items. Complete required items 1 – 10 by entering the appropriate accounting information in your template.Please use your name as the name of the company for the purpose of completing titles in your excel documents (Ex. John Smith, Inc.).After completing items 1 – 10 save your final template using the following name format: ACCT_Project_Yourfirstname_Yourlastname, Example: ACCT_Project_John_Smith. Mine would be Edna Trejo,incRecord your answers to fill in the blank questions under items 4, 7, 8 and 10 using the information from your template. Submit the completed excel file as an attachment in the link under step III.Required: #1.Prepare journal entries to record the December transactions in the General Journal Tab in the excel template file “Accounting Cycle Excel Template.xlsx”. Use the following accounts as appropriate: Cash, Accounts Receivable, Supplies, Prepaid Insurance, Equipment, Accumulated Depreciation, Accounts Payable, Wages Payable, Common Stock, Retained Earnings, Dividends, Service Revenue, Depreciation Expense, Wages Expense, Supplies Expense, Rent Expense, and Insurance Expense. 1-DecBegan business by depositing $6500 in a bank account in the name of the company in exchange for 650 shares of $10 per share common stock. 1-DecPaid the rent for the current month, $550 . 1-DecPaid the premium on a one-year insurance policy, $600 . 1-DecPurchased Equipment for $4200 cash. 5-DecPurchased office supplies from XYZ Company on account, $300 . 15-DecProvided services to customers for $5600 cash. 16-DecProvided service to customers ABC Inc. on account, $2800 . 21-DecReceived $1600 cash from ABC Inc., customer on account. 23-DecPaid $170 to XYZ company for supplies purchased on account on December 5 . 28-DecPaid wages for the period December 1 through December 28, $4480 . 30-DecDeclared and paid dividend to stockholders $200 . #2.Post all of the December transactions from the “General Journal” tab to the T-accounts under the “T-Accounts” tab in the excel template file “Accounting Cycle Excel Template.xlsx”. Assume there are no beginning balances in any of the accounts. #3.Compute the balance for each T-account after all of the entries have been posted. These are the unadjusted balance as of December 31. #4.Prepare the unadjusted trial balance under the “Unadjusted Trial Balance” tab in the excel template file “Accounting Cycle Excel Template.xlsx” . Provide the total of the credit column from the Unadjusted Trial Balance #5.Record the following four transactions as adjusting entries under the “General Journal” tab. 31-DecOne month’s insurance has been used by the company $50. 31-DecThe remaining inventory of unused office supplies is $90. 31-DecThe estimated depreciation on equipment is $70. 31-DecWages incurred from December 29 to December 31 but not yet paid or recorded total $480. #6.Post all of the adjusting entries to the T-accounts under the “T-Accounts” tab. Compute the balance for each T-account after all of the adjusting entries have been posted. These are the adjusted balance as of December 31. #7.Prepare the adjusted trial balance under the “Adjusted Trial Balance” tab as of December 31 in the excel template file “Accounting Cycle Excel Template.xlsx” . Provide the following accounts balances from the Adjusted Trial Balance: Cash Accounts Receivable Supplies Prepaid Insurance Equipment Accumulated Depreciation Accounts Payable Wages Payable Common Stock Retained Earnings #8.Prepare Income Statement, Statement of Stockholder’s Equity, and Classified Balance Sheet under the “Financial Statements” tab for the month ended December 31, 20XX in the excel template file “Accounting Cycle Excel Template.xlsx”. Provide the following amount from the Income Statement: Service Revenue Depreciation Expense Wages Expense Supplies Expense Rent Expense Insurance Expense Net Income Provide the following account balance from the Statement of Stockholders’ Equity: Dividends Provide the following account balances from the Balance Sheet: Current Assets Long-Term Assets Total Liabilities Total Stockholder’s Equity Cash #9.Record the closing entries under the “General Journal” tab. #10.Post all of the closing entries to the T-accounts under the “T-Accounts” tab. Compute the balance for each T-account after all of the closing entries have been posted. Provide the ending balance of Cash at December 31 from the T-account Provide the balance of the Retained Earnings T-account after closing entries have been posted. Does the ending balance of the Retained Earnings T-account agree with the balance of Retained Earnings on the Balance Sheet? Check Point: Total Assets $ 9,470.00
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Earth Sciences homework help

Earth Sciences homework help. HelloThe assignment below I have began, howerver I need assistance in the 700 word summary regarding how companies make decisions.Also, plese assis me with the calculation on problem #2. I’m unable to find the formula that works. Lastly, please check my answers. :)Purpose of AssignmentThe purpose of this assignment is to allow the student an opportunity to calculate the rate of return of equity and debt instruments. It allows the student to understand the effects of dividends; capital gains; inflation rates; and how the nominal rate of return affects valuation and pricing. The assignment also allows the student to apply concepts related to CAPM, WACC,ÿand Flotation Costs to understand the influence of debt and equity on the company’s capital structure.Assignment StepsResources:ÿCorporate FinanceCalculateÿthe following problems andÿprovideÿan overall summary of how companies make financial decisions in no more than 700 words, based on your answers:Stock Valuation:ÿA stock has an initial price of $100 per share, paid a dividend of $2.00 per share during the year, and had an ending share price of $125. Compute the percentage total return, capital gains yield, and dividend yield.Total Return:ÿYou bought a share of 4% preferred stock for $100 last year. The market price for your stock is now $120. What was your total return for last year?CAPM:ÿA stock has a beta of 1.20, the expected market rate of return is 12%, and a risk-free rate of 5 percent. What is the expected rate of return of the stock?WACC:ÿThe Corporation has a targeted capital structure of 80% common stock and 20% debt. The cost of equity is 12% and the cost of debt is 7%. The tax rate is 30%. What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?Flotation Costs:ÿMedina Corp. has a debt-equity ratio of .75. The company is considering a new plant that will cost $125 million to build. When the company issues new equity, it incurs a flotation cost of 10%. The flotation cost on new debt is 4%. What is the initial cost of the plant if the company raises all equity externally?Submitÿyour summary and all calcluations.Earth Sciences homework help

Ten Principles of Economics and the Data of Macroeconomics, assignment help

Ten Principles of Economics and the Data of Macroeconomics, assignment help.

Your organization’s CEO is concerned that members of the strategic planning committee are not familiar with current economic thought and principles. The CEO has assigned you the task of developing an 875-word report to introduce some of these thoughts and principles. Use Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in Principles of Macroeconomics as your only source. Explain the following information in your report to members of the strategic planning committee:How economists are both scientists and policymakers and what principles society uses to allocate its scarce resourcesUsing the circular flow model, explain the flow of money and goods in an economy.How the economy coordinates society’s independent economic actorsA country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and how it is defined and calculatedHow the consumer price index (CPI) is constructed and why it is an imperfect measurement of the cost of livingFormat consistent with APA guidelines.
Ten Principles of Economics and the Data of Macroeconomics, assignment help

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