Description: You will explore, identify, and complete an online free training about cultural
competency in health care (video, assessment, model, toolkit, or other educational activity).
After completion, you will create a PowerPoint presentation that:
1) Describes the training activity including its source, purpose, and time required
2) Explains why you believe the activity is valuable in diversity and cultural competence training
in health care
3) [and] how you believe the activity could be used to train others in professional contexts. You
will upload your presentation online and present to the class. Your presentation should be at
least 10 minutes with 2 minutes for questionsDescription: You will explore, identify, and complete an online free training about cultural
competency in health care (video, assessment, model, toolkit, or other educational activity).
After completion, you will write a paper reflecting on the training. The objective of the paper is
1) Describe the training activity including its source, purpose, and time required
2) Explain why you believe the activity is valuable in diversity and cultural competence training
in health care
3) [and] how you believe the activity could be used to train others in professional contexts. You
will upload your final paper online. Your final paper should be between 3-5 pages and include
relevant citations to support your arguments.
Training About Cultural Competency Presentation and Paper
End-of-Life Care: Case 2 Margaret is a 72-year-old female with severe cardiovascular disease. She is admitted to the hospital after a stroke. There is no indication that she will recover and, if so, to what level of functioning. The doctors have informed her family that she is experiencing cardiac issues that might lead to heart failure. Should this happen, the doctors will have to take efforts to resuscitate her. The medical social worker and the doctor meet with the family to discuss a do not resuscitate order. The family is completely overwhelmed. They do not fully understand what the doctor is saying and they are in disagreement about what to do. Respond by Day 5 to at least two different colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways: Comment and elaborate on the scope of practice of a medical social worker that your colleague shared. Critique your colleague’s post and/or share additional conclusions or insights about the legal ramifications of living wills, medical power of attorney, and advance directives. Recommend an additional advocacy role of the medical social worker in the case your colleague selected. Be sure to USE REFERENCE!! DB 1 Logan– An explanation of how you as a medical social worker would handle the case you selected. I have chosen case 2, working with Margaret and her family. As a medical social worker, I would work with Margaret and her family to help explain what a DNR is and the process of how to obtain one. According to the NASW Code of ethics (2017), states that social workers should advocate for the needs, decisions, and rights of clients in palliative and end of life care. According to Gehlert &Browne (2019), advance directive are written documents completed by an individual that specify treatment preference for healthcare decision making. Advance directives often include DNR’s that have been signed off by a physician. Explain the services you might offer to the family within the applicable laws and your scope of practice. According to Gehlert & Browne (2019), some services a social worker may offer are; counseling, validate, normalize, and encourage expression of feelings, facilitate support groups, facilitate family care plan meetings, encourage effective communication, provide case management and discharge planning, and client advocacy. When working with Margaret’s family, I would encourage, validate, normalize, and encourage expression of feelings, make referrals to support groups, help to facilitate care plan meetings, encourage effective communication, provide case management and discharge planning, and client advocacy. Explain the methods and practices you might employ to educate this family regarding the legal issues surrounding the case. The methods and practices that I might employ to educate this family regarding the legal issues surrounding the case, would be to facilitate a family care plan meeting with the doctor present, in order to answer their questions about DNR, and to encourage communication between her family members in order to come a solution with all members present for the best interest of the patient. The legal issues will be resolved once, the family understands a what a DNR is and the process of obtaining one. Then, explain the purpose, benefits, and legal ramifications of living wills, medical power of attorney, and advance directives. The purpose, benefits, and legal ramifications of living wills, medical power of attorney, and advance directives, are to help, determine end of life decisions for the patient. According to Gehlert & Browne (2019), advance directive are written documents completed by an individual that specify treatment preference for healthcare decision making. According to Gehlert & Browne (2019), a durable power of attorney for health care involves the legal appointment of an individual to speak for a person should that person no longer be able to make decisions for himself or herself. According to Gehlert & Browne (2019), a living will is a directive to a physician and healthcare that states a persons wishes about life-prolonging treatment should be provided or withheld should they lose the ability to communicate those wishes. Finally, explain the advocacy role you might play on behalf of the patient and patient’s family in this case. The advocacy role that I might play on behalf of the patient and patients’ family in this case, is too encourage communication within the family and with the patient in order to determine if they would like a DNR order, or a living will, advance directive or power of attorney to be put in place in the case of end of life care. Reference: Gehlert, S., & Browne, T. (Eds.). (2019). End-of-life care. In Handbook of health social work (3rd., pp. 569-584). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119420743 National Association of Social Workers. (2004). NASW standards of social work practice in palliative & end of life care. Retrieved from https://www.socailworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?flieticket=xBMd58VwEhk%3d&portaql-id=0 DB 2 Nicole, An explanation of how you as a social worker would handle the case you selected. Margaret is a 72-year-old female with severe cardiovascular disease. She is admitted to the hospital after a stroke. There is no indication that she will recover and, if so, to what level of functioning. The doctors have informed her family that she is experiencing cardiac issues that might lead to heart failure. Should this happen, the doctors will have to take efforts to resuscitate her. The medical social worker and the doctor meet with the family to discuss a do not resuscitate order. The family is completely overwhelmed. They do not fully understand what the doctor is saying, and they disagree about what to do. I would help the family facilitate and coordinate a patient focused care plan after discussion with the interdisciplinary team and understanding their process moving forward. Identifying appropriate interventions while educating the family in preparation for end of life treatment (Gehlert & Browne, 2019). Also, validating the family’s feelings and being understanding and remaining calm easing their burden of feeling overwhelmed concerning Margaret’s situation. Explain the services you might offer to the family within the applicable laws and your scope of practice. While validating the families feelings of being overwhelmed and not fully understanding what the doctor is saying, I will effectively communicate coping mechanisms while educating the family (Gehlert & Browne, 2019) on the prognosis Margaret’s stroke, her chance of recovery from it, if she does her possible level of functioning thereafter, ensuring they understand the cardiac issues that may lead to possible heart failure and risks in resuscitation. A provision of counseling will be made available along with community resource of support groups. Engaging the family in navigating the system while continually meeting with them to ensure a level of comfortability and trust as they decide on Margaret’s quality of care. I will make sure the family understands the doctor’s decision-making process and provide them with the information in a manner that they will understand (Gehlert & Browne, 2019). To meet with the family to discuss Margaret’s age related multimorbidity’s is influencing the doctor’s decision to look at withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation during cardiac arrest (de Decker et al., 2014). Ensuring the family understands this will help in making an informed decision. This information allows the family to understand the end of life journey and to be able to put into perspective and discuss the possible path of dying and death (Cagle & Kovacs, 2009). Explain the methods and practices you might employ to educate this family regarding the legal issues surrounding the case. I will employ the methods and practices by educating the family on the advance directive Margaret filled out, appointing her daughter as power of attorney. I will provide the daughter/family with information on Margaret’s prognosis with an understanding of the possibilities of what to expect concerning Margaret’s medical condition and being there for family support. I will remain calm in doing so and showing empathy towards the family in this time of crisis. I will promote self determination by providing the daughter/family with informational support so she can better understand from her perspective to be able to deal with the prognosis and care options discussed with myself and the doctor (Cagle & Kovacs, 2009). Explain the purpose, benefits, and legal ramifications of living wills, medical power of attorney and advance directives. The purpose of living wills, medical power of attorney and advance directives is to provide the individual with their wishes about end of life treatment. It is a legal appointment of a person to speak for another should they no longer be able to make decisions for themselves. A living will is a guide for physicians/doctors to provide medical care in keeping with the wished of the patient (Gehlert & Browne, 2019). In this case Margaret has an advanced directive in which she specifies her end of life treatment, but it does not specify about cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, her daughter who is her proxy who now must make that decision due to Margaret’s inability to make the decision for herself and her decline in health status. The daughter has the legal authority to make the decision, but she wants to include the family and agree. Effective communication is necessary in this process to respect everyone’s point of view and understand their position as well understanding the care plan for the patient (ABA, 2006). Explain the advocacy role you might play on behalf of the patient and patient’s family in this case. The advocacy role I might play on behalf of the patient and her family is to assist the family in negotiating the goals of care while navigating through the systems of care. I will address the quality of life issues while meeting with the family and doctor concerning the likely outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for Margaret. I will support the family in their decision of choice and ensuring proper treatment. I will be the link in effectively communicating the concerns and needs of the patient to the doctors and the proxy (NASW, 2004). Cagle J. G. & Kovacs, P. J. (2009). Education: a complex and empowering social work intervention at the end of life. Health and Social Work, 34(1), 17-27. de Decker, L., Annweiler, C., Launay, C., Fantino, B., & Beauchet, O. (2014). Do not resuscitate orders and aging: impact of multimorbidity on the decision-making process. J Nutr Health Aging, 18(3), 330-335. Gehlert, S. & Browne, T. (Eds.). (2019). End-of-life-care. In Handbook of health social work (3rd., pp.569-584. Wiley. [Vital Source e-reader]. National Association of Social Workers (2004). NASW standards for social work practice in palliative & end of life care. Retrieved from https://www.socialworkers.org The American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging (2006). Making medical decisions for someone else: A Maryland handbook. Retrieved from https://americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/administra…
SOCW 6204 WU Medical Social Work End of Life Care Case Study
Calcium Rich Foods in Dry Foods Section Worksheet and PPT
Calcium Rich Foods in Dry Foods Section Worksheet and PPT.
1. Topic = Calcium rich foods2. This assignment is basically like a grocery store tour. in which we are going to different grocery store sections and taking about which foods or items and rich in calcium.3. you need to fill an worksheet. there will be four sections but you only need to do dry good section.4. In dry goods section( packaged food, canned goods, dry fruits and cereals etc.) you need to choose 5 foods ( e.g. nuts, canned beans, canned fruits etc) but make sure they are all rich is calcium. ( NOTE: ONE OF THE 5 FOODS MUST BE NUTS) 5. Action Statement/ tip = Provide at least 2 food-based nutrient message that relate to your area. make sure each statement is directive to make help B reach his/her nutritional goal. the tip may be something to increase the bioavailability of nutrient being discussed, to help find products or to use the product in daily life. 6. Nutrient reasoning = provide atleast 2 nutrient reasoning that relate to your topic, for each area. ideally you are describing the action statement or tips.7. Provide scholarly reference for research done. 8. APA style.9. use intext citations to highlight research done. PRESENTATION:1. what is Calcium.2. why do we need it? Its function in human body.3. how much calcium do we need.4. what happens if we don’t get enough Calcium?5. What happens if we consume it extra? 6. where can we get it. for that continue with Dry goods section. Explain the information that we added in worksheet. Provide Picture, labels and less text.
Calcium Rich Foods in Dry Foods Section Worksheet and PPT
Southwestern Community College Kingdom Plantae Lab Report
help me with my homework Southwestern Community College Kingdom Plantae Lab Report.
Please answer the following questions as completely as possible, using full sentences. You can return to this assignment at any point until it is due. The questions are based on the assigned lab, so please work on this task as you read through the material in the lab manual.-*I WILL PROVIDE THE LINK TO THE DOCUMENT THAT HAS THE INFORMATION TO ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS*What is taxonomy? State the purpose of taxonomy and provide a 2 or 3-sentence explanation of how the sub-discipline developed. Who is Linnaeus?Write 5 or 6 sentences (or create a labeled diagram) outlining the similarities between Evolutionary Taxonomy and Cladistic Taxonomy.Write 5 or 6 sentences (or create a labeled diagram) outlining the differences between Evolutionary Taxonomy and Cladistic Taxonomy.Look at the simplified evolutionary tree in Figure 1 of the lab and answer the following questions:Which plant groups have vascular tissue?Which plant groups have spores?Which plant groups have seeds?Which plant groups have flowers?Think about whether mosses have vascular tissue or not. Given your knowledge of this, why does a moss plant stay small and close to the ground?Both a seed and a spore land on the ground, but the leaves on the ground prevent them from contacting the soil. The seed grows into a plant, while the spore perishes. Explain why.Cycads and conifers have seeds, but do not produce flowers to attract pollinators. Still, pollen must be transferred in order for fertilization to take place, and for seeds to develop. List and describe some ways that pollination can occur in these plants.
Southwestern Community College Kingdom Plantae Lab Report
Insys Therapeutics in Fraudulent Marketing Scheme Case Study
Case Study: Insys Therapeutics I consider the steps taken by Insys Therapeutics not ethical because the company not only misled healthcare providers and insurance companies concerning the proper use of their drug but also exposed consumers to danger. The first ethical concept which can be applied to the case of Insys Therapeutics is Fairness and Honesty (BACW, p.44). Fairness and honesty are the integral components of business ethics and include general values. This ethical concern assumes the following laws and regulations are accepted in business (BACW, p. 44). However, Insys Therapeutics was accused of engagement “in a fraudulent marketing scheme” to boost sales of Subsys, a mouth-stay variation of fentanyl which is used for severe cancer pain (Arizona Accuses). Because of this scheme, the health-insurer Anthem Inc. blames Insys Therapeutics for paying $19 million more for the drug than they were supposed to pay (Anthem Files). Because Anthem was not the only company cooperating with Insys Therapeutics, the policy of the company disregards ethical principles of fairness and honesty. The statistics say that within recent decades, the number of overdose deaths because of opioids increased dramatically. The causes of high mortality include both illicit street drugs and prescription medications (Trial Reveals). The problem of dishonesty is not new in the United States. Cheating begins in the school years and develops further. In the business sphere, dishonesty is also frequent. If dishonesty is revealed, someone has to take responsibility. In the case under analysis, Insys states that the company takes responsibility for the actions of its former employees. However, the company pleads not guilty in the fact that it “materially contributed to the opioid crisis in the state of Illinois or the Nation” (Arizona Accuses). One more aspect of honesty and fairness to be considered in this case is connected with the disclosure of potential harm that can be caused by the use of a product (BACW, p. 47). Insys did not inform the consumers that the use of fentanyl for mild pain can be harmful and even lead to opium addiction. The second concept to consider is that of Communications which often causes the rise of ethical concerns (BACW, p. 47). As for the case of Insys Therapeutics, it deals with false and misleading advertising or other deceptive actions. Arizona’s consumer-fraud suit claims that the company misled its customers, both healthcare providers, and insurers, concerning the appropriate use of this drug. Sybsys is an effective fast-acting mouth spray that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for cancer patients with severe pain. Consequently, it is widely prescribed by healthcare providers and purchased by insurers. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the company advertised Subsys as suitable to treat mild pain while it is a very strong opioid (Arizona Accuses). Fentanyl, an active ingredient of Subsys, is a synthetic opioid. Its misuse can have unwanted consequences such as an overdose or even death. Due to the active advertising and involvement of doctors into frauds, Medicare spending on Subsys increased by 76% as of 2015 (Fentanyl Billionaire). Communication is the stage of doing business which includes the exchange of information. Sometimes companies do not follow ethical principles. For example, they provide their customers or partners with invalid information. Nevertheless, companies should make honest and fair communication a part of their policy to attract customers and partners and provide their safety. Finally, the ethical issue that is appropriate to the case of Insys Therapeutics is Business Relationships (BACW, p. 48). It is usually revealed in the treatment by businesspersons its customers and suppliers. The news reported that insurance company Anthem Inc. had filed “a civil suit alleging that drugmaker Insys Therapeutics Inc. engaged in “fraudulent schemes” to secure reimbursement for the company’s fentanyl painkiller Subsys” (Anthem Files). The suit also accuses Insys Therapeutics of involving some Arizona doctors in fraud through paying them for prescribing Subsys (Arizona Accuses). The investigation revealed the fact that other doctors profited from overprescribing painkillers. Prosecutors alleged two doctors who cooperated with Insys and gave insurance companies wrong information concerning patients’ diagnoses to prescribe fentanyl (Trial Reveals). Another doctor from Alabama prescribed the painkiller within two years which was estimated at $4.9 million (Under Fire). However, the company faced large financial losses. Its former CEO was arrested which hurt both company’s image and its position in the market (Former Insys). For example, shares of Insys decreased by 11.9% one day and 67% during the year (Former Insys). In case a company fails to lead decent business relationships, it can lose partners, customers, and a good name in general. The loss of efficient business relationships causes the decline of the company. Thus, it is useful for the company to consider various ethical issues in the contemporary competitive market to gain and retain a strong position and receive sustainable profit. On the whole, I believe that the unethical actions of Insys Therapeutics were unacceptable. As drug producers, they bear a burden of responsibility for the quality of the product which, in turn, guarantees consumers’ safety. Works Cited Ferrell, O.C. Business. A Changing World. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2013. Randazzo, Sara. “Arizona Accuses Insys of Fraudulently Marketing Fentanyl Painkiller.” The Wall Street Journal. 2017. Web. We will write a custom Case Study on Insys Therapeutics in Fraudulent Marketing Scheme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Walker, Joseph. “Anthem Files Civil Suit Against Insys Therapeutics.” The Wall Street Journal. 2017. Web. —. “Fentanyl Billionaire Comes Under Fire as Death Toll Mounts from Prescription Opioids.” The Wall Street Journal. 2016. Web. —. “Former Insys CEO Arrested in Opioid Prescription Kickback Case.” The Wall Street Journal. 2016. Web. —. “Trial Reveals Deep Ties Between Pair of Doctors and Fentanyl Maker.” The Wall Street Journal. 2017. Web.
Process Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory Business Essay
Process Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory Business Essay. Equity theory proposes that peoples motivation, performance and satisfaction depend on their subjective evaluation of the relationships between their effort/reward ratio and the effort /reward of others in similar situations. Comparison Individual Rewards/Individual Inputs Other’s Rewards/ Other’s Inputs Inequity exists whenever one feels that the rewards they receive for their work inputs or contributions are unequal to the rewards other people appear to have received for their input and equity exists when the ratio is perceived to be equal. There are two state of inequity. Negative inequity – when an individual feels they have received relatively less than others have in proportion to their work inputs. Positive inequity – when an individual feels they have received relatively more than others in proportion to their work inputs. Both the state of positive and negative inequity are motivating states. Adam proposes that when either state exists, an employee is likely to engage in one of the following behaviours to restore equity. Change work inputs ( for example reduce performance efforts in case of negative inequity or increase work effort to match benefits in state of positive inequity ) Change outcomes / rewards received (for example ask for a pay increase or vacation time) Change comparison points ( for example compare self with a different co-worker) Psychologically distort the comparisons (for example rationalise the inequity as only a temporary situation and will be resolved in the future or artificially increase/decrease the status of the job) Leave the situation ( for example change departments or quit for a favourable balance of rewards with another organisation) For managers, the equity theory has several implications, the most important being that, for most individuals, rewards must be perceived as fair in order to be motivating. There must be effective communication of rewards and clarification of performance appraisal. Feelings of inequity are solely determined by the individual’s interpretation of the situation. It is not how managers feel about the allocation of rewards that counts but it is how the recipients perceive the rewards that will determine the motivational outcomes of the equity dynamic. The challenge for management is that they should create a process that is seen to be fair because perceived equity can foster job satisfaction and performance. The manager must make sure that negative consequences of equity comparisons are avoided or at least minimised when resources are allocated. Evidence supports most of the predictions of this theory. Research is most conclusive about negative inequity though both under and over rewarding employees can be detrimental to motivation. Under rewarding consistently negatively motivates but over rewarding has mixed results i.e. some employees decrease their motivation and others increase it while still others show no significant change. However because work relationships are not static, inequities are not usually isolated or onetime events. Individuals differ, so naturally their methods of reducing inequity also differ. It is difficult to assess the perception or misperceptions of the employees hence the difficulty in applying the concepts of the theory. Another weak element of the theory is; how does one choose the comparison “other”? The process by which individual chooses is not clearly understood. It is thus not precise enough to predict which actions are most probable. Despite all this, it still does have a direct relevance for compensation practices. The Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom This model of motivation specifies that the effort to achieve high performance is a function of the perceived likelihood that high performance can be achieved and will be rewarded if achieved and that the reward will be worth the expended effort. The theory treats motivation as a function of a person’s expectation about relationships among his or her efforts, the effectiveness of those efforts, the rewards they obtain Vroom (1964). The three components of the expectancy theory can be thought of as three questions. Can I achieve the desired level of task performance? (Expectancy) What work outcome will be received as a result of performance?(Instrumentality) How highly do I value work outcomes?(Valence) For example if an employee wants a promotion and sees that a high performance will lead to that promotion and sees that if they work hard they can achieve a high performance then they can be motivated to work hard. Vroom states that motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence are related to one another by the equation M= E*I*V. This means that the motivational appeal of any work path is sharply reduced whenever any one or more of these factors approaches the value zero. Therefore, managers should ensure all the elements are high and positive for a great motivational force to be maintained. The expectancy model has a number of implications for how managers should maximise the elements that motivate subordinates; To maximise Expectancy managers must; Select and train workers with ability Clarify work efforts and performance goals (This ensures subordinates know what to do. If goals are too difficult or impossible then motivation is low.) To maximise instrumentality managers must; Communicate performance outcome possibilities Identify rewards that are contingent on performance. ( To maintain or increase motivation analyse what factors counter act the effectiveness of the rewards; factors like timing and other influences on the work situation may require mangers to make adjustments.) To maximise valence in a positive direction, managers must; Identify individual needs Adjust rewards to match individual needs (By observing their reactions in different situations and asking them individually, what they desire. Some people prefer tangible reward while others place importance on recognition. Others prefer public praise to others who prefer quiet praise from someone they admire) Everyone has a unique combination of valences, instrumentalities and expectancies. The expectancy theory does not necessarily give insights into the techniques of motivating employees but it helps to understand the relationships between individuals and organisations. The model is designed to help management analyse, understand workers’ motivation, and identify some of the relevant variables, though not providing practical help in solving their motivational problems except simple prescriptions such as making employees know exactly what is expected of them. It therefore has an application problem because of the assumption that people are rational and logically calculating, an assumption that is too idealistic. It reflects on the complexities of motivational problems but it does not attempt to describe how motivational decisions are actually made or try to solve motivational problems facing a manager. Goal setting theory by Edwin Locke It is a cognitive theory of work motivation, which proposes that managers can increase and enhance motivation by setting specific, challenging goals and helping people track goal achievement by giving timely feedback. It focuses on the process of setting goals themselves. According Edwin Locke, the natural human inclination to set and strive for goals is useful only if the individuals both understand and accepts a particular goal. Furthermore, workers will not be motivated if they do not possess the skills needed to achieve a goal. However when goals are specific and challenging, they function more effectively as motivating factors in individuals. The key components of the goal setting theory are: Goal specificity – Includes what needs to be done, how much needs to be done and the performance period. Goals have to be concrete and unambiguous. For example goals such as sell goods worth $20 000,00 dollars in a month or keep in touch with a customer each week rather than, increase sale of goods or keep in touch with customers. Goal difficulty – Hard goals are more motivational than easy ones because they are challenging and stretch people’s abilities. The easy ones do not require workers to increase their output. Succeeding on challenging goals increases the feeling of job satisfaction, which in turn increases motivation. Goal acceptance – Means that employees have to “buy into” the goals and be committed to them. Having people participate in setting goals can increase acceptance of goals and commitment to them for example a co- management initiative that has low-level employees and managers working together to set budgets, set goals and make decisions. This gives the employees the sense that they are also an important part of running the business and thus gives them the motivation to work hard. Participation also increases information about how a goal can be achieved. The information can let employees discover better ways of doing the job. Feedback- feedback is the information that people get about how well they are progressing towards goal achievement. Feedback is important on a regular and ongoing basis. Employees need accurate feedback on their performance to help them adjust their work methods when necessary and to encourage them to persist in working towards goals. Goal setting increases motivation because people can focus their energies in the right direction and because people know what to do, the goals can easily be accomplished because efforts are directed to the most important aspects of the job. When goals are achieved pride and satisfaction increase contributing to higher motivation. For example with goal setting, if economic conditions change sharply affecting a sales department for example if a goal is not adjusted downward, a goal can become unreachable and performance will drop and if it is not adjusted upward in better economic conditions then the goal becomes too easy and the employee will not perform up to his/her capabilities. Another way through which goal setting is applied Management By Objectives (MBO). This concept subscribes to the notion of specific and reasonably demanding goals with provision for feedback and a participative approach. This theory however seemingly has a greater relevance for people who are eager to derive a good learning experience from the challenge of meeting goals rather than proving to others that their capability to meet exacting standards. Content theories help to explain what employees think and help to understand and even anticipate people’s reactions to a manager’s effort to lead. The major drawback of these theories is that, they are only useful after managers have gotten to know their subordinates and their individual personalities and this takes some time and effort. These drawbacks can be overcome, however if mangers are careful to establish clear standards for acceptable performance and an equitable system of extrinsic rewards without forgetting that valance of certain extrinsic rewards will vary from person and person. Process Theories Of Motivation Equity Theory Business Essay