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IT Infrastructure Beyond Physical Devices and Software Applications Essay

IT Infrastructure Beyond Physical Devices and Software Applications Essay.

For this is assignment, write a narrative essay (minimum of 1200 words) which addresses the questions and statements below. A minimum of three scholarly sources are required, and all sources should be cited and referenced in APA format. Describe four services that comprise IT infrastructure, beyond physical devices and software applications.Why do contemporary information systems technology and the Internet pose challenges to the protection of individual privacy and intellectual property?One of the capabilities of Internet communication is the ability of the individual to appear essentially anonymous by using made-up usernames. Is anonymity the same thing as privacy, and should it be a right? What ethical issues are raised by increased anonymity?Distinguish between cloud computing, green computing, and quantum computing.Describe four services that comprise IT infrastructure, beyond physical devices and software applications.Refer to the case study at the end of chapter six, How Reliable Is Big Data? Should all organizations try to collect and analyze big data? Why or why not? What management, organization, and technology issues should be addressed before a company decides to work with big data?
IT Infrastructure Beyond Physical Devices and Software Applications Essay

Please use it as a reference as you write your own. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)  ***Notes: For Weeks 4 through 6, you will be developing 3x different associated sections of your MEMP. Their combination will lead to completing your final project, which is due in Week 6. Each week you will be given a template of what is expected. The template is just a template; you have the freedom to modify as you see fit for your imaginary facility. We want you to be creative, use the internet as a research tool to help with the objective of this assignment. Be sure to include your references. You are expected to submit the updated and completed template each week to receive full credit. Understand that because each week adds to the next; if you miss turning in a section for a week you will be required to catch up in order to have the final project fully complete by Week 6. The template for this week can be download at the link below.Week 4 MEMP Template.pd
Lone Star College System Current and Future Policy Decisions Discussion.

full prompt: Texas public policy reflects a dynamic between the risks that should be borne by the individual and which should be shared by Texans as a whole. With respect to the policy process and the role of the Texas government in dealing with policy problems how would issues like racial injustice which may be reflect systemic dynamics and be a product of past policy decisions figure into current or future policy decisions? How would Elazar and Jillson factor into your discussion?minimum 2 pages, double spaces, 12pt- use ch 12 ebook and handouts to answer these questions. you can use outside sources as well, please cite everything you use. (opinions are okay, please back up your opinion with support)Thank You!!
Lone Star College System Current and Future Policy Decisions Discussion

Given the advancements in technology, cosmetic surgery, a type of plastic surgery, has become more of an art than an operation nowadays. Inevitably, it has also become one of the popular avenues of fighting against signs of ageing or correcting one’s self perceived imperfections. According to Medical-Dictionary.Com, “Cosmetic surgery is defined as surgery that modifies or improves the appearance of a physical feature, irregularities or defects.” It belongs to the family of plastic surgeries that also includes various types of surgeries like reconstructive surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns, with cosmetic surgery being the most well known among them all. For the eyes, we have cosmetic surgeries like, blepharoplasty that reshapes the eyelids or allows the application of permanent eyeliner, epicanthoplasty that removes the presence of epicanthal folds around the eye. For the face, we have surgeries like, chemical peel that helps minimize the appearance of facial scars and wrinkles, otoplasty that involves reshaping the ear by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head, lip enhancement that improves lips’ fullness through surgical enlargement, chin augmentation that involves implanting usually silicone by sliding genioplasty of the jawbone or by suture of the soft tissue, cheek augmentation that uses implants to either reduce the cheeks or make them appear fuller, browplasty that elevates eyebrows and smoothes forehead skin, midface life that tightens the cheek while the most extreme of them all would be orthognathic surgery that manipulates facial bones through controlled fracturing. For modifying our bodily features, we have surgeries like, breast augmentation that allows the enlargement of breast by means of fat grafting, saline or silicone gel prosthetics, reduction mammoplasty that enables breast reduction through skin and glandular removal and mastopexy that facilitates breast lifts that lifts and reshapes breasts to make them less saggy, abdominoplasty that reshapes and firms the abdomen, buttock augmentation that facilitates lifting and tightening of buttocks by excision of redundant skin, liposuction that removes fat deposits by traditional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat removal and last but not least, filler injections that can be done on any part of the body that involves injecting collagen, fat and other tissue filler injections, usually to make those parts appear fuller. After introducing this much details about the types of cosmetic surgery techniques made possible by technological advancements available now and today, I would be elaborating more on how the availability of cosmetic technological surgeries have impacted our society through prevalent forms of mediums that we are exposed to everyday inevitably. The main and most influential mediums would have to be the media and peer pressure from friends and families. Let us take a closer look at the types of media and societal mediums available. Movie Industry Movies is probably one of the most common mediums that we get exposed to and indulge in. To get a better understanding on the gross profits of movies, we refer to The-Numbers.Com. According to the website, Avatar raked a worldwide gross of US$2,783,556,202 while Titanic earned a gross profit of US$1,842,879,955. These figures gives us a better insight on how widely watched are movies and the impacts these charming celebrities can have on society. This brought to my point that some celebrities influence us when some of them are actually very open about the fact that they have had cosmetic surgeries such as breast implants, lip augmentations, veneers and rhinoplasties while some others deny it. Some of the famous examples include, Heidi Montag, Joan Rivers, Bruce Jenner, Dolly Parton, Donatella Versace, Michael Jackson and so on. They have openly admitted to having gone under the knife and some have even shared their experiences on television, according to Cosmeticsurgerytoday.Com and Sydney4women.Com.Au. The general public tend to look up to these figures of fame and glamour while aspiring to look like them. In the more extreme cases, plastic surgeons do get requests from patients saying that they want to look like a certain celebrity as extracted from Cosmeticsurgerytoday.Wordpress.Com. However, plastic surgeons do warn celebrity worshippers against it as the results are not guaranteed and there are side effects to it. Advertising Industry In the advertising industry, we often see the application of celebrity endorsements in adverts, with the aim of increasing the mass’s likelihood of adopting the brand under the effect of wanting to imitate the behaviour of their idols and that if they adopt this brand, they are, in one way or another, one step closer to that celebrity by offering their support to him or her. For example, in adverts featuring sports products, they often employ the use of sporty figures in the sports industry to present that sporty and healthy image that you can be as sporty and healthy like them; enjoying the stated benefits of that product should you adopt that brand of sports products too. Apart from misleading the public through this persuasion method, it also transmits vanity values and materialistic ideals into the younger generations of now and today. We always depict slim, slender feministic figures as much sought of in advertisements like for perfume, fashion products or even facial products but rarely anything about females being attractive in their own skin regardless of their shape and size as it should be. This creates the impression that only slim and slender ladies are beautiful and is in fact, piling onto the vanity effect. This would fuel onto desires to go under the knife to look pretty and desired by the society, often neglecting the fact that only positive testimonials on cosmetic surgeries are featured and the botched cases are more widespread than we realize. Societal Norms As we all know, there has been drastic changes in societal norms comparing today’s trends and levels of acceptances to cosmetic surgeries compared to just a few decades ago. In the past, it used to be a shameful thing to have gone under the knife, because features that we are born with are inherited from our parents. However, much as the majority are now higher educated and richer to afford these surgeries, it has become a norm to go under the knife so long as the end results make one happier and more confident. In South Korea, it is more competitive than ever about whose kids are looking better than it being conservative. Dr Shim Hyung Bo, a plastic surgeon in Seoul says that parents make their kids get plastic surgery to look good and it is just as important as their kids getting good grades while teenagers as young as 14 are doing eye surgeries and eye jobs have become a favourite high school graduation gift from proud parents as quoted from Time.Com. Much as countries like Singapore itself may be more conservative and Asian-oriented, we are also starting to move towards the more acceptable kind of surgeries like blepharoplasty that reshapes eyelids, liposuctions that removes body fats and also rhinoplasty as admitted and righteously justified by famous blogger, Xiaxue as reported by media coverage on papers and also on her own blog, Xiaxue.Blogspot.Com. Furthermore, it is to be brought to attention that most of Xiaxue’s readers ages range from teens to adults and this may greatly influence the highly impressionable younger generations. Publication Industries The amount of printed media that we come into contact with everyday also heavily endorses cosmetic surgery procedures such as newspapers that features stars who have undergone or is suspected of having gone under the knife or magazines that actually help disseminate knowledge about certain procedures. The higher the frequency the society is exposed to such genres of information and news updates, we are more likely to accept the idea of cosmetic surgery under classical conditioning and also may become interested to research for more information on our own. Some individuals who may not have the idea to want any form of cosmetic surgery would be tempted to go for it should they be awed by the results, for example, after surfing websites like Goodplasticsurgery.Com. This is a website where they compile plausible photos and brief descriptions of celebrities who have gone under the knife and looks more gorgeous than ever. Apart from the entertainment values of such websites, it is not to be neglected that it might be acting as a medium in piling onto the misleading fact that “having cosmetic surgeries done is pretty much desirable and offers amazing results.” On the other hand, there are websites like Sydney4women.Com.Au that also provides links to websites that offers “recommendable” surgeons as a related link to its cosmetic surgery articles. For the website, the link might just be an avenue for earning advertisement fees but to the public, it is actually a form of raising the accessibility of avenues to get cosmetic surgeries done. Advantages of Cosmetic Surgery The most straightforward of cosmetic surgery has to be the benefits of aesthetic improvements to one’s looks. For a burn victim, it would drastically improve his or her life due to the fact that they can minimize the damages inflicted on them to the best of their probabilities. For a female who has been teased at all her life about her appearance, cosmetic surgery might just be the easiest way out to improve her social life, her confidence and also the way she would lead her life post surgery, example as stated from Neikie Reno’s real life account as on Abcnews.Go.Com. Another advantage of cosmetic surgery would be to correct physical defects that may have resulted from accidents after birth or defects that they may have been born with since birth and cosmetic surgery may actually give them a shot at leading normal lives as quoted from Cosmeticsurgerya-z.Com. On the other hand, patients who have gone under the knife for liposuction and breast reduction may find their lives greatly enhanced in terms of being physically active in leading sporty lifestyles that helps them to be healthier than they can ever imagine. Disadvantages of Cosmetic Surgery One of the most crippling disadvantages of cosmetic surgery is that the results may not come out as desired or envisioned. All surgeries carry some degree of risks and much as complications are rare, they do occur. Some of the most common risks associated with cosmetic surgery are, infections, severe bleeding, nerve damages, tissue deaths, seroma which is more widely understood as fluid collecting around the area of surgery and hematoma which refers to bruising around the area in layman terms. Blood clots and deep vein thrombosis are also possible complications of cosmetic surgery. Besides, some complications may be enhanced if the patient has certain health conditions such as diabetes that may result in massive bleeding as cited from Livestrong.Com. In terms of post surgery appearance, unsightly scarring is also a major concern as it may also prove to be a tell tale sign that the patient has undergone surgery previously. Putting the medical side effects aside, cosmetic surgery on its own is also costly and the costs stated by clinics are usually only the base cost of the procedure and surgeon fees, hospital fees, along with lost wages, medication costs and after care costs must be factored in when considering the costs of going under the knife. Last but not least, the point that may be the most interesting and scary of all to date is the fact that accounts stating that people actually DO get addicted after having their first surgeries done. As reported by Abcnews.Go.Com, Neikie Reno actually got obsessed with cosmetic surgery procedures and has had 14 surgeries done over the span of over a decade, spending a grand total of $83,000 on them all. Although it is the fact that they are addicted to the feel good factor after having these surgeries which may not be a bad thing, however, as addictions go, many might not know when to stop and this may have disastrous effects on them eventually. Conclusion Much as cosmetic surgeries have the ability to improve our lives, it also has the ability to mislead our judgements. The very fact that media mediums propagate the idea of being good looking brings about better and easier lives by earning the envy of others. All these does not help impressionable viewers to break off and move away from the norms of being a superficial, vain and materialistic individuals that cannot think for themselves independently. In the long term, our younger generations will all be cultivated into this “look good, feel good” mindset, no matter the costs or side effects of these cosmetic surgeries. It is also to be taken into account that this effect would snowball as most of us are inclined to follow each other’s actions under peer pressure, social norms or trends as often portrayed by the media. Much as “Everyone’s Guide to Cosmetic Plastic Surgery” written by Lachlan Currie says that modern cosmetic surgery has evolved into a specialist field which involves the use of numerous reliable techniques that allows safe improvements to be made to the face and body, I still think that everyone’s body constitution is different and there is no one method that insures all individuals against any complications. On the other hand, “Cosmetic Surgery of the Asian Face” written by John A. McCurdy, Samuel M. Lam has also pointed out expertly that although the stereotype of Asians having yellow skin pigmentation, straight coarse black hair, a flat face with high malar eminences, a broad, flat nose and narrow slitlike eyes with a characteristic epicanthal fold may be loosely applied to the eastern Asian group of people, the aesthetic surgeon should appreciate that considerable individual variations exists in all of these physical traits. This adds on to the point that much as cosmetic surgeries are meant to bring about aesthetic facial improvements, the patient would have to know their own features well and not to blindly go under the knife to look like some Western celebrity despite knowing their Asian descent that might bring about unsatisfactory results after all that post surgery trauma. In a nutshell, I am totally agreeable to cosmetic surgeries so long as it is done to improve one’s life and that individual is able to judge for themselves their own limit and had done sufficient research on their own prior to going under the knife.

Allergy Standards Ltd Technology Entrepreneurship Business Case Study

Allergy Standards Ltd Technology Entrepreneurship Business Case Study.

Team Paper:Each group will research an article or case study that discusses Technology Entrepreneurship in today’s Businesses.They may choose a subject from Chapters 1 through 6.Their presentation will consist of a 3 to 4 page paper written in APA format for citations and references and following the Writing rubric.Presentation:Present an 8 to 10 ppt slide presentationIntroduction of the case studies selectedCompare Case StudiesContrast Case StudiesPresentation of final solutionFor access to Technology Entrepreneurship Textbook to choose a subject,Sign into[email protected] : [email protected] logged in, go into My bookshelf in the right side.Click continue reading of Technology Entrepreneurship Textbook and choose a subject. Also Please start working on the PPT first and after we are done with the PPT then can start working on the paper.
Allergy Standards Ltd Technology Entrepreneurship Business Case Study

Financial Statement Analysis

order essay cheap Financial Statement Analysis.

You just need to calculate 16 ratios for two companies and compare them: Colgene Corporation and Gilead Sciences, Inc.The instructions are attachedRequired Ratios for Final Project SubmissionEarnings per Share of Common StockCurrent RatioGross (Profit) Margin PercentageRate of Return (Net Profit Margin) on SalesInventory TurnoverDays’ Inventory Outstanding (DIO)Accounts Receivable TurnoverDays’ Sales Outstanding (DSO)Asset TurnoverRate of Return on Total Assets (ROA)Debt RatioTimes-Interest-Earned RatioDividend Yield [For
the purposes of this ratio, use Yahoo Finance to look up current
dividend per share and stock price; just note the date that you looked
up this information.]Rate of Return on Common Stockholders’ Equity (ROE)Free cash flowPrice-Earnings Ratio (Multiple) [For
the purpose of this ratio, look up the market price per share as of
December 30, 2016 for Celgene Corporation and for Gilead Sciences, Inc..]The excel file is a template for youNote:
The Excel files uploaded as the assignment submission should not
include any unnecessary numbers or information (such as previous years’
ratios, ratios that were not specifically asked for in the project,
Financial Statement Analysis

THEO 104 LU Wk 2 Biblical Metanarrative Unified & Coherent Nature of The Bible Essay

THEO 104 LU Wk 2 Biblical Metanarrative Unified & Coherent Nature of The Bible Essay.

Biblical Metanarrative Essay InstructionsThe purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of the unified and coherent nature of the Bible and the theological doctrines. One way to view Scripture is through the four major plot movements of Creation, Fall, Redemption, and New Creation. Considering biblical doctrines through these four plot movements can aid in our understanding of humanity and humanity’s relationship to God.After viewing the presentation, Understanding the Metanarrative, and completing your textbook readings, you will be equipped to demonstrate the coherence of Scripture and share some of the implications of the unified message of the Bible.For this assignment, you must write a 600–1,000-word essay addressing the following prompt:The unity of the Bible is demonstrated through the Divine inspiration of the Holy Spirit on the human authors of Scripture. The study of theology uncovers and articulates the unity of all the biblical texts when they are taken together. From the list of approved doctrines to address, demonstrate the unified nature of the Bible by tracing that doctrine through the four major plot developments of Scripture. For example, The Bible describes God as love in 1 John 4:8. The way to interpret “God is love” is to look at the biblical story that reveals God’s character through His actions. When looking at the idea of love through the four major plot movements in Scripture we see God’s love demonstrated in His creation of humanity, His patiencewith humanity after the fall, His sacrificial death to redeem humanity from the fall, and His restorative work through preparation of the heavenly home.(This example would be substantiated anddemonstrated with biblical support, and be elaborated on within the essay.)Assignment Requirements:1. Discuss the major movement of the biblical metanarrative, its main character, and its implications for understanding the unity of the biblical books.2. Choose two topics from the approved topics list that are presented in Biblical doctrine with attention on how these theological topics unfold through the through the four major plot movements of Creation, Fall, Redemption, and New Creation.3. Using your theological examples, share the implications that these examples provide humanity’s relationship to God.4. Incorporate at least 2 theological references in your paper using course resources.5. Incorporate at least 2 relevant biblical references.6. Write a clear introductory paragraph including the thesis statement.A summative concluding paragraph must also be included.7. Refer to the “Course Policies” in the course syllabus for the formatting expectations in this course.Use the provided Biblical Metanarrative Essay Template as a guide.Submit your Biblical Metanarrative Essayby 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 2.
THEO 104 LU Wk 2 Biblical Metanarrative Unified & Coherent Nature of The Bible Essay

The car industry: Dilemmas

The car industry: Dilemmas. 1. Introduction The car industry faces a crucial weight problem resulting from increasing customer demands in terms of safety and performance. This trend leads to fully equipped cars in all classes getting more luxurious and comfortable. To escape from this vicious circle car manufacturers are forced to take action in the form of lightweight concepts. Light metals are seen as a promising opportunity to decrease the weight of a car. An increasing use of metals such as aluminium in the automotive industry shows that there is still large scope for improvements. Using aluminium car body panel is just a representative example of weight-saving effort did by car manufacturers. Aluminium has some properties that make it ideal for car bodies. The strength of aluminium frame and extruded sections is approximately the same as that of steel. However, the rigidity of aluminium is lower than that of steel. That is partly due to the modulus of elasticity of aluminium that is just one-third that of steel. (1) The effect is that aluminium has a higher elastic distortion when exposed to the same force as steel. Therefore the simple replacement of steel by aluminium engine is not an optimal solution as it does not exploit the whole scope of the advantages of aluminium. New ways need to be pursued to make full use of aluminium’s advantages as a light weight material, which means it can be supplied in various aluminium alloys. Although the requirement for improved corrosion resistance and light-weighting are significant factors for use low-carbon steels in the manufacture of cars, (1) this traditional material still has some advantage such as higher strength and lower price. Many kinds of steel and aluminium alloys can be found commercially using in producing car body panels. Each material has its own characteristic. 1.1 Steel Steel is known as an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight. (3) One of the main factors contributing to the utility of steels is the broad range of mechanical properties which can be obtained by heat treatment. For example, easy formability and good ductility may be necessary during fabrication of a part. Once formed very high strength part may be needed in service. Both of these material properties are achievable from the same material. All steels can be softened to some degree by annealing. The degree of softening depends on the chemical composition of the particular steel. (4) Annealing is achieved by heating to and holding at a suitable temperature followed by cooling at a suitable rate. Similarly, steels can be hardened or strengthened. This can be accomplished by cold working, heat treating, or an appropriate combination of these. Cold working is the technique used to strengthen both low carbon low alloyed steels and highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels. Only reasonably high strength levels can be attained in the carbon low alloyed steels, but the highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels can be cold worked to rather high strength levels. (5) Most steels are commonly supplied to specified minimum strength levels. Heat treating is the primary technique for strengthening the remainder of the steels. Some common heat treatment of steels is listed below: Martensitic hardening Pearlitic transformation Austempering Age hardening The recyclability of steel is brilliant and it is economically advantageous to do so. It is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore and manipulate it through the production process to form new steel. (6) 1.2 Aluminium-based alloys In the Earth’s crust, aluminium is the most abundant (8.3% by weight) metallic element and the third most abundant of all elements (after oxygen and silicon). Because of its strong affinity to oxygen, however, it is almost never found in the elemental state; instead it is found in oxides or silicates. Aluminium was isolated in small quantities early in the 19th century and it remained an expensive curiosity until 1886 when discovery of an economic method for its electrolyric extraction. Since then, the emergence of aluminium as a practical, commercial metal has relied primarily on the availability of electricity at economic prices. Aluminium is obtained from bauxite which is the name given to ores containing 40-60% hydrated alumina together with impurities such as iron oxides, silica and titania. Two steps are needed in the production of aluminium. First, alumina is extracted from bauxite. Second, use electrolysis to dissolve the alumina in molten cryolite and a typical electrolyte contains 80-90% of this compound and 2-8 % alumina together with additives such as aluminium and calcium fluorides. (7) Because the cryolite has a melting point as high as 1010?, the electrolysis of it needs a temperature of about 960? which wastes lots of energy and makes the cost of producing aluminium relatively higher. However, a new method—Cambridge FFC which comes from the production of titanium, was introduced to China. This method use a NaCl-CaCl2 electrolyte which has a lower melting point of 520?, even lower than the melting point 660? of aluminium. By using alumina and liquid aluminium as negative electrode, the expanded reacting area on negative electrode allows the electrolysis of alumina to happen, which can theoretically reduce the electrolysis temperature to the melting point 660?. This research opens a new chapter of production of aluminium and will dramatically reduce the cost of producing aluminium some day. Generally speaking, about 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products which are produced from cast ingots. (8) The structures of alloys are greatly changed by the various working operations and thermal treatments. Each individual class of alloys behaves differently, with composition and structure dictation the working characteristics and subsequent properties that are developed. Casting aluminium alloys are also important parts of Al. Apart from light weight, the special advantages of aluminium alloys for castings are the relatively low melting temperatures, negligible solubility for all gases except hydrogen, and the good surface finish that is usually achieved with final products. Most of the cast alloys also show good fluidity and composition can be selected with solidification range appropriate to particular applications. (1) Casting alloys normally have mechanical properties that are inferior to wrought products and these properties also tend to be much more variable throughout a given component. 2 Study of possible alloy using for producing car body 2.1 Steel At present, low carbon steel sheet is most commonly used in car body production. Low-carbon steel has good machinability. Its strength and rigidity can fully meet the car body strength requirements, as well to meet the body welding requirements. 2.1.1 Low carbon steel Steel with low carbon content has properties similar to iron. Low carbon steel is the steel containing approximately 0.05-0.15% carbon. Content influences the yield strength of steel because it is a BCC structure and carbon atoms fit into the interstitial crystal lattice sites. (3) These carbon atoms reduce the mobility of dislocations. But it has a hardening effect. Because the interstitial carbon atoms cause some of the iron BCC lattice cells to distort, a high enough stress level must be applied in order for the dislocations to move. Low carbon is one of the most common steel and it is relatively cheap than most other steels. However, the strength is relatively lower, which can be seen in appendix. 2.1.2 Higher strength steel In order to reduce the weight of an automobile, it is absolutely essential to reduce the thickness of the sheet steel and compensate for loss of strength by using higher strength steel sheets. For inner panels, though a rather substantial amount of high strength steel is used, the percentage use is a little lower than in the outer panel due to stiffness limitation and insufficient formability. (9) However, the overall use of high strength steel is estimated to increase further more. The problems in press performance of high strength steel are wrinkles, surface deflection and springback, fracture especially in stretch flanging and galling on the forming tool. Until now, the average level of strength used widely is at most 400 MPa but in the near future the high strength steel with over 400 MPa may be used for the reduction of weight and in this case the forming difficulty will increase further more. (5) The thickness of a panel sheet decreases as a result of application of higher strength steel. Many kinds of microstructural hardened high strength steel sheet are applied by automobile producers. Ø Dual phase steel Dual phase steel show lower yield strength compared with other types of steel having the same tensile strength because of mobile dislocations existing in the vicinity of the boundary of ferritic and martensitic phases. So presents low yield ratios. And that’s why its elastic recovery after forming work is small and shape fixability is good. As it also shows larger elongation than precipitation hardened steel sheets and fatigue resistance. (3) Ø Trip steel sheet Transformation induced plasticity steel is also becoming an ideal material for car body panels. It has meta-stable austenite transformable into martensite contained up to 30% in bainite or ferrite and bainite matrix. Commercial Trip sheets have simple C-Si-Mn series chemical compositions. The simpler chemical compositions are made viable by stabilizing the austenite phase through distribution of alloy elements in the two phase region and concentration of carbon into austenite during bainite transformation. (4) 2.2 Aluminium-based alloy Pure aluminium cannot be applied to normal passenger car due to softness. Moreover, surface damages during stamping and handling are often subjected to subsequent surface hand finishing. This additional operation on the panel is usually inevitable. In contrast to pure aluminium, aluminium alloys contain solute additions which can markedly affect grain structures and particularly the microstructures within the grains. This in turn strongly influences the responses of alloys to working and heat treatment. Both crystal structure and microstructure influence mechanical properties. Slip is inhibited by grain boundaries, which are disordered regions, (and so small grains improve strength). Slip can also be made difficult by dispersing particles of another phase throughout the matrix. This indicates the typical hardening mechanism of aluminium. (9) There are some kinds of wrought aluminium alloys typically used for car body. 2.2.1 Aluminium – Manganese Alloys 3xxx This series of alloys is non heat-treatable. The addition of approximately 1% manganese increases the strength by approximately 10 – 15% compared with 1200, without any major loss in ductility. This non-heat treatable alloy generally finds a wide application where greater strength is required without any major loss in corrosion. The addition of manganese to the chemical composition creates phases like (Mn,Fe)Al6 or (Mn,Fe)3SiAl12 that can be revealed by a solution of 10% of phosphoric acid. The grain structure obtained by work hardening or by annealing is usually revealed by anodisation. (8) 3103 is typically used for car body in the automobile industry. The composition of 3103 alluminium is 0.7% Fe, 1.5% Mn and some others. 2.2.2 Aluminium – Magnesium Alloys 5xxx This series of alloys is non heat-treatable and exhibits the best combination of high strength with resistance to corrosion. This series also exhibits good weldability but when the Mg level exceed 3% there is a tendency for stress corrosion resistance to be reduced, dependent on the temper used and temperature of operation. (1) Magnesium is largely soluble in aluminum compared to the other elements, but the content in excess can appear as eutectic Mg2Al3. After cold rolling and annealing they can be found at the grain boundaries or after cold working they can precipitate on deformation bands. In both cases the structure can be revealed by an etching of 10% H3PO4. At the same time as Cr is a frequent additive in this series, Cr2Mg3Al18 may appear as a fine dispersoid. (8) 5182 can be used as car body panel. The composition of 5182 alluminium is 4.1% Mg, 0.4% Mn and some others. 2.2.3 Aluminium – Magnesium – Silicon Alloys 6xxx This group of heat-treatable alloys uses a combination of magnesium and silicon (magnesium Silicide) to render it heat-treatable. These alloys find their greatest strength, combined with good corrosion resistance, ease of formability and excellent ability to be anodised. This family takes the main advantages from the strengthening due to the precipitation of Mg2Si. So the etching will reveal the iron rich phases like Fe3SiAl12, Fe2Si2Al9 that are insoluble and the coarse precipitates or the excess soluble precipitates (0.5%HF). (8) Typical alloys 6009 in this group are used for car bodies. The composition of 6009 aluminium is Si 1.1%, Mg 0.6 %, Mn 0.4% and some others. 3 Study of competition between steel and Al Automobiles today are over 63% iron and steel by weight. (10) With rising energy and environmental concerns, as well as increases the performance of the car, vehicle light-weighting continues to be a prominent concern for vehicle manufacturers. At the present, more and more aluminium alloys are introduced to automobile industry because the aluminium alloys can normally meet the requirement but is only half weight of steel. However, both the traditional steel car and aluminium have their advantages or disadvantages on aspects of manufacturing, safety, repairability, cost, recyclability, and environmental protection. 3.1 Manufacturing Aluminium parts can be more complicated in their design because the high number of design solutions likes the castings available in nearly any shape. One casting can replace a complex part consisting of several steel panels. Consequently a reduction of parts up to 50% is feasible. (1) This again makes design, construction and production easier as fewer parts need to be dealt with in any stage of the design and manufacturing process. Aluminium car body has fewer parts lead to fewer tools and fixtures, which makes manufacturing easily and therefore saving working spaces and expenses. Because the sheets can tear easily, low elongation and yield limits of aluminium alloys make it difficult for stamping. This has to be taken into account when designing and building car bodies. Also a higher resilience of the sheets causes difficulties in keeping the tolerances during stamping for individual parts and therefore for the whole car body. (11) Furthermore, it is difficult to keep the body tolerances after welding processes since aluminium extrusions and cast sections behave unpredictably when subjected to uneven heat influence. The heat expansion of aluminium is higher than steel, so all fixtures need to be built more solidly and stable to cope with the higher forces. Extensive pickle treatment is necessary to create a weldable surface for aluminium car body. Also the finish of the surface for the paint shop is costly and requires a lot of time and knowledge since the sheets tend to get scratched more easily than equivalent steel panels and the surface of the sheets is liable to form waves. (12) The 6xxx series of aluminium alloys which has been used a lot for the car body requires heat treatment to achieve the demanded strength. The drying process in the paint shop is not sufficient as the conventional temperatures are not high enough. Hence, an additional heat treatment line needs to be installed to heat the car bodies up to 210°C for 30 min to harden the aluminium alloys. (13) This cannot be done in advance of manufacturing as it would influence the welding processes negatively. When using aluminium alloy as car body material, contact corrosion plays a much more crucial role as steel accelerates the corrosion of aluminium than using steel body. So that screws or other parts made of steel need to be coated. Otherwise holes in the car body are unavoidable when exposed to moisture. (7) 3.2 Repairability and safety aspects Nowadays, Crash tests have aroused the public’s attention since occupant safety is a feature that is receiving considerable public attention. Automobile companies even promote car safety as a leading aspect in their advertising campaigns. Additionally, insurance companies set great store by repairability of cars as they cause a significant part of their costs. In some countries the expenditure per car for repairing certain types of damage is assessed and taken into account when the car is being classified for insurance. (15) In approximately 5% of all accidents the frame structure of a car is damaged. (2) This can be crucial if casting parts or extrusions are concerned as they cannot be reformed properly. They need to be replaced in sections or as a whole dependent on the severity of the accident. Cast aluminium sections especially are liable to develop cracks and consequently need to be examined carefully. Additionally, a completely different approach to repairing damage forces dealers to train their mechanics in the appropriate techniques. In particular aluminium shielded arc welding requires accuracy, practice and the appropriate equipment but not steel. This becomes a problem especially for small dealers as they cannot afford the necessary equipment or staff. (12) Also, tools must not be mixed up with steel tools to avoid corrosion caused by steel particles in the aluminium panels. A separate set of tools for aluminium is mandatory to fully avoid these effects. (14) However, the properties of aluminium offer several advantages to steel. Tubular aluminium sections crumple in the ideal way when subjected to impacts. They develop a crumple pattern that can absorb more energy than equivalent steel elements. Consequently with half the weight of steel an aluminium structural member provides the same safety. (15) 3.3 Cost It is obvious that aluminium is more expensive to manufacture than steel. The costs of a sophisticated aluminium car body are many times larger than of an ordinary steel body. This can be especially crucial when being applied to small cars as the margin there is lower than at luxury cars. Higher material costs, a more sophisticated handling of aluminium parts in comparison to steel and some alloys need heat treatment to achieve the required strength, are the main drawbacks. (9) However, the use of aluminium causes lower investments for tooling due to the fact that stamped steel parts are replaced by extrusions which cause costs only a fraction of the costs required to manufacture stamping tools. This is especially interesting for low volume series as the tooling costs here have a relatively high influence on the unit costs. Additionally, punch riveting and clinching consume less energy than spot welding and will cause lower energy costs. But the development of high volume technology for welding, riveting and bonding is a crucial issue that has kept car manufacturers from producing all-aluminium car bodies as it is accompanied by high initial investment for research, development and design. (15) 3.4 Recyclability Recycling is likely to become more important in the future as governments force industry to design fully recyclable products just as is an increasing customer awareness in terms of environmental protection and hence a growing demand for eco-friendly products. To preserve the quality of the recycled material the different alloys must not be mixed up. This is especially crucial for the production of extrusions and sheets out of recycling aluminium alloys as they have lower tolerance levels of impurities than steel. Additionally, they can only be recovered if they are not mixed with cast parts. (6) Therefore, joined aluminium alloys panels with different alloys cause problems. Also panels that are joined with steel parts like rivets make recycling problematic since steel parts need to be removed to keep the number of foreign substances low. (6) This becomes more difficult as aluminium cannot be magnetically separated from other wastes. In order to recycle aluminium only a fraction of the original energy consumption is needed, even less than for recycling steel. 3.5 Environmental protection The environmental issues of different materials can be assessed by a comparison of the energy household of an aluminium and steel-made car during production and over their whole lives. Only having regard to all processes that cause energy consumption during production and operating life can an accurate result be given of the eco-friendliness of a car. It includes material cycles and the amounts of energy needed to produce and maintain a car during operating life time, including fuel. (15) If primary material is used, aluminium starts with a drawback of an additional energy consumption during production. Compared with steel, far higher amounts of energy are needed to produce lightweight metals like aluminium. For illustration, a car could achieve a weight reduction of 20 kg by the intensive use of aluminium alloys body other than the steel one. The additional energy consumed could be compensated after 3500 miles. After having covered this distance, the energy comparison works in favour of aluminium. A further comparison can be made in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. If primary aluminium is used it takes 60000 miles until the lighter aluminium auto has compensated the higher CO2 emission during production. However, when the proportion of recycled, secondary aluminium exceeds 75% the CO2 emission household is positive for aluminium from the first instance. (1) 4 Summary Considering the energy and environmental issues, using light weight metal for car bodies will be the trends in the near future. However, the traditional steel products still have the advantage of price and easy for manufacturing. Apart from luxuries cars already using light metal bodies, steel car bodies still take a large part of auto body market for it cheaper price and relatively better mechanical properties. The car industry: Dilemmas