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Issues In Non Functional Requirements Elicitation Information Technology Essay

One of the primary responsibilities of requirement engineer is the elicitation of functional and non-functional requirements. Functional requirements outlines the functionality, the system has to be performed while non-functional requirements (NFRs) impose the constraints on this functionality. Software market is increasing its demand for not only the desired functionality but also the necessity of non-functional requirements such as security, usability, performance, privacy etc. The current practice in the industry is to deal with functional requirements as first class requirements while non-functional requirements are only catered at design and implementation level. This approach leaves a serious flaw in the system design towards user satisfaction and often results in the failure of projects such as the classic example of London Ambulance System[1] . The chances of software success can be maximized when dealing with NFR at the requirements level. This literature survey is a first effort of its kind to seek key NFR challenges and issues while elicitation level of requirement engineering. It also find-outs the approaches and methods that are suggested in literature to deal with these issues. Keywords: Requirement Engineering, Non-Functional Requirements, Literature Survey, Approaches, Techniques, Issues. 1. Introduction The success of a system generally depends upon the degree of satisfaction it provides to its users. Fulfillment of requirements is one the measure towards this satisfaction. The common industry practice is to primarily focus on functional requirements and other important concepts such as non-functional requirements are not considered till the design and development. This approach leaves a serious flaw in the resultant system because many stakeholders’ preferences and their specifications are not fully addressed. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) is an important concept in requirement engineering which plays an important role in the success of a system [2]. Inconsistency or ambiguity in NFR often results in the failure of the system such as the famous example of London Ambulance System [1]. Recent research in requirement engineering has focused on the necessity of the software that meets the user requirements but also copes with non-functional requirements such as reliability, security, performance as well as others [3]. These requirements should be treated from the beginning of software development process, throughout the whole life cycle [3] [4]. From the perspective of existing literature, most of the work, focused on dealing NFR, is still partial and incomplete. Incorporating NFR into different phases of software development process is still a difficult task. Researchers face numerous challenges including great diversity of NFRs, formal specification of requirements, NFRs subjective nature, incorporating these requirements into models used for specifying functional requirements and resolving conflicts among NFRs [2]. Most of the work is derived from Chung’s NFR framework [4], but it lacks the integration of NFR into conceptual modes [5]. This research work, on the basis of a literature survey, identifies some key challenges and issues while elicitation and analysis of non-functional requirements. It also find-outs the approaches and methods that are suggested in literature to deal with these issues. Our literature survey is based on the following two research questions: Research Question 1: What are the issues, problems and challenges while elicitation of Non-Functional Requirements ? Research Question 2: What are the techniques / approaches for the elicitation of NFRs? Although some quality work has been done for construction of NFR elicitation tools such as the Language Extended Lexicon (LEL) [6], but it was not our primary focus, so such work was not included in this literature survey. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly reviews some of the literature and background material. Section 3 synthesizes the results that were extracted from the existing literature based on our research questions. To conclude, we summarize our research and discuss various issues left open in the existing research. 2. Literature Survey The current industrial practice is to specify only functional requirements at the initial of software development process [2]. Non-functional requirements are not even considered as second class requirements; they are normally evaluated in the final product. As a result, initial levels of software development (elicitation and analysis) may not reflect the NFRs properly and thus may result in a product that does not fully address the requirements of a user [2]. In order to resolve this issue, different researchers have created a general awareness that non-functional requirements should be tied up with functional requirements [2] [6] [7]. It has been concluded to consider / elicit NFRs along with other requirements right from the beginning of requirement elicitation and analysis. Different approaches have been proposed ranging from unstructured and informal text to highly formal mathematical approaches [2]. These approaches generally depend on the goals of the project and available resources. In general, these approaches can be classified in the following categories: Goal driven approaches (possibly along with use cases) with the use of catalogues/ Library of reusable goals; Aspect oriented / View point oriented approaches; Templates and Patterns based approaches; Use cases and misuse cases based approaches; and Other approaches. 2.1. Goal Driven Approaches / Library of reusable goals The NFR Framework is the most popular work to model and analyze non-functional requirements. It treats NFRs as soft goals (goals that are hard to express) to be addressed during the development process [4]. The NFR framework consists of five major components: softgoals, contributions, methods, correlation rules, evaluation procedure. The Framework makes the relationships between the NFRs and intended decisions explicit. This approach helps understanding the impact of multiple design decision positively or negatively. This widely accepted framework has been researched and reused by many authors. Figure 1 shows the softgoal interdependcy graph proposed by chung. In using the NFR Framework, one constructs an initial softgoal interdependency graph by identifying the main non-functional requirements that the particular system under development should meet. In the credit card system example (as given in the figure), these may include security of account information and good performance in the storing and updating of that information. These non-functional requirements are then treated as softgoals, to be achieved, i.e., they are goals which need to be clarified, disambiguated, prioritized, elaborated upon etc. Next step is the decomposition of requirements that are quite broad and abstract and assignment priorities to them. At some point, when the non-functional requirements have been sufficiently refined, one will able to identify possible development techniques for achieving these NFRs and then choose specific solutions for the target system [4]. Figure 1. Softgoal Interdependency Graph ( reproduced from [4] ) Luiz Marcio et al. [8] present a reusable catalogue with strategies to satisfice usability requirements. Their aim of study is developing a usable ontology or classification of measurable aspects that can be used to aid in the specification of usability requirements. These ontologies should be represented in a way that facilitates their use as guidelines for the requirements elicitation process. Their work is built on review of literature in the area of human computer interaction and the emerging field of usability engineering in developing a catalogue used to guide the requirements engineer through alternatives for achieving usability. Although goal-oriented method can support the elicitation of NFRs in the same way as FR’s elicitation, it lacks the integration of NFRs into FRs and to get an integrated description based on the use cases [9]. 2.2. Use Cases and Misuse Cases Based Approaches Use cases are based on the idea of describing a system’s desired behaviour by mentioning a story (along with alternatives and exceptions) and associated information from point of view of an external entity (actor). Misuse cases are based on the idea of negative scenarios i.e. a situation desired not to occur by an actor. Misuse cases (based on negative scenarios and malign actors) can enhance the elicitation process by identifying and analysing threats to system operation. They threaten use cases with failure, and appropriate use cases can mitigate known misuse cases. Misuse cases seem naturally to lead to non-functional requirements such as for safety and security. In [10], the authors outline concepts for an analysis of NFRs of a software system and develop a misuse based method for deriving detailed NFRs. Much research work has been inspired by the quality attribute taxonomy. J. Dörr et al. [7] sketch an approach developed in the context of the EMPRESS project, for eliciting and documenting efficiency requirements in concert with use cases and a high-level architecture. Their approach is based on the use of a quality model and quality attribute types to capture general knowledge on NFRs, while specific NFRs are captured in a template. This approach is based on some general characteristics that can be generalized to other NFRs such as reliability requirements. 2.3. Templates and Patterns Based Approaches Templates and Patterns are a better solution for managing the complexity of non-functional requirements elicitation process. In [11] and [12], the authors have considered usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. The goal is to propose artefacts (patterns) for reusing usability knowledge and supporting developers during the usability requirements elicitation stage. These patterns (Feedback, Undo/cancel, User input error prevention, Wizard, User profile, Help, Command aggregation) will then be able to be used to extract all the information required to fully and unambiguously specify the system’s usability features. Figure 2. Process of eliciting the usability requirements ( reproduced from [11] ) Figure 2 describes the process of incorporating usability features for software functionality at the requirements elicitation stage. The usability requirements elicitation patterns can be added to the mechanisms and techniques to be used in the process of eliciting the requirements of the new software system to be developed and be used to specify all the usability requirements that have a direct impact on system architecture [11]. 2.4. Aspect Oriented / View Point Oriented Approaches I. Sommerville et al. [13] have introduced an approach to multi-perspective requirements engineering (PREview) which has been designed for industrial use. The authors showed how ‘concerns’, which are key business drivers of the requirements elicitation process, may be used to elicit and validate system requirements. They are decomposed into questions which must be answered by system stakeholders. The proposed approach helps improve the quality of requirements specification by providing a framework for requirements elicitation, analysis and negotiation and support analysis based on the key business concerns which define the success or failure of a project. 2.5. Other Approaches In [14], the authors have presented the secure software development process AEGIS, which provides important tools for developing secure and usable systems. They have defined a UML meta-model identifying assets, the context of operation and supporting the modelling of security requirements. This semantics allows the developers and the users to formulate constraints and needs for the security aspects of the system in a simple but clear way. By modelling the context in which the system operates and the interactions of the operatives and the assets of the system, this notation also allows the documentation of usability needs. 3. Results and Discussions NFRs are generally considered as quality attributes or constraints on the software. They are normally hidden somewhere in the software specifications, or mentioned in the form of comments or special requirements. Consequently NFRs are frequently ignored or even forgotten leading to changes in software that will take place after the software was deployed. It has been observed that the corrections of NFRs are much more expensive and difficult to correct. Not eliciting NFRs or eliciting it inconsistently has led to the failure of many software projects. NFRs have surprisingly received little attention in the literature and are much poorly understood than other less critical aspects of the software development [3]. Elicitation of NFRs is not a straight-forward activity. NFRs are scattered to the functional requirements so called cross-cutting concerns to the FRs. Elicitation approaches which deals with producing requirements can run the risk of creating requirements which are ambiguous to the user community. The elicitation issues discussed in [15] are : Problem of scope; Problem of understanding; and Problem of volatility. These issues of elicitation are common both in functional and non-functional requirement elicitation. For non-functional requirements elicitation, we have found the following issues as cited in the literature: Integration of NFR with FR; Conflicts of Requirements; and Ambiguously specification of the system’s features. 3.1. Integration of NFR with FR Although Non-functional requirements have been increasingly accepted as the critical success measure of the success of the projects, it is under less focus in the industrial practices of software development in comparison to functional requirements. There are many guidelines available to sketch and model functional requirements i.e. UML views like use cases. Explicitly dealing with NFR and specifying NFR in concert to FR is a still a future research area. In most of the cases, NFRs are written in the form of special requirements in use cases and this informal approach leads towards different problems in the later stages of software development such as requirement tractability. All NFRs cannot be treated in the same way, for instance usability and security requirements need to be treated differently. The different communities concentrating on the different NFRs exemplify this. Thus, it seems difficult to define one method to cope with all NFRs [16] [7] . 3.2. Conflict of Requirements Views and preferences of different stakeholders in the elicitation of functional and non-functional requirements are generally different. NFR elicited from different stakeholders can be in conflict with each other. An NFR can rarely be said to be satisfied. That is, treating NFRs as goals we bring the notion of partial satisfaction (satisfice) to refer to the solutions that are good enough even if they are not optimal [17] . So, the conflicts should be explicit including all the derived dependencies. Furthermore the decisions to solve the conflicts should be based on the rank of priorities [18]. 3.3. Ambiguous specification of the system’s features Certain features / quality attribute needs to be specified in a formal and consistent way so that they may be properly reflected in the system under development. These concerns are normally of highest priority and the absence / deficiency /inconsistency of these requirements normally results in a system where user satisfaction remains a question mark. Some of the important attributes based on literature work are as under: 3.3.1. Usability Requirements Usability plays an important role in the success of a system as it is strongly influences the acceptance of the system by end users. Users can range from novice to experts and can have different levels of experience, knowledge and expertise. In most cases, neither users nor developers are good sources of the information that can be used to specify a usability feature. Dealing with usability features in isolation does not provide developers with enough information about what kind of artifacts to use to satisfy such requirements [12]. Most of the research in usability issues is focused on providing a better user interface (UIs), but there is a need of systematic approach to analyze and model usability in the early stages of software development along with functional requirements. 3.3.2. Security Requirements Security, being a largely neglected area in requirement engineering, has become an increasingly growing concern in the information age. Keeping sensitive information secure is increasingly important within the context of electronic commerce applications [19]. Usually security requirements are specified at later stages of development; results in the compromise on system’s vulnerability. The number of security incidents reported has been growing exponentially over the past decade. Attackers can exploit many weak points in the system if the integrity and security requirements are not properly identified and ensured in the system. The elaboration, specification, analysis and documentation of application-specific security requirements is an area that has been left virtually unexplored by requirements engineering research to date [20]. 3.3.3. Privacy Requirements Privacy requirements play a critical role in the personal information system that deal with human-subjects data. These requirements capture privacy goals and their associated measures for a system under development. In order to ensure privacy we must identify the elements that dictate protection for sensitive information. The identification of such elements is not a straight forward task. These elements are normally difficult to quantity and precisely specify. There is a need for systematic approaches for reasoning, modeling and analyzing privacy from the early stages of the software development [21]. The following tables list some of the results that were concluded on the basis of this literature survey. Table 1 illustrates a part of available literature based on our research questions. Table 2 shows the relevant studies along with proposed approaches to handle the NFR elicitation issues, mentioned in the literature. Table 1 : Paper Objective, Issues and Proposed Approaches S.Id Title Research Objective Research Question 1 Research Question 2 1 Eliciting Efficiency Requirements with Use Cases An approach developed in the context of the EMPRESS project, which allows efficiency requirements to be elicited in conjunction with use case [7]. Abstraction levels for the elicitation and alignment of FR, NFR and AOs; Views of different stakeholders in the elicitation of NFRs, FRs; Identification of dependencies among FRs, NFRs and AOs; and Compact description of the solution space 1. Use of a quality model and quality attribute types to capture general knowledge on NFRs, while specific NFRs are captured in a template. 2. A detailed checklists on how to elicit NFRs in concert with use cases and architecture. 2 A Framework for Integrating Non-Functional Requirements into Conceptual Models Presents a framework for integrating NFRs into the ER and OO models [6]. Search for NFRs can be harder since neither the stakeholders nor the requirements engineers are used to dealing with them Combination of the LEL and ethnography. Proposed The Non-Functional Model. The strategy is Catalogue NFR knowledge using a tool that extends the concepts of the LEL to represent knowledge of NFRs; A strategy for searching for NFRs in the UofD using the knowledge base together with elicitation methods suited to NFR acquisition; and Represent these NFRs using an adaptation of the NFR graph proposed by Chung. 3 Non-Functional Requirements Engineering – Quality is Essential Defines the requirements on a NFR method, compare this with current approaches and sketch ideas how to fill the gap between the current methods and their requirements [18]. Scenarios, ethnographical methods for elicitation. A practical template asking for specific NFR is VOLERE. WinWin-approach (group decision), Aspect-oriented approaches algorithms and tools such as QARCC for the management of conflicts. 4 Non-Functional Requirements: Size Measurement and Testing with COSMIC-FFP This paper contributes to the achievement of more precise project size measurement through incorporating NFRs into the functional size quantification process [22]. Every system goal cannot be entirely fulfilled, tradeoff must be made; the process is informal, it leaves the knowledge and the rationale that led to decisions undocumented. This makes it difficult to trace back to the selection criteria on which the decisions were developed. 5 Integrating FRs and NFRs: A Use Case and Goal Driven Approach In order to encourage practitioners to focus more on much deserved NFRs, there is a need for frameworks to provide a smooth transition from the use case modeling. This paper proposes such a framework for integrating NFRs with FRs in the use case model [16]. Description of NFR is mentioned in special requirements section of use case description; this process is manual and error prone as the process is manual and thorough proof read of all use case description is required due to the lack of visual representation of NFR in the UML models. Use case and goal-driven framework for integrating FRs and NFRs. 6 Transformation Based Approach for Weaving Use Case Models in Aspect-Oriented Requirements Analysis This paper discusses techniques for combining non-functional requirements (NFRs) with functional requirements (FRs) in requirements analysis phases, based on aspect-oriented approach [9]. It is a problem to embed the elicited NFRs into the FRs and get an integrated description based on use case modeling, because the NFRs are scattered to the FRS, so called cross-cutting concerns to the FRs. Goal-Oriented Analysis and Use Cases. 7 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Using Catalogues to Elicit Non-Functional Requirements Understanding what the software must implement in order to cope with the needs is a challenging task. One way of addressing the need for help on NFR elicitation is the use of catalogues. It is shown that teams using catalogues performed significantly better [17]. When the requirements engineer decides to satisfice (operationalize) a non-functional requirement he may cause conflicts with other nonfunctional requirements. The paper presents a framework for reusing knowledge on satisficing NFRs for goal-oriented approaches (Based on NFR Framework) with Use of catalogue. 8 Reusable Knowledge for Satisficing Usability Requirements It is necessary to develop a usable ontology or classification of measurable aspects of usability that can be used to aid in the specification of usability requirements. These ontologies should be represented in a way that facilitates their use as guidelines for the requirements elicitation process [8]. In order to ensure usable systems we must ensure identification of appropriate requirements regarding these critical aspects of systems. However, a number of difficulties exist, for example it may be difficult to quantify and precisely specify these qualities in software systems. Usability Catalogue In this catalogue, usability is interpreted by refining it into subgoals and subsubgoals. 9 Non-Functional Requirements: From Elicitation to Modeling Languages This work aims at filling this gap, proposing a strategy to elicit NFRs and to integrate them into conceptual models [3]. Lack of integration of NFRs to functional requirements results in conceptual models can result in projects that will take more time to be concluded, as well as to bigger maintenance costs. 10 Identifying Aspectual Use Cases Using a Viewpoint-Oriented Requirements Method The crosscutting nature of requirements can be managed using aspect-oriented concepts. Aspects could be integrated to Vision, a viewpoint-oriented requirements method that integrates UML models [23]. NFRs can conflict with each other Vision (Viewpoint-oriented requirements approach with UML which was extended to include aspect-oriented concepts). Proposed NFR Template. 11 A Survey of Non-Functional Requirements in Software Development Process This survey paper reviews the NFR concepts, relates them to the overall software development process and identifies new areas of further work [2]. NFRs are subjective nature, formally specifying requirements, incorporating these requirements into models used for specifying functional requirements and resolving conflicts among NFRs. 12 RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE USABILITY REQUIREMENTS ELICITATION PROCESS Details an approach to deal with usability features in the early software development stages. The authors consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns to elicit requirements, used to extract all the information required to fully and unambiguously specify the system’s usability features [11]. Proposed artefacts (patterns) for reusing usability knowledge and supporting developers during the usability requirements elicitation stage. Proposed patterns include: Feedback, Undo/cancel, User input error prevention, Wizard, User profile, Help and Command aggregation. 13 Elaborating Security Requirements by Construction of Intentional Anti-Models The paper presents a constructive approach to the modeling, specification and analysis of application specific security requirements. The method is based on a goal-oriented framework for generating and resolving obstacles to goal satisfaction [20]. Requirements need to be explicit, precise, adequate, non-conflicting with other requirements and complete. Proposed Specification Patterns for Security Goals. The patterns are associated with specializations of the SecurityGoal meta-class, namely, Confidentiality, Integrity etc. 14 Identifying Stakeholders and Their Preferences about NFR by Comparing Use Case Diagrams of Several Existing Systems Presents a method to identify stakeholders and their preferences about non-functional requirements by using use case diagrams of existing systems. They focus on the changes about NFR. Comparing different use case diagrams of the same domain helps us to find the changes that can occur. They utilize the Goal-Question-Metrics (GQM) method to identify variables that characterize NFR [24]. Identify stakeholders and their preferences about non-functional requirements using use case diagrams of existing systems. 15 Misuse Cases Help to Elicit Non-Functional Requirements The proposed approach analyses Use and Misuse Cases in a game-like sequence to discover successively more detailed threats and NFRs to mitigate these threats. Misuse Cases seem naturally to lead to Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) such as for safety and security [10]. Use Cases and Misuse cases to elicit Non-Functional Requirements. 16 Experiences in Eliciting Security Requirements In this article, the author describes a trade-off analysis that he used to select a suitable requirements elicitation method and presents results detailed from a case study of one method and a series of two other methods, used in a series of case studies [25]. Elicitation Methods for Security: 1. Misuse Cases 2. Quality Function Deployment 3. Controlled Requirements Expression 4. Soft Systems Methodology 5. Joint Application Development 6. Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis 7. Critical Discourse Analysis 8. Accelerated Requirements Method. 17 A Requirements Elicitation Approach Based in Templates and Patterns Presents requirements templates that can improve requirements elicitation and expression, and two kinds of patterns: linguistic patterns, which are very used sentences in natural language requirements descriptions, and requirements patterns, which are generic requirements templates that are found very often during the requirements elicitation process and that can be reused with some adaptation [26]. Requirements engineers do not usually have good writing skills, and sometimes semantically correct requirements, expressed in natural language, are not understood because of the way they are written. Current elicitation techniques such as Joint Application Development (JAD), brainstorming or interviews do not address requirements expression. Proposed Non-functional Requirement Template. 18 The Treatment of Non-Functional Requirements in MIKE In this paper it is shown how non-functional requirements are modelled in MIKE, an approach to the development of knowledge-based systems [27]. Proposed NFR Context for providing the vocabulary to express NFRs in a structured way. 19 Integrating Security And Usability Into The Requirements And Design Process Describes AEGIS (Appropriate and Effective Guidance for Information Security), a methodology for the development of secure and usable systems [14]. AEGIS 20 Viewpoints for requirements elicitation: a practical approach Introduces an approach to multi-perspective requirements engineering (PREview). The authors show how ‘concerns’, which are key business drivers of the requirements elicitation process, may be used to elicit and validate system requirements. They are decomposed into questions which must be answered by system stakeholders [13]. PREview 21 Reusable Knowledge for Achieving Privacy: A Canadian Health Information Technologies Perspective There is a need for systematic approaches for reasoning, modeling and analyzing privacy from the early stages of the software development. It is necessary to develop a usable ontology or classification of measurable aspects of privacy that can be used to aid in the specification of privacy requirements [21]. Privacy requirements may be difficult to quantify and precisely specify. The work, built using the i* framework, presents a reusable knowledge base showing possible alternatives to operationalize privacy requirements using a Privacy Catalogue. 22 The Use of Goals to Extract Privacy and Security Requirements from Policy Statements Addresses the use of goals to extract non-functional requirements from policy statements. It presents a summary of a goal-based approach for extracting standard security and privacy requirements from policy statements [19]. By employing the library of reusable privacy and security goals, requirements engineers and policy makers can identify
Study on CNT based MOSFET and Circuit Design.

Research Abstract and IntroductionIt should present your initial understanding from the literature survey and outline of the research. It should also include the proposed outcome of the work, outline the approach, and relevant references.Final ReportTypewritten in 5-6 single-spaced pages (single column), it should describe your research work in detail and have the format of a technical paper. In particular, it should include an abstract, introduction, description of your problem (including previous work), description of the proposed improvement, performance analysis, conclusions, and a list of references. Include all your study, all diagrams, simulation code (if you are using Multisim), sample runs of your experiments/simulations, and other relevant information as appendices (reference page).
Study on CNT based MOSFET and Circuit Design

Benefits Of Working In Partnership Children And Young People Essay. 7.1 Summarise the benefits of working in partnership with parents and others. The importance of building relationships and making links with parents is crucial. The old fashion attitude towards parents by early year’s workers was definitely wrong i.e. ‘we know what is best for your child’. This was an unhelpful attitude and created an atmosphere where parents did not feel at ease. Talking to practitioners parents felt that their views were not important. Parents did not feel comfortable coming into early years setting (nursery, school) unless they had been invited or had an appointment to attend. This approach and situation has nowadays generally changed and early year’s workers recognise that working with parents is very beneficial to children’s learning and development. As children come into settings with different experiences and many different needs, the main source of information about children is very often from their parents or main carers. Parents should be treated as partners as they are the children’s first and most influential educators. Working together the long term benefits of a constructive partnership between parents and practitioners will have a positive impact on a child’s development and learning experiences. Parents may also feel more encouraged and supportive towards the school. There are many ways in which children benefit when parents and practitioners work together: Children will definitely settle more easily and feel more secure if they know that their parents and practitioners (childminder, nursery or school teacher) ‘get on’ really well. Children will gain from having a similar routine or approach – for example, parents are able to tell practitioners what time a child normally needs a rest, eats or feels tired, dealing with difficult tantrums and what to expect, or the use of a EpiPen if a allergic reaction is trigged and any difficult toilet issues. Practitioners and parents can work together to help a child who has a particular developmental need for example, a child with a language delay may need extra help in nursery or school with speech and some sign language enforcement i.e. Makaton which is a language program designed to help communication between individuals who cannot communicate efficiently by speaking or a child with poor pencil grip may learn the proper way of holding a pencil at school and will also help them at home when writing or drawing. Parents/ main carers are usually the first to notice that something is bothering a child, they can pass their concerns to practitioners who can recognise and help to resolve. Small unsolved problems or situations may become big ones if not treated promptly. Diabetes and insulin dependency is another very important area that needs to be discussed and completely covered so everyone’s aware of a child’s needs. Early year’s personnel should have an understanding of diabetes and must be trained in its management and in the treatment of diabetic emergencies. There are many ways in which staff in settings can try to build up a good relationship between a child’s home and the setting: In order to work effectively with parents most settings introduce an ‘open door policy’. The idea is to assure parents that they are able to talk to staff or teachers whenever they have any concerns. This means that instead of having to make an appointment or waiting until for example parents evening, any particular concern or worry can be raised straight away. The open door policy builds trust as parents know they are always welcome to pop in and have an informal chat or view their children’s work whenever they wish. Children also benefit from this very casual approach as they can sense that parents and practitioners are work closely together. Children can show their parents what they have been doing in their nursery or school. It is extremely important as children are excited to show off their work and achievements and they want their parents to be proud of them too. Getting to know the parents is essential in early years setting. Workers need to be welcoming and understand the importance of parents so that avenues of communication are established. Once the relationship is build it is easier for both parents and practitioners to bring up concerns that may arise for example, child has been diagnosed as asthmatic and a pump needs to be used, parents have separated from their partner and the child is aware, a family pet has just died. These are very personal and sensitive issues so the relationship needs to be close and comfortable for both parties. All the children are different and have different needs the same relates to parents. For example parents may be slightly anxious as they leave their children in school for the first time from parents who are experienced and comfortable with leaving their child. We have to remember that relating to parents well is just as much a skill as working with children. Some parents will be uncomfortable talking to members of staff while others will be friendly and feel relaxed. Early years workers will learn how to listen and talk to parents as their experience and confidence grows. There may be times when parents will need to be contacted quickly for example, child is not feeling well, had an accident etc. Exchanging emergency information its extremely important. It is vital that early years workers have the correct and update information to hand i.e. emergency numbers and addresses are usually exchanged during the admission procedure. We should encourage parental involvement as parents often have a lot to offer settings in terms of their knowledge, interests, experience, and in volunteering for activities. Working together can also help bring the community closer together; especially in areas where there are different cultural groupings. Many setting find that parents who come to help are able to bring in many skills and different areas of expertise. Some parents offer to help permanently i.e. ‘reading mums’ in school one a week for an hour; others may help occasionally i.e. school production. Some parents find that working as helpers boost their confidence and give them the chance to meet other parents. We have to remember that nowadays for a parent to be able to work/help in a setting he/she needs to have a current CRB check by the police. A good working partnership between parents and settings should mean that parents enjoy coming in while the setting appreciates their time and help and the children are able to benefit from having extra adult attention. We have to realise that being friendly with parents is not the same as being friends as this may cause unnecessary problems i.e. parents asking for confidential information, or asking to let unwell child to stay in setting. Professional boundaries must be maintained at all times to avoid misunderstandings. It can be beneficial for early years setting to establish liaisons with other agencies. As a part of the process of helping children to settle in it can be helpful to exchange or gain information from other agencies for example, a previous nursery that the child has attended or from a childminder. Other professionals might be able to give us advice as how to meet that child’s needs or might suggest strategies they used which were helpful. They may have also some information or observations or even notes about a particular child, which will be appropriate for us to see and know. Whatever information we receive from agencies should be referenced with parental consent. (The only exception – case of suspected abuse). Working with Healthcare professionals. If a child has a disability or emotional issues it is likely they will meet with a variety of healthcare professionals, from Doctors, Physiotherapist, Social workers, Occupational therapist, Dieticians, Orthotics, Speech or language therapist. Parents must inform and communicate to practitioners if their child is seeing a healthcare professional, as for everyone to better understand the child’s behaviour. For example if a child is being treated for anxiety or depression and the school is unaware of their condition, the child might be looked upon as being shy or a bad mixer when asked to participate with others, wrong diagnosis can be more harmful as the child is being left out or ignored. These experiences can cause a lasting impression on a child’s life, as can a good experience with a caring early year’s worker or teacher. Working closely with parents, teachers and healthcare professionals can only improve a child’s overall achievement and wellbeing to optimise their development and growth. The most important relationship you can develop will be with your general practitioner (GP). Doctor’s train for at least five years after medical school to become GPs and have an extensive knowledge base with regards to many health conditions .Getting your child used to seeing your GP from an early age will have major benefits as they grow older. Being in known surroundings and seeing a familiar face will help any anxiety they might have about visiting the doctor. Your doctor can provide a wide range of services and give advice on health issues. GPs will also refer you to hospital for treatment or to other specialist healthcare professionals. The relationship with other healthcare professionals is equally important as we need to build trust and confidence with each one. When dealing with patients, health professionals should be truthful and respect the privacy and dignity of any patient young or old. We have the right to information about the condition of our health and any diagnosis or illness. We also have a right to be involved in any decisions with regards to any treatment or care we may receive and warned about serious side effects. Our consent must be sought after and medical records should always remain confidential. Physiotherapists Physiotherapists are experts in the physical treatment and the improvement of certain conditions. Physiotherapists help to restore lost movement and function to someone affected by illness, injury or other disabilities. Social workers Social workers are professionally qualified health professionals who assess people’s needs for care or social services. They will support and find solution, to issues people find themselves in. They have good knowledge of the law, and the social welfare system. Occupational therapists Occupational therapists work with patients who have a physical disability, mental health issues, learning disability or medical conditions. Patients with difficulties doing everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal, going up stairs, taking a bath, or getting into bed. Dieticians Dieticians are health professionals who explain and treat diet, they assess and diagnose any nutritional problems a patient may have. Prosthetist and orthotist Prosthetist and orthotist provide care for anyone requiring an artificial limb, splints, braces or special footwear to assist in movement, they work with other healthcare professionals to provide treatment. Speech and language therapist The role of a speech and language therapist is in treating someone who has problems communicating with speech or language, by helping people of all ages, to communicate better. A patient’s beliefs or views should be respected during their healthcare, and they should receive treatment regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability. It is very important our healthcare professionals work as a team as they are from a variety of disciplines and have to work together to deliver a professional service for all patients. Good communication is essential for effective relationship development. Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia www.daycaretrust.org.uk www.ofsted.gov.uk www.alt.org.uk www.hertschs.nhs.uk www.nhscareers.nhs.uk Benefits Of Working In Partnership Children And Young People Essay

Short research paper 3 pages at least.

Short research paper 3 pages at least.. I don’t know how to handle this English question and need guidance.

I need a research paper talk about the best place to spend spring break for Arizona state university students with the perfect reasons, and I need the introduction talk about the benefits of the spring break for the students and why the university gives this break for their students and with clear thesis about the place. Then I want to talk about the criteria for each paragraph. Also I need some sources and pictures in the research. At least 3 pages the research. Also I need it easy for the readers and simple because I am an international students.
Short research paper 3 pages at least.

Clinical Manifestation Of Osteomyelitis Nursing Essay

online dissertation writing Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Osteomyelitis is the inflammation of the bone. This can be due to bacteria, fungi and germs PubMed Health 2012. Bone destruction, necrosis and formation of new bone or also called as involucrum are all features of chronic osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis are characterised into two types depending where the infection originates. Homogenous osteomyelitis where the culprit of the infection such as bacteria, fungi or germs enters the bone through the lymphatic and circulatory systems and lodged in the small vessels, causing blockage in the bone. The bone will deprived of oxygen supply that causes thrombosis, ischaemia and eventually the bone will die, known as sequestrum (Marek 2007). The characteristic of bone inflammation is the accumulation of fluid, increased vasculature and leukocytes in the area. Bone’s caniculi will be sealed by exudates through the metaphysis, bone marrow cavity and into the cortex. As a result, this will lead to the formation of new bone by osteoblast, known, as involucrum. The infected materials escape through the opening of the involucrum into the soft tissues. The infectious materials will weaken the cortex of bone making it more prone to fracture (Marek 2007). Exogenous osteomyelitis is the infection starts at the soft tissues affecting the muscles and connective tissues that lead to the formation of abscesses oedema or this is known as Brodie’s abscesses (Marek 2007). Clinical Manifestation of Osteomyelitis The clinical manifestation of osteomyelitis generally includes general malaise or weakness, headache, anorexia and fever. The site of infection will exhibit redness, swelling, warm to touch, tender and usually contains purulent material (Marek 2007). The high dose intravenous antibiotic treatment for Mr. Andrews of three to eight weeks is necessary to kill the causative agents of the infection and prevent its reoccurrence (Marek 2007). What is PICC and the complications associated with the device? Peripherally inserted central catheter or PICC is a soft, long plastic tube inserted into the superficial vein proximal to the basilic or cephalic vein. The PICC is place for medication treatment such as antibiotic, chemotherapy and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (California Pacific Medical Center 2012). Complications of the PICC are includes infection, occlusion, thrombosis and air embolism. Infection usually occurs either inside or on the insertion site. The area becomes swollen/tender, red and fever. The PICC line should be plush before and after the procedure to ensure patency of the line thus, preventing blood clot or thrombosis. The line should remained clamped and close after being used to prevent air from entering into the system (Erickson

Obtain an Illinois Soil Survey (pdf version only) for a county that you are interested in. This can be some family property, a state park, your home, a new subdivision you pass to and from work/school each day… any place you are interested in in Illinois.

Obtain an Illinois Soil Survey (pdf version only) for a county that you are interested in. This can be some family property, a state park, your home, a new subdivision you pass to and from work/school each day… any place you are interested in in Illinois..

Obtain an Illinois Soil Survey (pdf version only) for a county that you are interested in. This can
be some family property, a state park, your home, a new subdivision you pass to and from
work/school each day… any place you are interested in in Illinois. Available counties are
located at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/soilsurve…
Follow the Illinois link and select a county. IF THERE ARE MULTIPLE LINKS
AVAILABLE FOR A COUNTY, SELECT THE MOST RECENT YEAR PDF that is
avaiable. Download the Soil Survey manuscript pdf for the area you are interested in. WEB
SOIL SURVEY (WSS) will be used to obtain a soil map of the site you are interested in.
The pdf soil survey used to have map sheets linked at the end but the USDA has slowly been
removing them from the pdf soil surveys and having people use WSS instead as it can be
updated more easily. You should still use the county soil survey pdf to do this assignment.
Later in the semester we will use Web Soil Survey data. Don’t use the data from WSS for
this assignment. Obtaining a map is ok though
Obtain an Illinois Soil Survey (pdf version only) for a county that you are interested in. This can be some family property, a state park, your home, a new subdivision you pass to and from work/school each day… any place you are interested in in Illinois.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III.

the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III)Create a PowerPoint presentation of 16-18 slides for the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Address and include the following in your PowerPoint: A title, introduction, and conclusion slideWhat is the MCMI-III and what does it measure?What are the legal and ethical requirements for a professional to administer, interpret, and/or report the results of an MCMI-III?How would information gathered from the MCMI-III assist in the intake and treatment planning process?Describe potential treatment strategies that would likely be incorporated into a treatment plan based on results from an MCMI-III.Include speaker notes below each content-related slide that represent what would be said if giving the presentation in person. Expand upon the information included in the slide and do not simply restate it. Please ensure the speaker notes include a minimum of 50 words.A reference slide with a minimum of four scholarly references in addition to Groth-Marnat, G., & Wright, A. J. (2016). Handbook of Psychological Assessment . Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

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