Issue-Specific Security Policy (ISSP) provides detailed, targeted guidance to instruct employees in the use of a resource. For this week’s critical thinking activity, write a 4- to 6-page paper answering the following questions about ISSP.
What is the purpose of an ISSP? List and describe three functions that an ISSP serves in an organization. What should be the first component of an ISSP when it is presented? Why? What should be the second major component? Why? List and describe three common ways in which ISSP documents are created and/or managed.
ISM 527 CSU Global Issue Specific Security Policy Analysis Paper
A Literature Review is a synthesis of background work that supports a research question/hypothesis you will pursue or argument you will make. It then describes the major findings in the area understudy. Basically, a Literature Review lays the foundation for research by:-offering a survey of the work that has been completed by others-supporting a rationale for a developing research project.Requirements:One to two pages, no less than oneDouble-spaced exactly, extra space removed, 1 inch marginsLeft-justified, tab in for paragraphsMargins all around are one inchTimes New Roman or Garamond, Size 12Introduction, followed by content organized into coherent paragraphs, concluding with a research question hypothesis, or argumentComplete sentences, subject/verb agreement, consistent tenseIn-text citations follows APA styleReference list with a Minimum of five (5) sources
Physical security provides various forms of deterrents. Using proper APA formatting address the following.
What are some of the physical barriers provided by CCTV and chain link fences as it relates to discouraging criminal activities?
Should the designs and features of physical barriers be considered when business owners are planning to install such systems at their businesses? Why or why not?
From the reading material list and explain 4 types of fences.
Requirements Please write a minimum of two paragraphs on each question. Every paragraph must be indented, have at least four complete sentences, subtitled (centered bold), and a different in-text citation. Do not continuously cite at the end of each paragraph. You are required to write and cite according to APA 6
th Edition format. Your SafeAssign Score needs to be no more than 30%. Please ensure that you use the Individual Project Header for this and every IP assignment. Failure to comply with these requirements will result in a low or zero grade.
What are some of the physical barriers provided by CCTV and chain link fences as it relates to discouraging criminal activities? Should the designs and features of physical barriers be considered when business owners are planning to install such systems a
Issue of Traffic Congestion in City of Aberdeen
Issue of Traffic Congestion in City of Aberdeen. Traffic congestion remains a significant problem within Aberdeen and in the wider sphere, which results in massive delays, fuel wastage and pollution. The transport issue, which will be confronted within this essay, is congestion, and subsequently pollution, which is a by-product of high volumes of traffic. Congestion occurs when the amount of traffic exceeds the design capacity, so when the infrastructure is no longer sufficient for the volume of traffic. The type of congestion that Aberdeen experiences is described as recurrent congestion, which occurs at the same time in a particular area typically first or last thing during the working day (Grant-Muller and Laird, 2006, p.19). Throughout this essay both Aberdeen city and the shire will be incorporated in order to assess the issues of congestion and pollution and to suggest measures that can be taken in order to address them. It is necessary to discuss strategies on both as they are directly interlinked and strategies to improve one, subsequently improves the other. It was reported in 2017 that the annual levels of Nitrogen Dioxide across Aberdeen continue to exceed the national air quality objective (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2018). This supports the assertion that there is a real need to address the issue. The city experiences high volumes of freight traffic due to its coastal location and the oil industry in the North Sea. Policies and strategies such as the Aberdeen Masterplan and the Nestrans Regional Transport Strategy will be drawn upon to determine how these issues are being dealt with. I will analyse some of the efforts being undertaken or proposed to reduce congestion and consider what impact these have on pollution, this will be backed up with wider research. The foundation of the essay will be based on what has been done already and what else can be done to further improve the situation. It is evident that the issues of high congestion rates are related to the high rate of car ownership within the City and the Shire. Aberdeenshire has the highest rate of car ownership in Scotland with around 85% of households having access to at least one car (Guild, 2014, p.4). Cars are particularly vital for people living in rural Aberdeenshire. Schemes to try and improve park and ride sites and access to rail links are being discussed to try and reduce car use within the region (Transport Geography Debate, 2019), therefore easing congestion and pollution within the city. Furthermore, the city itself has the highest number of cars per household out of all of the principle cities in Scotland, with only 31% of households not having access to a car (Guild, 2014, p.4). The cities infrastructure is unable to accommodate such high volumes of traffic, not only from the city and commuters but also from freight traffic. A way in which congestion within the North East is being tackled is through the creation of the Aberdeen Western Peripheral Road (referred to as AWPR hereafter). It fully opened in February 2019 and has provided substantial benefits across Aberdeen since. The AWPR is a 58.3km bypass from North to South Aberdeen, which aims to ease congestion and emissions within the city centre (Transport.gov.scot, 2006). By diverting traffic away from the city to the AWPR there will be a reduction in city centre congestion and therefore emissions due to less stand still congestion (Zhang and Battermanb, 2014). In addition, the road cuts journeys times in half as around 50% of traffic has moved away from the city area onto the AWPR (Transport Scotland, 2019), which has opened up road space in the city for active travel. Aberdeen is particularly suitable for active travel due to it being relatively compact and significant efforts have been made to improve cycling and walking zones. The AWPR has assisted in moving the volume of traffic, particularly freight vehicles, around the periphery of the city. Previously the volume of freight traffic through the city accounted for a large proportion of vehicles on Aberdeen’s roads. Nestrans found that freight flows typically occur first thing in the morning around 9am, which is typically the time of peak congestion within the city (Nestrans.org.uk, 2011, p.2). The development of the peripheral road has allowed the freight vehicles to bypass the centre greatly reducing congestion and pollution within the city. In conjunction with the development of the AWPR, the Nestrans plan has developed the rail network as an alternative to extracting freight from the cities roads. The plan has increased the accessibility for freight-sized containers to be transported by rail rather than road. New freight friendly rail links have opened at Craiginches, Raiths Farm and Waterloo Quay (Nestrans.org.uk, 2013). This has been instrumental in encouraging the use of rail as an alternative for transporting goods whilst reducing congestion and pollution on the city’s roads. Park and rides have been proposed as a realistic measure to reduce the number of journeys made and in so doing have a positive impact on congestion and pollution. The scheme works to encourage people to park outside the city boundary during busy commuting times and to take the bus. Aberdeen has park and rides in both the city (Bridge of Don, Craibstone and Kingswells) and the shire (Ellon), which offer upwards of 300 spaces per location (Nestrans.org.uk, 2018). However it has been reported that the Craibstone Park and ride which has a capacity of 996 vehicles, was only being utilised on average by 7 cars a day (McCann, 2019). Careful consideration is needed in order to maximize the benefit of park and rides such as Craibstone. Suggested measures to encourage their use include giving buses more priority on the cities roads to reduce their journey times. If buses are stuck in nose-to-tail traffic it makes them a very unattractive means of travelling, so in order to encourage their use, they need to be given more road priority (Nestrans.org.uk, 2019). In addition, a reduction in city centre parking spaces would encourage increased use of park and rides as it would make it harder to drive to the centre and park easily. This is a measure that should therefore reduce congestion and pollution within the city limits (Nestrans.org.uk, 2012). An example of a city, which has been hailed for its forward thinking transport system, is the Brazilian city of Curitiba. A survey conducted by the Corporación Andina de Fomento (2010) stated that buses and non-motorised trips embody 70% of total trips in the city. This has led to a 25% reduction in congestion highlighting how commuters are favouring public transport over using their car, which is having a positive impact on journey times (Carrier et al., 2014). Air pollution is a consequence of the high levels of nose-to-tail traffic that Aberdeen experiences. Free flowing traffic generates less pollution, which is why the AWPR will be beneficial in reducing current levels (AWPR | Go North East, n.d.). The AWPR will improve the air quality in the city centre due to less congestion, which will cause emissions to drop between 8 and 10% as follows; carbon monoxide (8%), Hydrocarbons (9%), Nitrogen oxide (10%) and Carbon Dioxide (9%). This reinforces how it’s a causal relationship between congestion and pollution (Comittees.aberdeenshire.gov, 2014). Another initiative, which has been introduced by the city council, is swapping to hydrogen buses. They run on zero emissions fuel and aim to reduce the emissions of the bus fleet overall by 42% by 2020 with Aberdeen having the largest fleet in Europe (Willmann, 2018). Aberdeen’s innovative approach to air pollution and with the AWPR diverting traffic away from the centre, this will free up road space for more sustainable transport. Looking to future plans, low emission zones, which restrict the most polluting vehicles, are being considered as an option to reduce emissions long term (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, n.d). Freight and buses cause 80% of the air quality issues within the city which is why it has been proposed that low emission zones are considered specifically for buses and freight vehicles to be diverted away from the centre or to operate in a more environmentally manor. The development of the APWR has allowed opportunities for more active travel to take place in the city. Cycling schemes being introduced by the Aberdeen active travel plan who have enforced 20mph restrictions, cycle lanes and advanced stopping lines (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2017, p. 2-3). During 2015/16 £2 million was invested in new signage, cycle parking and safety campaigns in the city to aid active travel (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2017, p.1). As the active travel plan details the city is utilising the freed road space caused by the AWPR to promote cycling (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2017). An increase in the number of people choosing to cycle also helps reduce the volumes of cars on the road, further reducing congestion levels. An example of where active travel is being prioritized is in Oslo, where they are aiming to be car free. To achieve this they have started to prioritise people over cars, turn parking spaces into bike lanes and create pedestrian only zones. Active travel is more attractive as there is less air pollution, which allows walkers and cyclists to explore freely (Wolfe, 2018). In Aberdeen, campaigns such as Bikeability Scotland and get ‘back in the saddle’ have been rolled out in order to help both children and adults gain confidence cycling. Two of the biggest barriers to active travel is safety and air pollution. The newly part-pedestrianised Broad Street could be a step forward towards increased use of active travel and changing transport habits. This measure could be built on further by using the Broad street model to pedestrianised Union Street. By removing the slow moving traffic on Union Street this could have a very positive impact on both congestion and pollution in the future (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2017). Transport priorities need to change, which is why initiatives such as car sharing schemes have been introduced as a means of reducing congestion and emissions further within the city. The city council has set up a car share scheme where individuals are able to enter journey details and find a match of someone doing the same journey. This reduces the amount of pressure on the road infrastructure and the amount of pollution from an unnecessary amount of cars when often they only have one person in them. (Aberdeenshire.gov.uk, 2019). Car sharing schemes, which are particularly effective in the shire, generates more space on roads, which makes active travel a lot more desirable. A scheme which London has adopted is not only having a car-sharing scheme, but to introduce electric cars into the scheme. Zipcar UK added 325 zero emissions electric cars to their fleet in an effort to cut down on an all time high levels of congestion and pollution in the city. This is been a great success as 20,000 trips have been made in the EV cars encouraging a more sustainable way to travel (Zipcar.co.uk, 2018). The more people who engage in active travel the less congested and polluted the streets will be. A new measure, which has been implemented, is cycle and pedestrian segregation zones such as on Diamond Bridge (Aberdeencity.gov.uk, 2017). The project has been hailed a success, as it has not only been busy with cars but also for people taking part in active travel (McKay, 2017). This highlights that if more areas were to provide designated areas for active travel, in the long run it would contribute greatly to reducing congestion and pollution within the city. Traffic congestion and pollution continue to be, and are likely to always be, issues that impact Aberdeen. This essay has found through analsysing various measures being taken or considered that there are a number of ways to tackle the linked challenges of congestion and pollution. It is clear that initiatives to tackle either congestion or pollution issues has a positive impact on the other. It is important to recognise the contribution that freight traffic and traffic around the shire have had in greatly adding to the congestion in Aberdeen city. The AWPR has been instrumental in tackling the issues in question and has opened up space for new schemes such as the active travel plan, hydrogen buses and park and rides. This has in turn also caused emissions to drop throughout the city. It is important to acknowledge, as has been noted throughout this essay, that future plans such as low emission zones and rolling out the Broad Street model onto Union Street would reduce both congestion and emission. Overall it is evident that the issue of congestion and pollution is beginning to be addressed in Aberdeen although there are still gaps that can be filled in order to further address the problem. References Aberdeencity.gov.uk. (2017). Aberdeen Active Travel Action Plan 2017-2021. [online] Available at: https://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Aberdeen Active Travel Action Plan.pdf [Accessed 22 Oct. 2019]. Aberdeencity.gov.uk. (n.d). Clean transport in the city | Aberdeen City Council. [online] Available at: https://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/services/roads-transport-and-parking/clean-transport-city [Accessed 20 Oct. 2019]. Aberdeencity.gov.uk. (2018). 2018 Air Quality Annual Progress Report (APR) for Aberdeen City Council. [online] Available at: https://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/sites/default/files/2018-07/Air Quality Annual Progress Report 2018.pdf [Accessed 24 Oct. 2019]. Aberdeenshire.gov.uk. (2019). Car Share Scheme. [online] Available at: https://www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk/roads-and-travel/transportation/commuting/car-share-scheme/. [Accessed 18 Oct. 2019]. AWPR | Go North East. (n.d.). #GoGreener: Sustainability for North East Scotland | AWPR. [online] Available at: https://awprgonortheast.co.uk/the-campaign/go-greener/) [Accessed 23 Oct. 2019]. Carrier, M., Domingue, J., Duarte, F. and Mercier, J. (2014). Understanding continuity in sustainable transport planning in Curitiba – Jean Mercier, Fabio Duarte, Julien Domingue, Mario Carrier, 2015. [online] SAGE Journals. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0042098014538526 [Accessed 28 Nov. 2019]. Comittees.aberdeenshire.gov.uk. (2014). Quick Facts – benefits of the Aberdeen Western Peripheral Route. [online] Available at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:t1jyL7gfaSMJ:committees.aberdeenshire.gov.uk/FunctionsPage.aspx?dsid=68341&action=GetFileFromDBIssue of Traffic Congestion in City of Aberdeen
Differences Of Unitary And Federal Governments
online dissertation writing Differences Of Unitary And Federal Governments. In federal states, the federal government is the government at the level of the nation-state. The structure of central governments varies from institution to institution. By delegating powers from the central government to governments at a sub national level, an autonomous regions are created by many countries. Based on a broad definition of a basic political system, there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and govern through common institutions with overlapping or shared powers as prescribed by a constitution or other law. As a basics, the central government has the power to make and enforece laws for the whole country which are in contrast with local government. The usual responsibilities of the central government which are not granted to lower levels of government are maintaining national security and exercising international diplomacy, including the right to sign binding treaties. In general, the difference between a central government and a federal central government is that the autonomous statuses of self-governing regions exists by the sufferance of the central government and are often created through a process of devolution. It is common for a federal central government to be brought into being by agreement between a number of formally independent states and therefore its powers to affect the status of the balance of powers is significantly smaller. For example are the United States of America. What is unitary government? When the central government possesses much authority and decision-making power, it is called the unitary government. The local governing bodies simply serve as administrative arms of the central government. For an example of a unitary government are the Great Britain which is a familiar example of a unitary government; individual British counties have little of the power commonly exercised by American states. France also has a unitary form of government where by it has 90 departments grouped into 36 provinces. It is important, however, to note that unitary governments are not inherently less democratic than other forms. Power is distributed completely opposite of a unitary government in a confederate government. Local governments protect and preserve their own authority by forming a weak central government. In a federal government, power is split between a central government authority and its constituent states. Usually, a constitution allocates duties, rights, and privileges to each level of government. The constitution usually defines how power is shared between national, state, and local governments; the power to amend this constitution is usually granted to the citizens or their governmental representatives. There are two basic categories in which governments are classified according to a decision making. In a totalitarian government, the power of rulers is not limited by outside forces, such as elections or public opinion. Totalitarian systems also restrict personal freedom in most cases. How does unitary government differ from a federal government? In a unitary government, the power is held by one central authority but in a federal government, the power is divided between national government or federal government and local governments or states government. Federal government has multiple hierarchy levels, with both the central authority and the states (or provinces) both being sovereign. the central or national rules override the state rules has a balance between them. For example are the U.S shared between national and local levels. In a federal form of government, the term “federal” is also used to refer to the national level of government. Unitary government there is no hierarchy of sovereign powers. states have no authority to pass their own laws, and the central or national govt can order the states to do anything. the federal government has a huge percentage of the power. For example are the Japan What are the advantages and disadvantages to a unitary system as a form of government? A unitary government is a government where the vast majority of authority is held by the federal government. Advantages The advantages of unitary government are it is single and decisive legislative. Usually it is more efficient in the used of tax dollars but fewer people trying to get in on the money. It is also has a simple management of an economy and the government are smaller. Disadvantages The disadvantages of using this type of system are it has slow government response. For example, there are no state National Guard that could be dispatched in emergency, troops would have to be mobilized from national authority. It is also easily looses track of local issues. Other than that, it is incredibly divisive form of government where everyone is forced to compete with everyone else for priority. Since it is trying to take the place of federal and state governments, the unitary governments typical get bloated and bogged down. Finally, it has huge bureaucracy that is even larger than what this country has. What are the Advantages and the disadvantages of Federalism? Advantages of Federalism Every province has political, social and economic problems peculiar to the region itself. Provincial government representatives live in close proximity to the people and are most of the times from the same community, so that they are in a better position to understand these problems and offer unique solutions for them. For example, traffic congestion in Oahu, Hawaii is a problem that can be best solved by the local government, keeping local factors in mind, rather than by somebody living in New York. Federalism offers representation to different populations. Citizens of various provinces may have different aspirations, ethnicity and follow different cultures. The central government can sometimes overlook these differences and adopt policies which cater to the majority. This is where the regional government steps in. While formulating policies, local needs, tastes and opinions are given due consideration by the state governments. Rights of the minorities are protected too. For example, in states like Arizona where there is a large Hispanic population and therefore, a large number of schools provide bilingual education. State governments have the freedom to adopt policies which may not be followed nationally or by any other state. For example, same sex marriages are not recognized by the federal government of USA but they are given legal status within the states of Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont and Massachusetts. Division of work between the central and the regional governments leads to optimum utilization of resources. The central government can concentrate more on international affairs and defense of the country while the provincial government can cater to the local needs. Federalism has room for innovation and experimentation. Two local governments can have two different approaches to bring reforms in any area of public domain, be it taxation or education. The comparison of the results of these policies can give a clear idea of which policy is better and thus, can be adopted in the future. Disadvantages of Federalism Sharing of power between the Center and the states includes both advantages and disadvantages of federation. Sometimes there can be overlapping of work and subsequent confusion regarding who is responsible for what. For example, when typhoon Katrina hit Greater New Orleans, USA, in 2005, there was delay in the rescue work as there was confusion between the state governments and the federal government on who is responsible for which disaster management work. This resulted in the loss of many lives. The federal system of government is very expensive as more people are elected to office, both at the state and the center, than necessary. Thus, it is often said that only rich countries can afford it. Too many elected representatives with overlapping roles may also lead to corruption. Other than that, it leads to unnecessary competition between different regions. There can be a rebellion by a regional government against the national government too. Both scenarios pose a threat to the countries’ integrity. It is also promotes regional inequalities. Natural resources, industries, employment opportunities differ from region to region. Hence earnings and wealth are unevenly distributed. Rich states offer more opportunities and benefits to its citizens than poor states can. Thus, the gap between rich and poor states widens. It also can make the state governments selfish and concerned only about their own region’s progress. They can formulate policies which might be detrimental to other regions. For example, pollution from a province which is promoting industrialization in a big way can affect another region which depends solely on agriculture and cause crop damage. Finally, it does not eliminate poverty. Even in New York, there are poor neighborhoods like Harlem with a majority of black population. The reason for this may be that during policy framing, it is the intellectuals and not the masses who are invited by the local government. Differences Of Unitary And Federal Governments
PUBL 386 Human trafficking and Involuntary Slavery Concept Discussion
PUBL 386 Human trafficking and Involuntary Slavery Concept Discussion.
I’m working on a humanities discussion question and need guidance to help me study.
Minimum 2 paragraphs. APA 7th edition and references.Getting StartedTo be able to understand and identify human trafficking, one must first understand the definition. There are multiple definitions of the term “human trafficking.” For this discussion, we will review the United States federal definition of human trafficking.The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (also known as the TVPA) defines human trafficking as:SEVERE FORMS OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONSThe term ‘‘severe forms of trafficking in persons’’ means—(A) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act isinduced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the personinduced to perform such act has not attained 18 yearsof age; or(B) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision,or obtaining of a person for labor or services, throughthe use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose ofsubjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, orslavery.Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:Define human traffickingDifferentiate between force, fraud, and coercionDiscuss the prevalence of human traffickingResourcesTextbook: Human Trafficking: Applying Research, Theory, and Case StudiesLegislation: The Victims of Violence and Trafficking Protection Act of 2000Article: Inaccurate Numbers, Inadequate Policies: Enhancing Data to Evaluate the Prevalence of Human Trafficking in ASEANBackground InformationWhen you review the federal definition of human trafficking, you should note several things. To meet criteria for an adult victim of sex trafficking, there must be one of the following: force, fraud, or coercion. If there is a minor being trafficked for sex, then there does not need to be force, fraud, or coercion. If they are under 18 and being commercially sexually exploited, then sex trafficking is taking place. Criteria for force, fraud, or coercion (only one of the three) needs to be met for labor trafficking of both minors and adults.Generally, when seeking to understand the federal definition of human trafficking, the Action-Means-Purpose Model, as defined by the Polaris Project (2018), is helpful. The model is usually abbreviated by the initials – A-M-P – which stands for Action, Means, and Purpose. When human trafficking is taking place, the trafficker is performing an action (recruits, harbors, etc.); how they do it is the means (force, fraud, or coercion); and the endpoint (purpose) is sex or labor trafficking (p.7).InstructionsReview the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.Read and review the US Federal definition of human trafficking as defined in The Victims of Violence and Trafficking Protection Act of 2000 and the AMP Model.Read Chapter One in Human Trafficking: Applying Research, Theory, and Case Studies.Review the article: Inaccurate Numbers, Inadequate Policies: Enhancing Data to Evaluate the Prevalence of Human Trafficking in ASEAN.Navigate to the discussion thread and respond to the following:How does the definition of human trafficking differ regarding a minor (under 18 years of age) victim of sex trafficking vs. a minor (under 18 years of age) victim of labor trafficking?Provide one example each of force, fraud, and coercion.Read the sections on the prevalence of trafficking; 5.2, 5.3 and 5.4 (pg. 15-16) of your reading assignment this week. Also, review the Executive Summary in the article listed in step 4. Comment on the difference in human trafficking prevalence numbers (minimum of one paragraph).Your initial post is due by the end of the fifth day of the workshop.I will share access to Ebook if needed
PUBL 386 Human trafficking and Involuntary Slavery Concept Discussion
Final paper for Biblical Literature
Final paper for Biblical Literature. Paper details DO NOT go to outside sources for information for this exercise. After you have gone through the steps below, when so directed, go to our textbook Bible [the NISB] and read the assigned commentary and notes, then finish your paper using this additional information. Final paper for Biblical Literature is to be an eight page paper similar to your flood paper but in this case a comparison of the similarities and differences in Paul, Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John’s accounts of the events following Jesus death. The attached scans include all the texts needed for your comparison. Your paper is due Monday, May 17 at midnight on Canvas. The recording from last Saturday’s class can be found at https://we.tl/t-WuAg663m30 The link will be good for a week I have added the image from my copy of the Codex Siniticus from the year 353 c.e. that I showed on the share screed Saturday showing the end of the Gospel according to Mark and the beginning of the Gospel according to Luke. The image illustrates that at the time, some three hundred years after Jesus’ death the Gospel according to Mark ended at chapter 16 verse 8 where the women run away from the empty tomb in fear and say nothing to anyone.Final paper for Biblical Literature