Assignment # 1 Faculty: Current Affairs Teacher: Ali Mujahid Class ID: Topic: Islamophobia Student Name: Syed Fahad Ali student ID: 54592 submtsston Date : 25/09/2010 Islamophobia Reference website: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/lslamophobia Islamophobia (ie. Islam *phobia, “fear”) is prejudice against, or an irrational fear of Islam or Muslims. The term seems to date back to the late 1980s, but came into common usage after the September 1 1, 2001 attacks in the United States to refer to types of political dialogue that appeared prejudicially resistant to pro-lslamic argument.
In 1997, the British Runnymede Trust defined Islamophobia as the “dread or hatred of Islam and therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims,” stating that it also refers to the practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social, and public life of the nation. It includes the perception that Islam has no values in common with other cultures, is inferior to the West and is a violent political ideology rather than a religion.
Professor Anne Sophie Roald writes that steps were taken toward official acceptance of the term in January 2001 at the “Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance”, where Islamophobia was recognized as a form of intolerance alongside Xenophobia and Antisemitism. A perceived trend of increasing “Islamophobia” during the 2000s has been attributed by some commentators to the September 1 1 attacks, while others associate it with the rapidly growing Muslims populations in the Western world, especially in Western Europe, due to both immigration and high fertility rate.
In May 2002, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), a European Union watchdog, released a report entitled “Summary report on Islamophobia in the EIJ after 11 September 001 which described an increase in Islamophobia-related incidents in European member states post-WI 1 . Although the term is widely recognized and used, it has not been without controversy. The word Islamophobia is a neologism formed of Islam and -phobia. The compound form Islamo- contains the thematic vowel and is found in earlier coinages such as Islamo-Christian from the 19th century.
Definitions As opposed to being a psychological or individualistic phobia, according to associate professor of religion Peter Gottschalk, “Islamophobia” connotes a social anxiety about Islam and Muslims. A number of individuals and organizations have made attempts to define the concept. Kofi Annan told a UN conference on Islamophobia in 2004: “When the world is compelled to coin a new term to take account of increasingly widespread bigotry that is a sad and troubling development. Such is the case with Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Professor Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex.
Their report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In this report, Islamophobia was defined by the Trust as “an outlook or world-view involving an nfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination. ” An early documented use of the word in the United States was by the conservative American Insight magazine in 1991, used to describe Russian activities in Afghanistan. Other claims of early use include usage by Iranian clerics in 1979, or its use in 1921 by the painter Etienne Dinet.
The American Muslim writer Stephen Schwartz has defined Islamophobia as the condemnation of the entirety of Islam and its history as extremist; denying the existence of a moderate Muslim ajority; regarding Islam as a problem for the world; treating conflicts involving Muslims as necessarily their own fault; insisting that Muslims make changes to their religion; and inciting war against Islam as a whole. In a 2007 article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti- Asian and anti-Arab racism.
Similarly, John Denham has drawn parallels between modern Islamophobia and the antisemitism of the 1930s. So has Maud Olofsson, Professor Jan HJ¤rpe, and George Galloway. In a 2008 article in the “Journal of Political Ideologies” Jose P. Zuquete argues that Islamophobia is a catch-all term that should be avoided. Islamophobia places under the broad umbrella of fear or hatred of Islam’ discourses and criticisms that may have distinct sources, motivations and goals. He argues instead for the use of “anti-lslamic” (because it distinguishes between different discourses about Islam).
Perceptions The Runnymede report identified eight perceptions related to Islamophobia: 1. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change. 2. It is seen as separate and “other. ” It does not have values in common with other cultures, is ot affected by them and does not influence them. 3. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist. 4. It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations. 5.
It is seen as a political ideology, used for political or military advantage. 6. Criticisms made of “the West” by Muslims are rejected out of hand. 7. Hostility towards Islam is used to Justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society. 8. Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal. The above perceptions are seen as closed views on Islam. These are contrasted, in the report, with open views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, permit legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique.
According to Benn and Jawad, The Runnymede Trust notes that anti-Muslim discourse is increasingly seen as respectable, providing examples on how hostility towards Islam and Muslims is accepted as normal, even among those who may actively challenge other prevalent forms of discrimination. In some societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims as the national “Other”, where exclusion and iscrimination occurs on the basis of their religion and civilization which differs with national tradition and identity.
Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Robert Miles, significantly interacts with racism, although Islamophobia itself is not racism. The publication “Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives” describes Islamophobia as the new form of racism in Europe, arguing that “Islamophobia is as much a form of racism as Anti-Semitism, a term more commonly encountered in Europe as a sibling of Racism, Xenophobia and Intolerance. ” Brown nd Miles write that another feature of Islamophobic discourse is to amalgamate nationality (i. e.
Arab), religion (Islam), and politics (terrorism, fundamentalism) ” while most other religions are not associated with terrorism, or even “ethnic or national distinctiveness. ” They feel that “many of the stereotypes and misinformation that contribute to the articulation of Islamophobia are rooted in a particular perception of Islam”, such as the notion that Islam promotes terrorism; especially prevalent after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Media According to Elizabeth Poole in the Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, the edia has been criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia.
She cites a case study examining a sample of articles in the British press from between 1994 and 2004, which concluded that Muslim viewpoints were underrepresented and that issues involving Muslims usually depicted them in a negative light. Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western security and values. Benn and Jawad write that hostility towards Islam and Muslims are “closely linked to media portrayals of Islam as barbaric, irrational, primitive and sexist.
Egorova and Tudor cite European researchers in suggesting that expressions used in the media such as “Islamic terrorism”, “Islamic bombs” and “violent Islam” have resulted in a negative perception of Islam. In 2008 Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting published a study “Smear casting, How Islamophobes Spread Bigotry, Fear and Misinformation. ” It described as bigoted against Islam authors Bruce Bawer and Robert Spencer, television and radio talk show hosts Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck and Michael Savage, political commentators David Horowitz, Alan Dershowitz and Daniel Pipes and televangelist Pat Robertson, among others.
There have been several initiatives, based upon the sixty recommendations listed in the Runnymede Trust’s report, aimed at increase Muslim participation in media and politics. Soon after the release of the Runnymede report, the Muslim Council of Britain was formed to serve as an umbrella body aiming to “represent Muslims in the public sphere, to lobby government and other institutions. ” The “Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism” (FAIR) was also established, designed to monitor coverage in the media and establish dialogue with media organizations.
Superstar firm’s characterization, conditions analyses and strategies analyses that have given rise to the emergence of such phenomena
Superstar firm’s characterization, conditions analyses and strategies analyses that have given rise to the emergence of such phenomena.
A major topic in the recent strategy literature relates to the emergence of superstar or mega firms – firms that operate in multiple markets, enjoy large market shares across the globe, experience persistent high growth over a long duration, exercise enormous market power, and hold large amount of cash. Your task is to write an essay to:
1. Characterise superstar firms – Introduction 2. Explore the technological conditions, mechanisms and corporate growth strategies that have given rise to the emergence of superstar firms using relevant economic concepts and theories – Main body structured as per areas below 3. Suggest strategies that would enable the firms to maintain their high growth rate – Conclusion Important: You must draw on relevant concepts and theories to provide a systematic analysis. It is equally important to inform your analysis by referring to relevant data. Use of pee-reviewed academic journals is essential too.
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