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Islamic Banking Report (Assessment)

In simple terms, Islamic banking is a banking system that functions according to the guidelines laid down by the Shariah (Islamic law). “Islamic banking is banking based on Islamic law (Shariah). It follows the Shariah, called fiqh muamalat (Islamic rules on transactions). The rules and practices of fiqh muamalat were incorporated from the Quran, the Sunnah and other secondary sources of Islamic law” (Banking Info par.1). There are two basic principles on which the whole Islamic banking is based on. The first one is that in a partnership firm if the partners are ready to share the profits they should be ready to share the losses as well. In Islamic terms, this principle is called Mudharabah. The second principle prohibits the account holders to either pay or receive interest (Riba) on money borrowed or lent respectively. The Islamic banks also follow these principles in their own transactions. One might think that if no interest is to be given or taken then how the Islamic banking functions. Well, for this problem there is a solution in the Islamic banking system that the borrower can pay an amount (as agreed upon by the two parties) to the lender as a benefit. Now, since the Islamic banking is based on the Shariah, all the transactions are bound to follow the Islamic moral codes of conduct. As such, there is a prohibition to investments or doing businesses engaged in intoxicating products such as alcohol, games such as gambling and foods such as pork. Historical context of islamic banking The past of Islamic banking may be better understood if it is explained in two different parts; first, when there was only the idea of an interest-free banking and second, when the idea was conceived into being by some private inventiveness is some nations and by the government initiative in some others. The earlier scholars (in 1950s) promoted the idea of interest free banking and called it the Islamic banking system. The ensuing two decades witnessed further interest among people towards this kind of banking. The advent of 1970s witnessed the participation of institutions in this sector. “Conference of the Finance Ministers of the Islamic Countries was held. The involvement of institutions and government led to the application of theory to practice and resulted in the establishment of the Islamic banks” (Hannan par. 10). Owing to the efforts of the conference attendees, Islamic Development Bank (IDB) came into being in the year 1975. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ‘The Islamic Banker’ claims that, “The first model of Islamic banking system came into picture in 1963 in Egypt. Ahmad Al Najjar was the chief founder of this bank and the key features were profit sharing on the non-interest based philosophy of the Islamic Shariah” (The Islamic Banker par. 3). Also, “In 1974, the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) had established the first Islamic bank called the Islamic Development Bank (IDB). The basic business model of this bank was based on providing financial assistance and support on profit sharing basis” (The Islamic Banker par. 3). It further claims that, “By the end of 1970, several Islamic banking systems had been established throughout the Muslim world, including the first private commercial bank in Dubai (1975), the Bahrain Islamic Bank (1979) and the Faisal Islamic Bank of Sudan (1977)” (The Islamic Banker par. 4). 1963-75 1983-84 1985-89 1991-2005 2005 onwards First Islamic bank came into picture in 1963 Iran introduced 100% Islamic banking system In 1985, Fiqh council declared Islamic insurance as Shariah compliant Accounting
Introduction Overpopulation. People talk a lot about it, but no one really does something about it. By definition, overpopulation is the condition where the number of organisms exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat (Oak, 2009). Talking about overpopulation, we could mean two things. First we could mean that there are too many people living on this planet. For example, in 2050, we will be living with 9,3 billion people on this planet. (Bureau of the Census) Second, we could look at the problem as a shortage of resources. According a report of Petrotech (Laherrere, 2003), the demand of oil exceeds the production all ready, and with oil reserves decreasing, this problem will even grow bigger. In this document, we will look at the problems overpopulation brings, and what we can do about it. In this report, we will present a solution to fight against this problem, by focussing on reducing the number of people living on this planet. Literature review How will the earth look like in 50 years? Everybody has his own idea about that, but each of those ideas is more of a doom scenario than an idyllic picture. If we keep on living like we do now, many of the natural resources will be depleted. Also, global temperature will increase with a few degrees, water level will rise and there will be famine in the developing countries. All these phenomena can be contributed to overpopulation, because this seems to be the basis for all these problems. In the last century, world population has increased with as much as 400%, bringing it to the number of 6,775 billion people living on earth now (UN, 2004). If the global population keeps on increasing as it does now, exponentially, this will have disastrous effects for the future of many species on this planet. According to research the population will exceed 9.000.000.000 humans by 2050. The U.S. Bureau of Census estimates that there will be in between 7, 3 and 10, 7 billion people. Often, they talk about 9, 3 billion by 2050. (Figure 1) This is due to rise in birth rate and a decline in death rate (Oak, 2009) which is due to evolution in medical science, better hygienic situations and better food supply. Also, When population rises, the demand of resources will rise, but the reserves will decline because the capacity of earth is limited. In the last century, oil and gas demands have increased a lot, but since 1980, the demand has been higher than the discovery of new supply of oil and gas. We can also see an increase in the prices for both, which also indicates that demands exceed supply (Laherrere, 2003) (Figure 2) We can also notice this problem in the world supply and demand of wood. Figure 2: Oil/Gas demand, resources and prices According to a report from U.N. Water, if all the freshwater on the planet were divided equally among the global population, there would be 5 000 – 6 000 m³ of water available for everyone, every year (UN water, 2007). Experts say that we can speak about water scarcity, when people have less than 1 700 m³ of water available per year, so it seems that there is no problem. However, the freshwater is not equally distributed, and it happens to be that the most densely populated regions, have the least freshwater available, because those are very warm regions, and there is a lot of poverty. For food, there is a similar trend as for freshwater. The world production of food is high enough to satisfy the demands, but the food does not reach all the people who need it. Also, for agriculture, people need water, so in regions where there is a lack of water, there is also a high chance that there is a lack of food. Countries that are rich enough to import food do not face this problem, so again, food is not equally distributed amongst all people (Sustainability Team, 2010). Also, we would like to say something about the extinction of species, economy fails and global warming. Overview of existing solutions Due to the fact that an awareness of overpopulation is existing a few decennia now, there have been a lot of ideas to deal with the problem. The government of China was one of the pioneers with their One Child Policy. They created a policy where they can only have one child (China’s One-Child Policy, 1999), except for the rural areas, where people may have two children because they have to work on the land, after they make a petition. When people do not submit to this rule, the second child would not have medical care, the parents will have to pay more taxes and will be paid less for their jobs. So in general, the family will be punished for having more than one child. In the cities this system works quite well, except for the fact that people will have abortions if they know that they will have a daughter. In rural areas, people often have more than one child, but they do not report it to the government (Oak, 2009). Some people have come up with more technological ideas. For example, some think that we could send people to other planets. This, however, would not be very effective. If we could ship away 100 000 people per year, this would not have a great effect, because of the fact that every day, 258 000 children are born (Garrett, 1993). Another example is more effective agriculture trough modified crops. History teaches us that this will have an opposite effect, as better food means that less people will die of famine (Kii, 1996). Another solution would be to give better education to people. This would lead to better sexual education, and thus fewer children. However, this would also lead to a demand for a higher status of living, which would result in a higher demand of resources, which are already scarce. So this is not really an option either. Giving women more rights is another option, because this would lead to women going out to work instead of staying home. But this will also lead to higher standards of living (Oak, 2009). We could also opt for better health care in developing countries, so mothers would be sure their children will survive, and will make fewer children. Today, mothers in poor countries think that not many children will survive the first years of their life, so in order to be sure to have offspring, they make a lot of children (Johnston, 1999). Encouraging the right to death could an effective way to decrease population: very ill people must have the choice to stop medical healthcare. Also, people who are sentenced to life, should be given the choice. This would cost a lot less too society. On the other hand, there are not that much people in such situations. A last option is to decrease the ecological footprint. Earth can support the needs of all people who live here, if we reduce our footprint to 1, 8 hectares per person. This would be a solution for the western countries, but it would mean that people have to live like people in Jordan or Uzbekistan, which is not a very attractive solution (WWF, 2006) Own solution/ conceptual design Our solution focuses mainly on the decrease of the birth rate. The birth rate has a great influence on world population, and therefore we want to bring it down. Off course, there are other causes for overpopulation, but we ignore them on purpose. First, we would make all people aware of the problems of overpopulation. In order to do this, we could do a big advertising campaign. Via this campaign we can promote contraceptives, so there would be greater use of those products. We also make sure that this campaign is only used in countries that have a huge population boom e.g. developing countries. This campaign consists out of 2 phases. The first phase consists out of a broadcast of spots on radio and TV which covers the most common contraceptive products. After this phase there is held a survey to understand the effects of this campaign so far and to make adjustments possible. Phase 2 will be a multimedia campaign which main target group is the rural women of limited literacy. The main reason why past campaigns have not worked is because the people who could not read also do not understand the pamphlets and billboards used. So now we try to explain contraceptive use through volunteers. The advantage is that although we focus on the low-literate people, it can also reach the well-literate urban women. Figure 3: Behaviour change model (Domrei, 2008) This framework shows the second phase of our media campaign. At first we train the volunteers to show them the current contraceptive methods and the pros and contras of them. We also teach them to share accurate and positive information with the people. This way we ensure that no miscommunication is provided. So we also make sure that no false rumors are repeated by the population. The multimedia campaign takes place mainly on the radio because it is one of the most effective ways to reach rural women of childbearing age. (Domrei, 2008) There are also people who do not own a radio or TV, which is why we also use print media. For example we use stickers with a comic targeted at low-literacy readers. Also flip charts are used to support the volunteers. Also “mouth to mouth” advertisement is used. “Word of mouth” is the second most effective source of information for women of reproductive age (Domrei, 2008). That is also why we use volunteers to go to the villages and cities and teach them about contraceptive use so they can tell it to the rest. The main challenge is to get all the governments united. It is useless to carry out a policy if only half of the countries stick at it. That’s why we suggest making a global arrangement. One aspect of this global arrangement is to bring better education to the people. This will make women do family planning. It so happens to be proven that education of a population is directly related to the amount of children per couple (UN, 2003). Another solution to make the people competent to this problem is more specific education. Today, only in developed countries is education guaranteed. It’s important that the children, all over the world, have school duty with a specific education about ecology and overpopulation. The birth rate decreases when the children need to go to school and so they have no economical use, because they cannot work at the farm (Oded Galor and David N. Weil, 2000). This solution does not content a small change of today’s education model but contents an ambitious restructuring of the model. It is necessary that tomorrow’s children, the little kids, get competent to the problem about overpopulation so in the future they can support the solutions too. It’s impossible to say that this change is possible in a few months because it will take years but that does not matter. When those children are grown to take the nature harm by exploiting the natural resources without thinking about the consequences or thinking about bearing children, they will have the age of twenty. The people who are adults today will be competent to this problem by the media and government support. There are two groups of people who have to be educated, first of all the little children but secondly the untutored adults who live in the developing countries, especially the women. To make people competent to this problem, there has to be a paradigm, a worldwide change of perception about this problem called overpopulation. For the youngest kids, up to 12 years, it has no sense they get a lesson about overpopulation because they would not remember anything about it within a few years. Therefore we should link this topic with every possible lesson they have, like using books about overpopulation while learning the kids how to read or use overpopulation as a topic when to try to solve some issues during mathematics, etc. By letting those kids in contact with this topic, we make appeal to their subconscious. It turns out that people observe something as true through their subconscious (Freud). In this way there is the greatest opportunity that those kids will change the circumstances like they are today to some better ones. It’s very important that those children, when they get older, get instructed in the ecology and the use of contraceptives because increasing the knowledge also gives another problem. Because of the fact that they get the knowledge of the developed countries, they want to live like people from the western world with a high standard of living and therefore a large ecological footprint. However, this is impossible to achieve because it will enlarge the problem so therefore it is crucial to instruct them in the ecology to ensure that the ecological footprint would not rise. The lessons in the use of contraceptives are especially useful for the women. The increase of knowledge shall result in the enlargement of the presence at the labor market. With the combination of knowledge about contraceptives there will be a march of emancipation among women, so there will be end of the suppression of men (Oded Galor and David N. Weil, 2000). The women will go to work, make their own money and there will be less time to raise the children. Due the march of emancipation and the use of contraceptives, fewer children will be born. The disadvantage is, like we pointed out before, that the ecological footprint of the educated population will rise. We can compensate this by imparting this people of the necessity of durability. By doing so, this people can even make an example for the rest of the world, who are not so wise about durability. The government could do some great work in the rich countries to bring back the ecological footprint. Here are some of the ideas. The government could set up a kind of ECO-label, with different categories. For example, A is the best class, B is still OK, and C is bad. Companies with the C-label are not permitted to advertise. Companies with the B-label are permitted, and companies with the A-label would even be supported by the government in advertising. Another idea is to force people to isolate their houses, and to set up solar panels on the roofs. In order to do this, there should first be some survey of the financial state of the residents. If the residents don’t have enough money to pay for these installations, the government could support them. With the ascent of electrical cars, one of the problems is the range of the car. So government could invest in installations where you can refuel your batteries. In Antwerp, there is a prohibition to drive quads. Government could extend this measure. For example, they could prohibit the use of jeeps, sport cars and quads. Only people who really need a jeep, would be permitted to drive one (Gazet van Antwerpen, 2009). Also in developing countries, government could mean a lot. Measures like above would not help, because the ecological footprint in those countries is not the problem. Government could help here by stimulating the people to have no more than two children. For example, like in China, the first child gets full medical support and gets money to go to college. The second child would get less money, so the parents would be reticent to have more than one child. CATWOE analysis Transformation Make sure that only a livable number of people walk around on this planet, so our planet can still support the human needs. World view At this moment, earth cannot support the number of people living on it. The ecological footprint exceeds greatly the capacity of the earth. This must most urgently be reduced. Customers The global population. Everything we want to do is only to be sure the world population will still be able to live on this earth. Our goal is to change their way of thinking and acting without letting them feel harmed. Actors Only the world leaders can assure a change on world level. This problem is too big to be solved by people without power. Owner Eventually, the world population will have to realize the problem. Everyone has to do his share if we want to be successful. Environmental constraints Educational cost, religious influence, will of world leaders, mutual rivalry, and opposition of companies. Theory of planned behaviour Attitude towards the behavior Our solution is definitely something that is good for everyone, because if we do not change, the world is not capable of feeding us all. Because we also educate the people in saving the environment, it is also good for the world itself. The main problem is that it probably costs some time and money. Subjective norm Once we explained the problem to everyone in such a way that everyone understands the problem, everyone has to be assured that there has to change something. Our main goal is not to make everyone happy with our solution, but to make it livable. So we do not focus on confrontation with the people but on a fluent transition to a better way of living. Perceived behavioral control It definitely has to be possible to change the way we act now. It is a must. The main goal in the beginning is to make sure that everyone knows that they have to help and stride along with the solution in order to make our solution successful. Everyone needs to help, not only a few. Because when they do not, we have a major problem. Conclusion We think our solution will work, because the common people won’t have to do a great deal of work. In the Western world, people will be pushed in a certain way. They still have the choice to do whatever they want (except for the isolating, and the prohibition to drive a jeep). When they want to buy a new car, they will be influenced by publicity, and since only good cars are displayed in the media, people will more easily buy a car that is published. In developping countries, education will be obligated, so they will grow more competetent to deal with the problems. Also, people will still be able to have more than two children, but they will be affected negatively by doing so. By applying our solutions, people all over the world will happily and oblivious do the right thing to save the world.
Respond to discussion post #1 and #2. Each response should have minimum 250 words. To respond, highlight the appropriate thread. You must expand your responses beyond ‘I agree,’ or ‘I disagree.’ I expect your discussion question responses to reflect critical thought. Whenever possible, please try to relate the course content to real-world applications from your work.Please make sure to proofread carefully. Grammar and spelling errors will impact the grading. All students will be required to participate and provide creative and valuable responses to discussion questions posted.

EDU 330: wk 7

EDU 330: wk 7.

Analyzing Content for Cultural Competency Using “Ten Quick Ways to Analyze Children’s Books for Racism and Sexism,” select a piece of children’s literature, young adult literature, informational article, or textbook from the library or your own collection to evaluate for bias. In 250-500 words, conduct a text analysis using the 10 guidelines mentioned in the article to identify bias in your selected material. After you complete the analysis, in 250-500 words describe where you think the text falls on the Cultural Competence Continuum and why. Submit both written portions as one assignment.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Resources Read Chapters 2 and 3. URL:http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/taylor-and-francis-inc/2016/teaching-for-diversity-and-social-justice_ebook_3e.phpRead “Cultural Competencies: Essential Elements of Caring-Centered Multicultural Education,” by Pang et al., from Action in Teacher Education (2011).URL:https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofs&AN=71524035&site=ehost-live&scope=site****Read “Ten Quick Ways to Analyze Childrens Books for Sexism And Racism ” by Derman-Sparks and the A.B.C. Task Force, located on the Teaching for Change website.URL:http://www.teachingforchange.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/ec_tenquickways_english.pdf
EDU 330: wk 7

Palm Beach State College Mental Health Presentation

professional essay writers Palm Beach State College Mental Health Presentation.

Create power point presentation at least 10 slides. Please do research and add pictures. You can always add more information in the outlineMental health among Haitian people “How do Haitian People view Mental Health” ” Conception of haitian regarding Mental Health”Outline1.History of Haiti understand aspects of Haitian culturehistorical perspective2 Prevalence of mental health deviations among Haitians A) Religious perspectives B) adverse information C) stigmatization of mental illness D) challenge to mental health professionals3) Haitian Concepts of the Person with Mental HealthConcepts relevant to Voodoosupernatural forces/spellEconomically imbalance/ Lack of Education tremendous shame4) Explanatory Models of Illness and Idioms of Distress 5) Public awareness of mental illness among Haitians6) Specific Mental Health Symptoms and Disorders: Compare and Contrast between DSM 5 Verse Haitian diagnostic7)Dissociative Phenomena and Other Folk Diagnoses
Palm Beach State College Mental Health Presentation

The Effects Of Public Opinion On Joseph Mccarthy History Essay

Joseph McCarthy proved to be one of America’s most respected and feared senators. His over-ambitious attitude seemed to highlight the mindset of the American people during the Red Scare. He tried to develop some form of fear into each American’s heart so that they would be aware of a “takeover” from the Communists. He was very manipulative and used events happening in America to arouse American support. The age of “McCarthyism” began long before McCarthy’s involvement. There was much speculation to what led to the actual outbreak and coining of the term McCarthyism, many believe it to lie in the First Red Scare where Communism first erupted in Russia. McCarthy aroused a certain mindset into the American public, which moreover led to the aggressive tactics in which many Americans were being questioned. The American people were beginning to be criticized and tried for being Communists. It seemed as though McCarthy held a strong hold on the U.S. government and thus influenced the way things were run. He enjoyed arousing the United States citizens to jump on his anti-communist wagon, which was successful to a large extent, until McCarthy began stretching the truth. Public support was instrumental in the rise of and falls of Joseph McCarthy. Public opinion was what spurred both his success as an arouser and downfall, as to when he took it too far. McCarthy led a very erratic life. It can be inferred that the actions that occurred throughout his life can be labeled as capricious and unpredictable. Joseph McCarthy’s parents were of the Catholic religion, they had little to no educational background. McCarthy was the fifth child of nine. Many historians describe McCarthy in different ways. Some state that McCarthy grew up shy and inactive amongst his peers while other historians argue McCarthy was very confident. The U.S. entered war in 1942, World War II was a global struggle that included the most dominant powers of the world. Soon after, McCarthy was instructed into the United States Marine Corps. He seemed to show his brilliance and intelligence after he became second lieutenant of the Marine Corps after only a basic training session. McCarthy then ran for the Republic Senate position in Wisconsin while still as the Marine Corps lieutenant. He resigned and then focused his attention towards the Senate position. Although McCarthy is not a respected household name in the United States, his achievements reach far greater than many other leading figures. His milestones are undeniable and his charisma allows individuals to label him one of the most controversial figures of the 20th century. Public opinion was a driving force in America, whether you were perceived as a hero or a villain was based on public opinion. The question asked by many historians today is to what extent did American public opinion contributed to Joseph McCarthy’s rise and fall. As McCarthy’s popularity grew immensely, so did his reputation as a hard-headed politician. Joseph McCarthy was highly regarded as one of the United States most controversial figures. His contribution to the Second Red Scare (1947-1954) sparked a crusade against foreigners as well as suspected Communist spies. Although McCarthy’s antics seem extreme to us today, the decisions he made in the 1940’s seemed acceptable to the general public. The reason behind the public’s immediate approval of McCarthy may have roots in the First Red Scare (1917-1918). American attitude was leaning towards self interest and protection of America at all costs, playing right into the hands of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy. The age of “McCarthyism” began long before McCarthy’s involvement. Many factors contributed to McCarthyism, some of them dating back to the years of the First Red Scare inspired by Russia’s communist ideals emerging as a recognized political force. During the post-World War II era of McCarthyism, Americans were suddenly being accused of being Communists or having affiliations with Communists. These Americans faced brutal interrogations in panels. Americans, who lacked evidence by even a little, were accused. Although the Red Scare the Americans were deeply concerned about, it seemed as if McCarthy took things to a whole new level. With the thriving public behind him, McCarthy went on the attack. Americans McCarthy both thrived and created public opinion. He enjoyed arousing the United States citizens to jump on his anti-communist wagon, which was successful to a large extent, until McCarthy began stretching the truth. The American public was without a doubt frightened from the results of the First Red Scare. The First Red Scare began during World War I from 1917-1918. The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia as well as the vie for power in Russia caused much distress in America because it was unpredictable of what was going to happen, and the United States did not want to get invovled. The First Red Scare’s origins lie in subversive of both foreign and leftist elements of the United States. In 1917, Woodrow Wilson, the president of the United States established the Committee of Public Information to arouse a distrust towards foreigners. It is greatly shown that during this time, Americans didn’t just mistrust the Communists but Germans as well. There was a deep sense of xenophobia that came about during this time. The effort was also greatly helped by Congress who passed the Espionage Acts (1917) as well as the Sedition Acts (1917). The Espionage Act focused around the idea of making it a crime to basically slur the military and navy of the United States. The United States at this time was very protective and thus didn’t want any Americans defaming their own country. This was a time of anti-foreign experience, something that the Espionage Act tried to focus on. The Sedition Act was much like the Espionage act whereas any disloyalty to America would be regarded as a crime. The First Red Scare consisted of many strikes staged by labor unions who protested with marches. During this time, there was not much violence or arrests. Those who gathered in labor unions, including strikers were labeled as communists because they were trying to start a coup to the dismay of the American government. Due to the bedlam created by Communist threats, there were many attacks that came along with the Red Scare. On June 2nd, 1914 a bomb partially destroyed the front of Attorney-General Alexander Mitchell Palmer’s house. More Communist ideals arose in a well known trial in America involving foreigners. The Sacco and Vanzetti trial was a touchy subject in America. The Red Scare, without a doubt, affected all Americans as a worldwide hatred against foreigners erupted. Sacco and Vanzetti were seemingly robbed of a fair trial, because of them being foreigners. This event only showed how McCarthy’s conquest in the anti-foreign sentiment was growing stronger and stronger and would thus lead to even greater disastrous events. Joseph McCarthy illustrated an impressive political career. His rise to senator though, was faced with tough opposition. In his run to the Senate spot, McCarthy had to overcome Robert M. La Follete. In his campaign, McCarthy did not hold back as he ravaged on La Follete from all sides. McCarthy instigated a dramatic shift from Progressivism to McCarthyism, “which was set in motion when McCarthy defeated an icon of American liberalism and ended one of the nation’s most remarkable dynasties” (Johnson 57) with the defeat of La Follete. McCarthy “played to the press” (Johnson 77) meaning he courted the press, going out of his way to make friends with reporters, and establishing close relationships with photographers. Despite his efforts, McCarthy was perceived in two different lights during his early years in the Senate: “The first, and more popular, version is that he was a flop. By 1950 he had been ‘voted worst U.S. Senator in one poll of the press crops […]”while the other version is that “McCarthy was one of the brightest and popular members of the freshman class, charming and ‘handsome in a dark, square jawed way'” (Herman 51). McCarthy’s rise to fame came with his constant intrusion into situations where he was simply not needed. In the closing days of World War II, the German army overwhelmed several hundred American soldiers near the Belgian village of Malmedy. More than seventy of the disarmed survivors were gunned to death. After, seventy-three of the German Nazi members were found guilty buy an American war-crimes trial, and forty-three of them were sentenced to be hanged. McCarthy, got himself involved by “throw[ing] himself right into the hearing and on the side of the S.S. defendants and against the U.S. Army. He badgered witnesses, yelled at other senators, made series of unsupportable and often demonstrably false statements, and finally and dramatically walked out claiming the committee was trying to ‘whitewash’ the Army” (Cohen 47). Although McCarthy wished to “clean up” Communistic influences in America, it seemed like McCarthy unintentionally sided with the Communists. His determination on trails caused many individuals to realize McCarthy’s demonic demeanor even while putting Americans on trial. McCarthy’s reputation soon became evident, even a household name. His antics caused his young political career to be placed in serious danger. McCarthy’s fame hit an all time high with his “I Have In My Hand” speech, where McCarthy stated, “While I cannot take the time to name all of the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of 205…a list of names that were known to the Secretary of State…and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department” (Cohen 81). The term “McCarthyism” was derived from a cartoonist by the name of Herbert Block. Block emphasized the word around the idea of mindless accusation. McCarthyism was basically another way of accusing without evidence. McCarthy’s kickoff of the Communist “hunt”, thus began his reign as one of America’s most powerful men. The Smith Act of 1940 was a law that made it a criminal offense for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association. Once McCarthy gained the full attention of the American public, he used to instill fear into the hearts of Americans. His compelling speeches aroused the American mindset and pushed towards the utter destruction of “Communism” in America. Once in power, it was easy for McCarthy to captivate the hearts and minds of the American people. His concern for maintaining Democracy in America at the expense of Communists appealed greatly to the general public. The House of Un-American Activities was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The HUAC condemned many individuals including a group of individuals famous for being placed in the “Hollywood Blacklist”. Ring Lardner Jr., a famous Hollywood screenwriter featured in “Virgin Island” and “M*A*S*H”, was identified by the HUAC as a communist: “But with the cold War tensions mounting all the time, with Harry Truman’s loyalty-oath program patterned after HUAC, with the advent of Senator McCarthy on the scene, with the conviction of Communist party leaders under the Smith Act, with the arrest and conviction of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, the Hollywood we returned to from prison in 1951 was a much more hostile environment. The HUAC hearings were resumed, and each one of the scores of people named was added to the blacklist unless he proved his patriotism by naming others” (McGilligan 413). McCarthy, although not much involved in the HUAC, still played a significant role as the instigator. He was the ringleader, where he oversaw much of the actions of the HUAC and aided them in their efforts. McCarthy, in a way, violated many American rights. McCarthy violated an individual’s right to free speech and freedom of the press. On top of that, he also violated freedom of religion. Due to the fact that Communism was identified as atheistic, “those regarded as insufficiently religious-and the devil take you if you were an atheist-were assailed as bordering on ‘godless Communism'” (Johnson 287). McCarthy’s questionings were often criticized for the abusing comments McCarthy made and the aggressiveness in which he attacked suspected Communists. Paul Robeson was the victim in this case where he was viciously instigated by McCarthy. Robeson was an American actor of film and stage, All-American and professional athlete and writer, who was also noted for his wide-ranging social justice activism. Robeson was indeed a communist but this passage highlights McCarthy’s vicious character, not the fact that Robeson was a communist: McCarthy’s actions became even more extreme to the point where he focused his attacks on the United States Army. McCarthy started digging deep into the Army Signal Corps where he attempted to find evidence of any suspected Communists or Communist ideals. McCarthy’s investigations led him to nothing. It can be inferred by many that McCarthy’s fame with the public had dropped dramatically. The public was in disbelief of the audacity for McCarthy to attack the army. By insulting the U.S. army, Joseph McCarthy put himself in a predicament. Senator McClellan held a decisive stand for the army, and placed McCarthy in a trap. “[McCarthy] was genuinely convinced that any fair investigation would pin the blame on the Army, not on him” (Herman 257). This further led to the U.S. Army vs. McCarthy hearings were held for the purpose of investigating conflicting accusations between the U.S. Army and Senator McCarthy. The Army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give superior treatment to G. David Schine, who was a former McCarthy aid and a friend of Cohn’s. McCarthy counter-charged that this accusation was falsely made, in retaliation for his recent aggressive investigations of suspected Communists and security risks in the Army. Chaired by Senator Karl Mundt, the hearings were convened in 1954. The hearings received considerable press coverage, including live television broadcasts, and are widely believed to have contributed to McCarthy’s decline in popularity. In August, 1954, a Senate committee was formed to investigate possible censure of McCarthy. On September 27, the committee released a unanimous report calling McCarthy’s behavior as a committee chairman “inexcusable,” “reprehensible,” “vulgar and insulting.” On December 2, 1954, the full Senate, by a vote of 67-22, passed a resolution condemning McCarthy for abusing his power as a senator. Though he remained in the Senate, McCarthy now had little power and was ignored by the Congress, the White House, and most of the media. The media also played an integral role in McCarthy’s fall. Television’s most respected man Edward R. Murrow presented a McCarthy “documentary on his popular show “See it Now”, which provided, through skillful film editing, a devastating critique of McCarthy and his methods” (Bayley 193). The show produced clips of McCarthy speaking his half-truths, and distortions and then followed them with Murrow’s explanations of McCarthy’s logic, and descriptions of how the facts were manipulated. The only support for McCarthy was from parts of the nation where McCarthy’s activities had been given the least coverage in newspaper, and from the only part of the country that did not have access to live television coverage of the damaging Army-McCarthy trials (Bayley 212). The media’s powerful influence on his career is shown here again; however in this instance it ruined him. McCarthy’s evidence used on trial was sketchy. He presented rather dubious information and thus caused skepticism amongst the American public. McCarthy used false evidence where his team cropped a picture “showing Secretary Stevens standing alone with Private Schine at Maguire Airforce Base near Fort Dix” (Goldston 158). Apparently, this picture illustrated that “Stevens was trying to be especially nice to and considerate to Private Schine by agreeing to pose alone with him, thus hoping to influence McCarthy into calling off his investigation hounds” (Goldston 158). The next day, Defense Attorney for the Army, Welch, proved that the photo had been cropped showing dishonesty on McCarthy’s part. His numerous scandals allowed the American public to doubt whether McCarthy took Communist infiltration in the American public too far. As McCarthy’s power in Congress eventually died down, so did the support from his fellow Americans. The “Red Scare” effect was also dying down in America. There were still Americans who were alert in the fight with the Red Scare but the general population began to realize that maybe Communist threats in America were coming to an end. Everyone wanted to believe that this was the end except for one man; Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy’s overwhelming demand for power was detrimental to American society. Many Americans were beginning to realize that McCarthy didn’t provide any evidence to show that Communism was erupting in America, causing many people to doubt McCarthy. “He had always been a heavy drinker, and there were times in those seasons of discontent when he drank more than ever. But he was not always drunk. He went on the wagon (for him this meant beer instead of whiskey) for days and weeks at a time. The difficulty toward the end was that he couldn’t hold the stuff. He went to pieces on his second or third drink. And he did not snap back quickly” (Rovere 21) Although Joseph McCarthy lived a life of power and dominance, his reign ended just as quickly as it began. His sudden windfall consisted of the accusation of suspected Communists with no real proof, but due to the events in the First Red Scare, Americans were fear-stricken and accepted all of McCarthy’s ideals. Though McCarthy only wished to protect and aid the American people during this tumultuous time, his response to the fear was not justifiable to any extent. Though many people argue that McCarthy was only taking necessary safety measures, others argue that he threatened the freedom of the American people by restricting their rights. Because of his rash actions and his willingness to compromise the Amendments and freedoms of the American people, many people today view McCarthy with disdain. Today, the term McCarthyism refers to actions unappreciated widely by the American public. It illustrates McCarthy’s outright disgusting actions towards many Americans. Therefore reflecting the negativity associated with McCarthy’s actions during the Second Red Scare.

Writing Prompt: The Ethical Importance of Knowledge

Writing Prompt: The Ethical Importance of Knowledge.

General TopicIn your post, draw on one of the following readings: Russell’s 1) “Value of Philosophy,” Plato’s 2) Euthyphro, 3) Apology, or 4) Crito. The general topic of the discussion post is the ethical importance of knowledge. I have provided a prompt below, but you may create your own alternative question.If you create an alternative question, be sure to present your question in your post and explain how it relates to one of the above readings. If you use the prompt, you do not need to answer all of the questions below. In fact, it’s a good idea to focus on one or maybe two of the questions.Only write on one philosopher for your discussion post.Writing Prompt: The Ethical Importance of KnowledgeCan you think of an important example in which knowledge made you a morally better person? Has knowledge ever made you a morally worse person?What does Russell mean when he says that acquiring knowledge involves an “enlargement of self”? Do you agree with Russell? How does Socrates understand wisdom? What ethical importance does this understanding of wisdom have?Assignment RequirementsSee the Discussion Post Guidelines for general info on the assignment and example posts: Discussion Post Info & Example.docxThe most important requirements are:write at least a 300 word original post,quote and cite from one of the above course readings (in your original post),use paragraphs in your original post,write at least a 200 word response post.Also Worth Noting You must post before seeing other people’s posts. As a result, you will not be able to edit any posts. (This ensures that you do not submit an empty or extremely short post in order to then copy other people’s work.)If you see something you would like to change or add to your original post, then submit a second post. This will not penalize you, so long as your original post fulfilled the basic assignment requirements. If you submit an empty or extremely short post, then you will be penalized.It’s a good idea to first type your post in a word or google document to prevent accidental submissions.
Writing Prompt: The Ethical Importance of Knowledge