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Introduction to lean supply chain management

Introduction to lean supply chain management. “Lean concept” has become well-known in today’s business. Lean principles help any company to eliminate waste in business activities. By eliminating waste, companies can gain more profitable, flexible, and controllable over the processes. The term “waste” in lean concept is including everything that makes the process flow unsmooth. There are 7 wastes in TPS, which are waiting time, excess inventory, defect, over production, waste in process, useless motion, and transportation [1]. Even lean concept emerged from the manufacturing; it can be applied to the other types of activities; such as supply chain management. Even though Toyota – the Japanese company – was the one who made the lean concept widely well-known with the Toyota production system (TPS), there is a fact shows that lean did not just emerging but it was partially used in the United State. For example in 1908, “Scientific management” made by Frederick W. Taylor was the concept of using scientific method such as standardization to apply with the working process. This scientific idea was criticized to be the initial stage of developing the lean concept, since it helped workers to work in system and ignored the unnecessary jobs [2], [3]. However, Henry Ford is considered to be the first person, who used the lean principles. In 1910, Ford has developed the concept of continuous flow – called Ford’s model T production system (MTPS) – for manufacturing assembly line. This MTPS was to have workers focusing on their individual jobs and moving work from station to station by conveyer until the individual works became a complete unit. However, the MTPS was criticized to be not suitable in the long term production, since it cannot present customers with more variety of products [4]. Figure : Ford’s assembly line Source: [6] In 1950, Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo have studied the MTPS and the other principles such as just-in-time (JIT) while visiting the US super market, and then developed the “pull system”, which was applied to the continuous flow system of Henry Ford; thereby, helping TPS to emphasize on the process work rather than the individual works or machines [2], [5], [6]. The word “lean” was emerging in 1980 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); in order to describe the TPS [5]. Lean concept became famous and widely-used in many companies around the world; however, many firms then realized that they cannot gain the highest benefits from the lean system unless their suppliers and customers in the supply chain system became the lean users too. Therefore the lean concept and supply chain concept then merge together into the lean supply chain management [7]. 2. The emerging of lean supply management Supply chain management has faced with more complicated issues, because of the changes in global business. Many challenges have risen up in today’s business. Companies have to deal with real-time decisions in order to survive in their business. Since lean concept can help firms to reduce waste or non-value activities in the manufacturing processes and improve the flow of process to be more fluidity, the concept of lean then overlap with the supply chain management approach as shown in figure 2. Figure 2: Comparing lean and supply chain management Source: [8] In order to gain more effective in supply chain management, the lean concept then was applied into the supply chain concept to be lean supply management. As said by Toyota that having a good process can show good results than having brilliant people manage the poor process [3], Toyota then adopted the lean concept into its supply management process as shown in figure 3. In the Toyota case, Toyota realized that it is not a good idea of choosing the suppliers, who are far away from Toyota’s plants, due to it increases the total cost and difficult to control lead-time. Toyota also thought of too many suppliers as the supply chain waste, so Toyota decided to minimized the number of suppliers as low as possible; to keep the best suppliers rather than the lowest cost suppliers [9]. This idea of lean supply management can help Toyota strengthen its supply chain process. With the short and strong supply process, Toyota then can has more controllable on its supply chain, since the long term strategy is needed in today’s business. Figure 3: The lean supply chain in Toyota Source: [9] 3. The imperative point of lean supply Unlike the traditional supply concept, the lean supply considers the entire flow in the supply chain as the whole process. While the traditional supply concept is focusing on the individuals benefits, the lean supply is looking for the benefits of the integrated chain in a longer-term. In lean supply, too many suppliers are considered to be the waste in supply chain; however, more suppliers can provide more reliable for firms in the traditional supply idea. Whether firms decide to use lean supply concept or the others; it is inevitable to point that lean supply management also has pros and cons. 3.1 The advantages of lean supply In the long term business, lean supply management can serve and play role as a good strategy. By following lean approach, firms can eliminate the unnecessary activities along the supply chain and increase value to the deliverables, since lean supply concept is focusing on optimizing the performance of supply chain process and provide more value to the customers [7]. Lean supply management can integrate with both the internal and external aspects along with the supply process. The internal factor in supply management is focusing on the relationship linkage, while the external aspect is considering the operations amongst the suppliers or contractors. Generally, there are five aspects in both internal and external aspects, which many firms cannot fully integrate by using the traditional supply management: product flow, information flow, customer needs, upstream and downstream linkage, and the cash flow [10]. By eliminating wastes in the supply process, firms can lower their operational cost, which results in more efficient value-added in goods and services. Basically, most production flow is driven with the “push system”, which tends to keep inventory in a high level in order to response to the forecast. In lean supply management approach, it suggests companies to use the “pull system” that helps companies map and re-design the process to response to the true drivers. Not only the product flow becomes more liquidity, the actual demand from the end consumers can drive the supply chain process via the effective information flow, due to the supply process becomes lean. Since the lean supply management aims to minimize the number of suppliers as low as possible; to maintain only the best suppliers, the relationship between firms and their suppliers then can possibly be improved effectively. Fundamentally, when the whole supply process becomes more efficiency and effective, the cash flow in the process then results in positive side too. 3.2 The disadvantages of lean supply Like the other management concepts, lean supply management also has the disadvantage side too. When companies become leanness with fewer suppliers, companies might face the problem of erupted chain, if their suppliers meet with the severe risks. For instance, there was a fire at the Philips semiconductor plant in New Mexico in March 2000. On that time, Ericsson – one of Philips’ customers – did not have a contingency plan of additional suppliers. Ericsson chose to wait its suppliers, Philips, and thus Ericsson faced with a long delay in production line and had huge losses in phone business [11]. Furthermore, lean supply management is not suitable for unpredictable market. Due to lean supply management is focusing on optimizing the process to do less but gain more, firms might not be able to catch the rapidly changes on demand. That makes lean supply management do more positive effect on the commodities rather than fashion products [12]. Moreover, firms, who use lean supply management with improper balancing, will not success on acquiring new customers. By using the lean supply management concept, most firm only focus on the voice of customers (VOC), which helps firms maintain their customers. However, VOC does not have more powerful on expanding the new customers. In contrast, the voice of the market (VOM) can provide the information on market dynamic, which precisely one of the competitive drivers that helps companies stay competitive in market share aspect [13]. 4. Journey to lean supply management 4.1 Initial phrase Fundamentally, lean supply chain lowers total cost by shortening the length of supply chain with the lowest number of suppliers. Therefore, any firm should get start by reviewing the current supply system and then create the optimization goal. That is because most of the supply management issues usually come from the level of relationship with suppliers. The more strength in relationship means the less in waste and cost [14]. According to lean supply concept, companies do need to determine list of key suppliers, who can embark to the lean approach along with companies. The reason is that firms might get the benefits of becoming lean; however, the chain waste might not be eliminated as seen. The waste is just moving to hide in the suppliers’ side, thus it will be back in the form of extended cost, delay problem, quality problem or whatsoever [14]. After determining the key supplier candidates, organizations then need to choose the best key suppliers as first-tier suppliers by focusing on the lead time, because lead time impact is usually the best key factor on selecting suppliers [7]. Additionally, it should be better to select the first-tier suppliers, who already implement lean concept, so the first-tier suppliers can cooperate on optimizing the sub-tier suppliers [7]. Next, firms should discuss the optimization goal with the selected suppliers, in order to map the supply system in the best way. Furthermore, firms should involve with the first-tier suppliers on selecting the sub-tier suppliers, who can afford to optimize the supply system with the lean approach. Therefore, it can be possible to have an opportunity of successful in using lean supply management concept. 4.2 Develop lean supply stage When all suppliers are identified, firms then should cooperate with suppliers to document the macro value stream map (MVSM); in order to understand and improve the supply chain system [7]. Due to the supply system is normally a complicated system, it is very difficult to communicate and cooperate along the stream line; thus the MVSM will help in these activities. Figure 4: The example of basic value stream map Source: http://leansoftwareengineering.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/value_stream_map.gif Any improvement project cannot be successful, if there is no person or team to directly take responsibility. To develop lean supply approach, companies need to build the core team, who will monitor on lean improvement and take responsibility in communication. The member of the core tem should consist of people from various departments – operation, procurement, human resource, and so on – and from suppliers. In addition, the core team should at least have one person, who is the lean expert; in order to play role as a lean consultant [7]. Key evaluation metrics is also required in the lean supply management too. As the other projects, firms cannot improve anything, if firms cannot find the ways to measure. There is a suggestion from Martin, J. W. on the 12 key metrics in lean supply management. The 12 key metrics are Inventory Investment, Profit/Loss, Inventory Efficiency, On-Time Suppliers Delivery, Forecast Accuracy, Lead-Time, Unplanned Orders, Schedule Changes, Overdue Backlogs, Data Accuracy, Material Availability, and ExcessIntroduction to lean supply chain management
BUS 128 GC Wk 14 Speaker Using Technology & Visual Aids in Presentations Discussion.

Watch your favorite TED talk this week and analyze how the speaker uses technology and/or visual aids (slides, props, etc.) in their presentation.How do these supplement the talk?Does the speaker use them effectively?Does the technology or slides enhance or distract from the talk.Include the link to the talk in your post.Discuss your classmates’ posts. How is their choice of talk similar or different from your own in terms of these elements listed above?Expectations:Your first response should be a minimum of 100 words.You should reply to a minimum of 2 other classmates’ responses with 50 words minimum.To earn full credit you need to answer more than “I agree” or “good job.” Your discussion replies may ask a clarifying question, may relate and apply to another situation, or you can probe the question deeper. But it needs to have substance in order for you to earn points.
BUS 128 GC Wk 14 Speaker Using Technology & Visual Aids in Presentations Discussion

The foundations of human behavior are among the most hotly debated topics in the field of psychology. Despite the impressive progress made in several recent decades, there was no conclusive evidence that a single factor is either solely or predominantly responsible for the resulting behavior. Two major candidates that are currently viewed as the most significant sources of influence are emotion and cognition. The emotion-driven theory suggests that our decisions are grounded in how we feel about the situation or action, while the more recent cognitive psychology states that our analysis of the situation is the primary driving force behind our decisions (Hunt, 2007). The situation is complicated by the findings in the evolutionary psychology field, which show that the ultimate aim of both emotions and cognition processes are very similar and are evolutionary-based (Forgas, Haselton,

Group Investigation And Report Sport Essay

Group Investigation And Report Sport Essay. We invest in the national lottery and exchequer funding in organisations and projects that will grow and sustain participation in grassroots sport and create opportunities for people to excel at their chosen sport. Our structure reflects this focus.” (Sport England) Sport England’s job is to improve sports participation on all levels, especially grassroots. They work in partnership with Youth Sport Trust which focuses on PE in schools and with UK Sport who focus on elite success. “Sport England is a government agency responsible for building for foundations of sporting success, by creating a world-leading community sport system of clubs, coaches, facilities and volunteers.” (Sport England) The mission of Sport England is to create a vibrant sporting culture working in partnership with various National Governing Bodies, Higher and further education sector and their national partners as well as local government and community organisations. The aims and targets are set around three areas, they are ‘grow, sustain and excel’. The aim of growing is to get ‘one million people taking part in more sport’ and ‘more children and young people taking part in 5 hours of PE and sport a week’. This counts as 15% of the investment and sustain counts as 60% of the investment. The aim of sustaining is to have ‘more people satisfied with their sporting experience’ and to have ‘25% fewer16-18 year olds dropping out of at least nine sports- badminton, basketball, football, hockey, gymnastics, netball, rugby league, rugby union and tennis.’ The final area is excel and this counts as 25% of the investment, and the aim is to ‘improve talent development in at least 25 sports’ The staffing structure includes the ‘main board’ which is responsible for setting direction, providing an extra level of governance and advice. There is also the ‘executive team’ which is responsible for the ‘day to day’ running of the business. Sport England work in 11 offices over England, one is the central office in London, nine other local offices and one shared service centre in Loughborough that deals with responses to funding applications and queries. There is a team executive director, they are responsible for the club and community part of the governments 5 hour sport offer for children and young people, including leading a number of programmes including leadership and volunteering. The next member of staff is the executive director for commercial, their role is to find and work with the commercial partners to generate £50 million for community sport, and the team works innovatively to ensure that the partners derive real benefits from their investments. The next member of staff is the communications and public affairs executive director, they are responsible for helping the partners and the public understand what they do as an organisation. Another job role is the communities executive manager, their role is to help the national governing bodies deliver their plans at a local level; they do this by working with local partnerships. The next job role is the facilities and planning executive director, their role is to help create, support and maintain the buildings, facilities and spaces needed to play sport. The next job role is the finance and corporate services; the directorate is responsible for all the back office functions, including finance, ICT and legal services. There are also NGB and sport executive directors; their role is to help sport’s national governing bodies achieve their participation, satisfaction and talent development targets. The final job role is the research and strategy executive director, they provide evidence community sport needs to make the case for sport, monitor progress against the targets and learn about what works and why. Sport England is the world leading community sport system. Their funding from the National Lottery and the Government is used in projects to help grass root participation. They work in partnership with UK Sport, which has responsibility for elite success, and the Youth Sport Trust, which is focused on PE and school sport. They also bring together a wide range of partners from local and national government, the commercial sector, higher and further education and the third sector to make the most of their investment in sport. Although their main role is to protect playing fields threatened by potential developments, they provide a wealth of expertise on planning, facilities, coaching, volunteering and sports development. Sport England has ploughed funding into 46 National governing bodies to increase participation numbers and create pathways for talented players. 34 of the NGB’s received targeted investment to get children and young people playing more sports. They will evaluate the progress and results in 2012 on the UK sports system. As an organisation they are working closely with a range of local, county and regional partners, such as local authorities, county sports partnerships and regional development agencies, to bring sport to people how, and where, they want it. In order for Sport England to be successful they have to work closely with a wide range of organisations. A few examples of these are: Their sporting landscape partners – Youth Sport Trust and UK Sport National Governing Bodies of sports National partners Local authorities County Sports Partnerships Higher and Further Education The third sector The commercial sector London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and the Olympic Delivery Authority Sport England is actively involved with many projects helping to ensure a better sporting experience for the community. They use lottery and government funding in a wide range of projects, big or small. £120 million was put in to the Wembley National Stadium; this is an example of a major project. They are currently involved with the Manchester indoor BMX proposal, Portsmouth 50m pool including athletics and cycling, National centres project upgrades and many, many more. Sport England’s main focus is to help develop community sports, therefore it aims to help invest in organisations and programmes that will help to increase participation and the opportunities people have in sport. Sport England states “In addition to our investment in key partners to deliver specific objectives, we are launching funding programmes open to a wide range of organisations. These include sports clubs, voluntary or community organisations, local authorities, schools, colleges and universities” One of the main partnerships Sport England works with to provide funding is the national lottery. Lottery funding states “Decisions about funding are made locally by the nine regional sports boards. Eligible projects will be assessed against the priorities laid out in each region’s sports plan and the National Framework for Sport”. Sport England provides funding to increase participation but also helps in providing sports equipment, providing coaches and also helping to build new sports facilities. Another funding partnership Sport England has is with the national governing bodies of sports. Sports England states “We are investing £480 million through 46 governing bodies over the next four years and have agreed grow, sustain and excel targets with each one. Each sport has developed a whole sport plan that explains how it will use this money to achieve these targets.” The PE and Sports Strategy for Young People is a development that aims in giving young people the opportunity of participating in 5 hours of sport and physical activity a week. The youth sports trust describes the strategy as “The Youth Sport Trust and Sport England are working with the DCSF and the DCMS on ways to help local delivery partners increase provision, demand and take-up amongst all young people (5-16 year olds) of their five hours a week of high-quality PE and sport (three hours for 16 -19 year olds)”. The makeup of the five hours will involve offering at least 2 hours a week of high quality curriculum PE to 5-16 year olds. As well as that they are offering an extra 3 hours of sport through both school, community and club opportunities. This 3 hours of sport reaches out further and is offered to 5-19 year olds. The thought behind offering it to young people over the age of 16, is down to the fact that after that age PE no longer becomes compulsory in the curriculum. Therefore Sport England believes at that age they still need to be given the opportunity to participate in some form of sport. As part of this strategy, Sport England has also developed programmes such as Club Links and Sports unlimited. As part of the Club Links programme, Sport England is not only trying to increase the amount of 5-19 year olds taking part in sport but also increase the amount of young people taking on leadership and volunteering jobs in sport. Sport England states “We are investing £4.1m into the 34 sports to deliver an extra half million junior club participants or volunteers by 2012-2013” Sport England is funding these programmes in order to help achieve the 5 hour participation offer and help increase the links between clubs and school sport. The Sports Unlimited programme aims at providing sport to those considered ‘semi sporty’, which are young people who have an interest in sport but are yet to participate in community or club sport. They aim to deliver alternative sports which are different to the usual sports that must community and clubs already offer. By doing this they aim to get more young people interested because of offering something innovative and fun. Each change that has been decided such as the 5 hour offer, sport unlimited, club links and especially step into sport have all got similar reasons of why they have changed for the good of improving sport. The main reason for these changes was to increase participation within community sport. This is done in three different ways through active communities which is to provide sport for everyone, so it was produced for anyone who wants to participate in sport. Active sports which is to support the sports participants especially the high quality and elite performers so they can gain more from their sports. And finally the last one is active schools and this is to ensure that school children get off to the right start in sport. They have also made these choices to support talented sports participants from all different classed, cultural backgrounds to progress to the elite level and more medals can come through the higher standards of performance in sport for example there is now a programme that has been set up for the world class performers, for those who compete at the highest levels such as their country. Some of these changes can also develop and maintain coaches. They help coaches to progress to a certain level of teaching and keep them constantly updated with new knowledge about each individual sport with new techniques and new tactical areas. They create a network and link of sporting specific clubs and multi sport clubs for the younger generation. This ensures communication and helps sport to be more organised through more people helping and more events and competitive sport can occur. This can also lead to an increase in people wanting to volunteer for these competitions or events or more jobs for those who are struggling to find work. It also helps increase fitness throughout the whole community by involving everyone as stated in the active communities were an increased number of participants is being adopted and worked upon, and there will be more facilities to participate in sport, as they aim to ensure the right facilities are provided in the correct places, and kept at a high standard which involves alto of planning, designing and development but new places entice people to use them therefore increasing participation. The new change step into sport has three reasons alone for why it has been started. It sustains involvement in leadership and volunteering in port. For the “personal change” in the younger people by supporting the development of inter personal skills, self – confidence and a sense of responsibility. Finally it’s “structural change” through working with key agencies to offer broader opportunities for young people to make a formal and valued contribution to the delivery of sport. (lecture slides) References Sport England [online] last accessed 25th April 2010 at: http://www.sportengland.org/about_us.aspx Club Links [Online] last accessed 28th April 2010 at: http://www.sportengland.org/support__advice/children_and_young_people/community_and_club_activities/club_links.aspx Investing in National Governing Bodies [Online] Last accessed 30th April 2010 at: http://www.sportengland.org/funding/ngb_investment.aspx Funding Guidelines [Online] last accessed 1st may 2010 at: http://www.sportengland.org/funding.aspx Lottery Funding [Online] last accessed 30th April 2010 at: http://www.lotteryfunding.org.uk/uk/sport-england The PEGroup Investigation And Report Sport Essay

Grayson County College The Importance of Education Annotated Bibliography

online dissertation writing Grayson County College The Importance of Education Annotated Bibliography.

need help with my annotated bibliography paper for composition 2 class. Annotated bibliographies are basically just works cited pages with notes attached to each citation. You are required to have 8-10 sources, including two visuals. For this part of the project, you’ll create an annotated citation for each of them. Follow this outline for your assignment:Give the correct MLA citation for the source.Write a short summary of the source (about 100-200 words).Write a short statement on why the source is reliable AND how you intend to use it in your paper (about 100-200 words)I am looking for these things in your bibliography:All 8-10 required sources are present, including visuals.Complete and thorough summaries are present in each annotation.Each entry on the bibliography has a short evaluative statement (your commentary on the source).
Grayson County College The Importance of Education Annotated Bibliography

Leader’s Responsibilities to Organization Essay

Leaders are not only responsible for their actions within an organization, but also the success of the rest of the staff of the firm. Leaders have considerable influence on the personal performance of the staff in a firm. As such, leaders must ensure that they display good characteristics to encourage the other members of staff to perform effectively. A leader must help his subordinates to realize their potential and achieve success in their operations. First, a leader can use motor skills to influence his subordinates to improve their performance (Bailey, 2013). Motivation incentives help the staff feel worth and as part of the organization. Motivation techniques from a leader instill confidence in the members of staff and encourage them to express themselves freely to their supervisors. On the other hand, a leader is responsible for the success and failures of an entity that they serve. Leaders are responsible for setting the goals and standards of an organization (Sternberg, 2012). As such, the ability of an organization to withstand external forces depends on the leader’s ability to manage the firm. The responsibilities of leaders within the organization are bound to change with time. However, only the tactics or the extent of responsibility changes across careers. For instance, the success of an organization will always be a leader’s responsibility regardless of the time and the kind of firm in which the leader serves. Nonetheless, the extent to which the leader bears the responsibility of an organization change with the kind of leadership employed and the nature of the organization. Authentic leaders can influence and train people to bear the responsibilities of their actions thus reducing the burden of success on the leaders part (Associations Now, 2008). Consequently, leaders who easily motivate the staff to perform in a certain way endure fewer organizational burdens. Therefore, the responsibilities of a leader remain constant across all careers, only the extent of involvement varies. References Sternberg, R. (2012). A Model for Ethical Reasoning. Review of general psychology, 16 (4), 319-326. Associations Now. (2008). The CEO-to-CEO: Leadership styles, ethical dilemmas. The center for association leadership, 1 (1), 1-4. Bailey, S. (2013). Business Leaders Beware: Ethics Drift Makes Standards Slip. [Blog Post]. Web.

Course Eval

Course Eval. Paper details In a reply of 300 to 500 words: Reflect on the key course concepts and connections that are relevant to your leadership self-development. How will you apply what you have learned in the course to your leadership skills? What (process, content) was transformative to you? How has your leadership self-development plan changed as a result of this course? Topics included in the course are as follows: This course provides a forum for the exploration and evaluation of the fundamentals of economics, financial management and the financial environment of the healthcare industry. The student will develop an understanding of economics and financial management in a climate of decreased government funding, shared cost mechanisms and decreased personnel resources in addition to basic financial management principles and tools. 1. Examine high profile healthcare economic issues facing policy makers in the U.S. today and in the future 2. Gain knowledge, insight and practical experience in financial management of health systems 3. Analyze the value of economics to nursing 4. Gain knowledge, insight and practical experience in financial management of health systems 5. Describe the skills necessary for nurse executives and managers to take on expanded roles in financial management I started the beginning of the assignment as follows: This course had many key concepts relevant to my leadership self-development. In particular, the variance analysis assignment will be valuable when managing funding and expenses for the women’s health center I plan to open someday. I have a deeper understanding of economics and the financial environment that has changed how I view healthcare organizations management of funds for medical resources. I enjoyed learning the importance of budgeting of healthcare organizations. Course Eval