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Activity of people taking trips away from home and the industry which has developed to cater to/support the needs of tourism. (does not include migrants, PR, illegal immigrants) History of tourism * Early travellers travelled for: 1) curiosity 2) food and hunting (survival) 3) trade (trade routes formed – silk road) 4) military control * Affluent (wealthy) population with time and money to travel – sightsee, experience other cultures and cuisines. Widely accepted currencies * Widely used languages * Development of infrastructure Grand Tour Era (1613-1785) * Trend of luxurious travel started by wealthy English * Developed as a status symbol and spread throughout Europe (favourite countries to visit – France, Italy, Germany and Switzerland) * Experience the ‘civilised world’ and study the arts and sciences * Travels often lasted for several years * Growth in travel for business reasons Mobility Era (1800-1944) * Growing economic prosperity * Advent of leisure time (paid leave) * Made leisure travel possible for working and middle classes *

Availability of affordable travel Increase in systems, modes and speeds of travel * New forms of transport: roads, railroads, steamships * Thomas Cook developed tour packages for mass travel (organised 1st group tour in 1841) * Invention of automobile (Henry Ford – 1914) and airplane (Wright Bros – 1903) expanded freedom to travel. Modern Era (1945-Present) * Time, $, safety and interest in travel led to unparalleled growth of tourism (Diners club introduced internationally accepted credit card in 1950 = reduce hassle of foreign currency) * Advent of jet travel shortened travel time (1950’s) * Development of mass tourism * Group tours with planned itineraries Marketing of popular destinations through mass media Characteristics of tourism 1) An invisible export industry – intangible product and consumers make a purchase w/o seeing the product first 2) Require supporting G&S i. e. expansion of infrastructure & services 3) Perishable e. g. if a hotel room is not booked one night, revenue lost forever) 4) Fragmented – consists of elements like transport, accommodation, landscape and cultural resources. 5) Subject to external influences i. e. currency, politics, tourist motivation, tastes, climate (winter, people travel to warmer countries for a holiday)

Reasons for travel 1) Leisure/Pleasure (leisure, recreation, sightseeing, entertainment) 2) Business (meetings, conventions) 3) VFR (visiting friends, family & relatives, social) 4) Personal (study, health, religious) Integrated tourism model * Shows the dynamic and interrelated nature of tourism * The travelling public (tourists) are the focal point (heart) of the model * Tourism promoters link the traveling public with the suppliers of services * Tourism suppliers provide the services that tourists need when they travel * External forces affect all participants in tourism; tourists, promoters and suppliers.

Tourist – Temporary visitors staying >24h in a destination outside their usual environment for leisure, business or other purposes. Excursionist – Temporary visitors staying <24h in a destination outside their usual environment for leisure, business or other purposes. (exclude travellers in transit) Types of travellers (according to the motivation & purpose for trip) 1) Leisure & Pleasure Travellers Travel for : * Leisure * Recreation (concert, sports event) * Holidays * VFR * Sightseeing * Experience new cultures & environments * Rest & relaxation 2) Business Travellers

Travel for: * Business * Attend meetings, seminars, conferences, trade events * Incentives (rewards for good performance, hitting the target, exceeding budget sales) * May go sightseeing, shopping when business is done 3) Personal travellers Travel for: * Medical treatment * Religious reasons * Study * Personal challenge * Others (search for people, funeral) Free/fully Independent Travellers (FIT) * Not part of an organised tour group * Can be leisure, business or personal traveller Group traveller * Part of a larger, multiple travellers booking (package tour group, sports team) 1st Century traveller * ‘’ New ‘’ tourism is characterised by: * More experienced & knowledgeable travellers = more demanding of value * Travellers who are more environmentally aware and concerned * Seeking : individualized (vs mass) products that are less predictable, full of surprises. Discovery and new experiences Memorable experiences Tourism Demand (Push & Pull Motivations) Push factors: (due to personality, needs/wants) 1) Desire for escape (from stress, noise) 2) Rest & relaxation 3) Health & fitness 4) Adventure 5) Prestige 6) Social interaction ) Novelty-seeking 8) Exploration 9) Enhance r/s 10) Learning new things 11) Desire for pampering/comfort 12) Being entertained 13) Hobbies Pull Factors: 1) Beaches 2) Recreational facilities 3) Historical sites 4) Budget 5) Cultural resources 6) Undisturbed nature 7) Ease of access 8) Cosmopolitan environment 9) Opportunities to increase knowledge 10) Opportunities to experience a different culture Tourism Demand: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Tourism Demand: The motivation to travel Tourism Demand: Factors influencing (Feeder Markets) 1) Economic * Personal disposable incomes Value of currency/exchange rates affects decisions on International vs domestic travel Increase/reduction in expenditure (leisure & business travellers) Increase/reduction in length of stay Method of travel 2) Social * Demographics (age, gender etc) affects motivation to travel (type of product/destination) * Leisure time (leave entitlements, school holidays) 3) Political * Taxation * Visa requirements * Other polices & restrictions Tourism Demand: Factors influencing (Destination) 1) Economic * Price (expensive or cheap destinations) 2) Supply of tourism products/services Competition may lead to more value, choice * Event or attraction at the destination 3) Political * Regulations on visitor quotas, visa, flights, infrastructure 4) Promotional efforts 5) Health, safety & security – terrorism, war 6) Time & cost * The faster the visitors can access a destination, more popular it is (convenience & accessibility) 7) Seasonal variations * Escaping the hot/cold * Experiencing different climates * Volume of travel (demand) * Holiday/vacation periods * Calendar related events Tourism Demand: Factors influencing (change) Factors that can be forecasted: 1) Social impacts Ageing population, rising incomes, knowledgeable travellers 2) Technological impacts * Increased use of net for travel planning and purchases 3) Market changes * Budget airlines, A&P efforts Factors that can’t be forecasted: 1) Economic impacts * Stock market crash, exchange rates 2) Outbreak of war 3) Terrorist attacks 4) Disease (sars, h1n1) 5) Climate change (tsunami) Tourism flourishes when: 1) Individuals have time and $ to travel 2) Travel is easy(accessible), safe and inexpensive 3) Currencies are easily exchangeable 4) Common languages spoken 5) Legal systems create personal safety

Tourism challenges and opportunities 1) Government encourages growth of tourism as it creates jobs and brings money into the community or country. * also serves an important need for the consumer i. e. to travel * may affect social structure (quality of life) 2) unplanned tourism may lead to excessive demands of transportation, public services and degrade the environment, society and culture. * There are challenges as tourism industry grows. * Environmental problems – waste & rubbish, deforestation * Technological implication – shorter travel times, travellers more informed, cheaper travels. Potential influences – positive impact on culture of communities & countries tourist bring in bad influences, disease. Tourism in Singapore * Government targets to achieve tourism receipts of S$30b, visitor arrivals 17m, creating 100,000 additional jobs in service sector by 2015. * Set aside S$2b tourism development fund * Today, tourism industry contributes 3-5% to SG GDP * 2011, tourism receipts was S$22. 3b, industry employs >150,000 ppl * SG welcomed 13. 1m tourists in 2011 (increase 13%) * MBS – create 10,400 jobs by 2015 * RWS – over 40,000 jobs Tourism trend factors Opening of borders despite security concerns-easier to travel * Increase in disposable income and vacation time * Cheaper & more exclusive flights * More ppl with urge to travel * UN world tourism organisation forecasted that international tourism arrivals will grow by 3-4% * Asia is expected to lead this with a growth of 5-7% Lecture 2: Tourism Promoters Tourism Promoters 1) Act as the bridge between the travellers and the tourism service suppliers (middleman) 2) Provide professional travel services to travelling public 3) Distribution channel for products of tourism service suppliers like hotels, airlines, attractions.

Advantages: 1) Tourism suppliers * Bulk selling of products (in advance via contracts) to tour operators – transfers risk to them * Reduce promotion cost * Concentrate on running business 2) Consumers * Convenience – tour packages reduces time & cost of searching for individual travel products * Specialist knowledge & advice 3) Destinations * Able to bring in volume business Wholesalers/Tour operators 1) Purchase tourism services (overall package price is still CHEAPER) in bulk at heavily discounted prices 2) Assemble and re-package elements ) Advertise and sell the packages for sale through travel agents (retailers) direct to the public at marked-up prices 4) Third party travel agents deliver each element on the ground 5) Some tour operations also operate their tour packages * Act as both tour operator/wholesaler & travel agent * i. e. they run the tour by providing the tour leader and the whole package themselves 6) Challenges/risks faced by tour operators in planning a package * Estimating likely demand Competition with other established TOs in marketing a destination * Major investment (monetary and manpower) in developing destination/package * Keeping prices lower than what consumers can find assembling the package themselves * The internet – consumers try to find cheaper alternatives Travel Agents 1) Serve as middleman 2) Sell travel product of tourism service suppliers and/or tour operators/wholesalers 3) Revenue primarily from: * Commissions charged on travel product bookings * Fees charged to clients for service rendered 4) TAs may specialize in certain areas of travel (e. g. ruise, business, adventure, MICE) or destination(e. g. SE Asia, N America, ) 5) TAs use computer reservation systems; i. e. Global Distribution System (GDS) to make travel product inquiries and bookings/purchases for travellers. 6) Allows TAs to seamlessly connect in real-time to hotels, airlines and rail networks worldwide and book rooms/seats offered by them in the system. 7) Roles of TAs: * Make reservations/bookings * Plan itineraries * Calculate fares/charges *

Produce tickets (e-ticketing) * Advise clients on destinations/travel products * Communicate with client and tourism product suppliers Maintain accurate records of reservations/bookings * Intermediary when customer complaints occur MICE (Meeting) Planners 1) Professionals engaged by corporations, associations etc. to organise al the details entailed in MICE 2) Act as middleman between meeting participants and suppliers (e. g. venue) 3) Plan and execute every aspect of the event/meeting including travel, accommodation, venue set-up, activities 4) Meeting planner must balance meeting costs with attendees’ expectations/demands 5) Type of MICE planners: * Conference organizers * Destination management companies (DMC) Incentive travel houses * Exhibition organisers * Event management companies * Convention bureaus Website operators (Direct marketers) 1) On-line Distribution – the buying and selling of travel product via the internet e. g. zuji, expedia, asia travel 2) Fees/commission are charged by websites for travel products sold 3) Website operators are like virtual travel agents 4) Other revenue-generating methods for websites operators: * Sale of advertising space * Additional fees/charges from suppliers for various supplementary services, i. e. higher/prominent position in product llisting

Advantages of online travel bookings 1) Secure * With new security technology to encrypt credit card info etc 2) Many bargains/offers * Online vendors operate with lower cost and pass on savings to consumers 3) Last minute airline & hotel deals * Airline seats/hotel rooms that can’t be sold are offered very cheaply at the last minute by hotels and airlines 4) Convenience * Own time, own target 5) Can compare offers/prices * Usually a list of hotels with pricing is offered or grouped according to pricing, location, quality etc. 6) Can read feedback/review of services Very useful – what others have to say about the product 7) More info available *

Some have links to other sites to offer more info International Tourism Organisations 1) World Tourism Organisation (WTO) * Only organisation representing all national and official tourism interests among members. (Working with respective country governments and their tourism boards, promotes development of responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism. * Membership – 161 countries and territories, 390 affiliate members. Affiliate members representing private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Collects and releases statistics on international tourism. 2) International Air Transportation Association * Represents 230 airlines (93%) * Regulates international airlines including tickets, waybills, baggage checks, handling and accounting procedures, etc. * Develop industry-wide standards. * E-ticketing: Will reduce costs and improve passenger convenience (paperless, reduces ticket processing charges, greater flexibility to the passenger and the travel agent to make changes to itinerary) * Conversion to ET since May 31 ,2008 has saved the industry up to US$3b annually. IATA Clearing House provides a competitive, seamless secure service providing an efficient on-time settling of interline accounts between the world’s airlines, airline-associated companies and travel partners. 3) Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) * Development of the Asia Pacific travel and tourism industry. * Membership includes nearly 100 govt, state, ad city tourism bodies, more than 55 airlines and cruise lines, hundreds of travel industry companies, and thousands of travel professionals. * PATA Foundation awards grants for the preservation/conservation of heritage and natural tourism sites/attractions. PATA travel Mart International Tourism Organisations 1) International Civil Aviation Organisation 2) World Travel and tourism council National Tourism Organisations * NTO = Organisation through which national governments promote their countries. * Many state govts also have tourism boards to promote their states. Singapore Tourism Board Hong Kong Tourism Association South Australian Tourism Commission NTOs have two primary functions: 1) Collect visitor and industry tourism info/data for use by tourism industry. * Tourism businesses plan for growth/success (i. e. now who is visiting SG) * When tourism businesses prosper, economy prospers and employment and GDP goes up. 2) To promote the entire areas/countries as destinations * Individual tourism businesses do not have the means ($$) or willingness to promote an entire region/country (even if they combine their resources) – not economical * Tourists are first sold on a destination and they look for specific services like hotel accommodation, attractions e. t. c. Travel promoters will be: * More specialised and focused targeting niche segments of the travel market (e. g. ruise, biz travel) * Can’t be expected to have detailed knowledge of all segments of travel, so will specialise to be able to provide customers with better service. General upward trend for travel Travel promoters will be: *

More tech-savvy and develop software and networks that personalise travel needs from flight and hotel bookings to booking of concert and attraction tix. * More personalised – providing advice and expertise in travel planning for people who don’t have time to sift through sea of info on internet (esp on biz trips) Lecture 3: Transportation and MICE Importance of transportation Travel and tourism will cease to function w/o an efficient and effective transportation system. Facilitates movement of tourists from place of origin (i. e. home) to their destination and back. If people cannot ravel, there is no tourism. * Efficiency of transportation system means people now think of travel in terms of time rather than distance. * Transportation is not only an essential service element of tourism, it can form the focus of the tourism experience (e. g. tourism) Transport Suppliers * Transport system can be divided into 3 main categories: 1) Land-based transport 2) Water-based transport 3)

Air transport Transportation 5 modes 1) Car and car rentals * Located near airports for independent travel e. g. Avis, budget * Self-drive or limousine services * Cars offer flexibility in the way travellers travel and access tourism resources and sites. 2) Coach and buses * Domestic/intercity or short cross-border travel * Coach travel is on the decline due to faster and cheaper alternatives (e. g. air and rail) * Coaches are an important element in group tour travels * Introduction of luxury coach travel * Types of coach/bus services: * Express schedule coach services (domestic/international) * Private hire service for group travel Packaged tours on coaches * Urban/rural bus services to tourist locations * Airport taxi/shuttle services * Excursions, day trip, sightseeing tours in urban/rural areas * E. g. of coaches and buses (Aeroline, greyhound) 3) Rail Travel * Two forms of rail travel – 1)

Combined leisure and business (scheduled services) 2) Leisure-based where train is the focus of the tourist experience * Rail travel includes – railways, subways, streetcars, cable cars * History of passenger rail travel: * First passenger rail service started on 17 sept 1825, England. * Later dining and sleeping (accommodation) cars were added. Today, trains can travel up to speeds of 430 kmh * Rail travel sometimes faster than air travel * Advantages: * Safety and comfort (spacious) * Rarely suffer from weather delays * Not subject to traffic jams/congestion * Inexpensive * Sights and scenery along the route * E. g. Eastern & Orient Express 4) Cruise Ships * Travel by ship mainly for getting from Point A to B before 1950s – ocean voyages * With increased travel by jet planes, ship travel shifted to cruising i. e. sailing for pleasure * More than 250 cruise ships worldwide carrying over 10m passegers annually. * Accommodation : cabins and suites F&B: restaurant and bars * Recreational facilities/activities e. g. swimming pool, spa, gym, sports and games. * Entertainment:

Theatre (cinema and live performances), casino, shopping. * Cruise ships are very similar to resorts because of the many facilities * Facilities make cruise ships relatively self-contained * Cruise ships can also be called floating resorts and be considered destinations too. * E. g. easy cruise – budget, Royal Caribbean and star cruises – medium, Queen Mary ll – Super luxury * Ferries and pleasure craft: * Ferries used to cross water “barriers” e. g. the English channel, ellis island, SG to batam. Pleasure craft used to bring tourists on sightseeing/trips through waterways, rivers, canals e. g. duck tours, river boats. 5) Airlines * First commercial passenger flight on 25 Aug 1919 from London to Paris. * First jet passenger flight on 2 May 1952 from London to Johannesburg * Air travel has made the world a smaller place * 1. 5b air passenger trips recorded in 1999 * Projected over 2. 3b air trips by 2010 * Increase in air travels due to reduction in price of tickets (increased competition among airlines, introduction of no-frills/budget airlines) * Scheduled vs chartered flights Airlines – Airbus A380 “SuperJumbo” * Set to revolutionise air travel *

Larger passenger capacity(up to 555 pax), more spacious = more facilities and services, able to fly longer distances non-stop, environmentally-friendly(quieter engines, burns less fuel, less co2 emissions) * Airlines – Hub & Spoke system * Local flights carry passengers to a major regional airport (hub) where they can board long-distance or other local flights to their final destinations * A Hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination i. . they are centers for connections around the world. (SG’s airline’s hub is SG * Advantages: * More economical and efficient (max use of scares resources – fuel, manpower) * Airlines can maximize passenger loads from small cities, thereby saving fuel * Lower cost fr airlines that’s passed on to passengers * More frequent flights * Major operations (i. e. admin, maintenance) can be consolidated at the hub. * Disadvantages: * Problems, changes or delays aat the hub or route will have massice consequences to the flight network (e. g. ue to weather, mechanical problems) * Route scheduling more complicated – have to analyse and more precise to ensure efficiency of connecting flights * Longer travelling time compared to direct flights. * Airlines – Frequent Flyer Programme * American airlines intro the first frequent flyer program in 1981 to attract more customers and develop brand loyalty * Frequent flyer program (FFP) = earn air “miles” (i. e. points) when you fly on the airline offering the program, which you can accumulate and redeem for free travel and other rewards later. Some other FFPs: SG airlines – kris flyer, cathay pacific – asia miles, Japan airlines – JAL mileage bank. *

Airlines have partnered with other organisations like hotels and credit card companies so members can earn “miles” when they stay at partner hotels and charge purchases to their credit card. MICE * Meetings , Incentives( incentive travel), conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) represent a segment of the tourism industry * MICE tourists spend twice as much $ then other tourists ( S$1,500 to S$1,800 per trip) SMERF (groups) * Social, Military, Educational, Religious, Fraternal (groups of boys coming tgt with common likes) Meetings Conferences, workshops, seminars or other events designed to bring people together for the purpose of exchanging info. * Meetings usually organised by: * Corporations and associations (biz) * Other groups like SMERFs Types of meetings: 1) Workshop * A small group led by a facilitator or trainer * Generally includes participant involvement exercises to enhance skills or develop knowledge in a specific topic * Training session emphasizing problem-solving, hands on exercises and requires the involvement of the participants 2) Clinic * A workshop-type educational experience in which attendees learn by doing e. . golf clinic, tennis clinic * Usually involves small groups interacting with each other on an individual basis. 3) Forum * An assembly for the discussion of common concerns * Usually experts in a given field take opposite sides of an issue in a panel discussion (e. g. debate) * Liberal opportunity for audience participation 4) Seminar *

A lecture and a dialogue that allows participants to share experiences in a particular field * Guided by an expert discussion leader that encourages audience participation for QnA and debate 5) Symposium An event where a particular subject is discussed by several experts in front of an audience and opinions are gathered. Incentives * An exceptional travel experience reward to motivate and/or recognise participants for increased levels of performance (sales targets/productivity) Conventions * Annual gatherings of people who meet for a common interest * Generally larger meetings with some form of exhibition/trade show included. Exhibition * Also known as “expositions” or “shows” Designed to bring together purveyors of products, eqt and services in an envt where they can demonstrate their P&S to attendees at a convention or trade/consumer show. * Consumer show vs Trade show * Consumer shows are typically open to the general public (PC Show) * Trade shows are usually open to trade visitors only. Require pre-registration and proof that the person is from the trade (e. g. customer biz card, SG Airshow) Convention centres * Large facilities where meetings and expositions are held * Revenue(for convention centres) generated from: Rental of space/eqt, F&B, services, sale of advertising space Conventions: SACEOS *

Singapore Association of Convention and Exhibition Organisers and Suppliers * Membership includes hotels, convention & exhibition organisers, travel agents, educational institutions (NYP) * Offers members a range of educational opportunities, industry standards and a global network of biz contacts * In 2001, the exhibition management services industry contributed a total spin-off of S$1. 068b towards the country’s economy and generated 14,760 jobs. Impact of technology on MICE Technology has allowed data/info to be available virtually everywhere * Data = Interest = Increased need for establishing personal contact * Technology and internet create demand for even more info. * Satellite and teleconferencing – real time * Audience expectations for more visually stimulating presentations Determining the site for a meeting * Geographic location of venue i. e. accessible to accommodation, F&B and meeting facility, service level. * Price (budget) * Personal safety * Local interest & attractions i. e. what participants can do after the biz meetings.

Future of MICE * Technology will continue to drive changes in the industry * routine organisational tasks will be run o technology = efficiency * e. g. online registration, sending of programs via email * more international meetings due to globalisation of biz * heightened security due to increase in terrorist threats * shorter meetings due to financial constraints * more targeted, focused meetings * increase in incentives for repeat biz (i. e. loyalty0 Discount/upgrades/concessions if meeting is held again the next year at the same venue or hotel Mice trends globalisation/international participation i. e. more people going abroad for meetings * cloning of shows i. e. having same show in diff countries * competition – destinations competing to attract more MICE and building infrastructure to support * technology – more high-tech gadgets to make MICE more spectacular * number of shows is growing naturally Lecture 4: Lodging 1 Importance of lodging: * Need somewhere to stay when away from home * Lodging facilities provide for travellers’ basic needs for safety, shelter and food * Bed, F&B, sanitary facilities (i. e. athroom, toilet), security (i. e. shelter from the elements and other dangers) * Lodging facilities support other tourism-related services like resorts, theme parks, tourists districts, meeting and convention centres. History of lodging * Age-old profession – since biblical times * Started as way stations for travellers needing a safe shelter for the night to rest during their journey (e. g. inns) * Evolved into local gathering places for meetings and entertainment * Taverns added to inns for travellers to eat and locals to meet * Inns expanded in size and became hotels Development in lodging facilities closely followed improvements in transportation * Early hotels built around seaports and railway stations Types of lodging facilities 1)

Bed and breakfast (B&B) * Offer a bed and breakfast to guests * Small operations offering only a few rooms for lodging – usually a large house with extra rooms for rent to supplement household income * Usually family-run – owners/operators also stay in the house * Casual, friendly, personal attention – like a home-stay overseas * Low room rates * Japan (ryaokans) 2) Motels Originated from phrase “motor hotel” * Small establishments with only a few rooms and limited service – services offered just maid service and sometimes a small swimming pool, usually no F&B facilities * Parking is provided at or near the room for convenience * Room door opens to parking lot * Located along highways for drivers to rest for the night * Low room rates * People travelling from one state to another * Flamingo motel 3) Hotels * Establishment where travellers can pay for lodging, meals and other services * Main guest facilities and services include: Guestrooms and suites *

Restaurants and bars (F&B facilities) * Recreational facilities (e. g. swimming pool, gym, soa) * Biz centre * Meeting and conference facilities and services * Housekeeping and laundry services * Other guest facilities include: * Exclusive executive/club lounge area * Other guest services include: * Doctor on call 24h a day * Butler service * Wake-up call * Tour arrangement (e. g. city tours) * Limousine service * Other guest services: * Financial services like currency exchange * Postage/delivery service * Packing service Shoe-shine service * Porter service * Valet parking service * Biz centre – rental of HP, Fax, laptop * Concierge service = anything and everything from advice on concert tix, restaurant bookings, to tour arrangements Serviced apartments * Fully furnished and functional apartments with limited guest services including : * Housekeeping * Concierge and guest services officers * Recreational facilities (e. g. pool, gym) * Limited service public dining area * Fully functional kitchen in each apartment * Guests usually stay for longer periods of time Timeshare Also known as vacation ownership * Timeshares offer consumers opportunity to purchase fully furnished vacation homes for use during a specific period of time every year * Share the price of the home with others * Select when you want to use the home every year * Annual maintenance fee * Housekeeping and guests services * Purchase could be just for a specific number of years or for a lifetime * Its owners decide not to utilize their allotted week, they may also be able to get rental income if they allow the management to lease their units out to other vacationers.

RV parks & campgrounds * Getting close to nature and experiencing the great outdoors – cheap way to stay while travelling, can bring a part of home with you in the RV when you travel * Advances in technology = more conveniences at campgrounds including: * Swimming pools, restaurants, shops, cable tv and electrical power points Hotel ratings * Many different rating systems for hotels worldwide – different countries have different rating systems * Rating systems measure a hotel’s quality in terms of: * Service * Amenities/facilities * Customer satisfaction Singapore has no official rating * Purpose of hotel ratings: * Establishes standardised approach to hotel service and product range * Communicates to consumers what is provided/to expect at each property * Enables hotels to position themselves to market, segment, and compete on the basis of its distinctive features * Amenities = facilities and services * E. g. restaurants * Recreational facilities * Biz services *

Guest services * Meeting facilities * Comfort/luxury level of rooms (e. g. bed linen, toiletries) * Hotel ratings – stars 1-star (economy/budget) hotels meet a budget- traveller’s basic needs for comfort and convenience. No frills * 2-star (moderate) hotels meet a traveller’s basic needs for comfort and convenience – some may offer limited restaurant service, however room service is usually not available. * 3-star (first class) hotels offer a higher level of service with additional amenities, features and facilities – most properties in this category feature restaurants serving breakfast, lunch and dinner * Room service availability may vary Valet parking, swimming pools and small fitness centre are often provided * 4-star (superior) hotels are superior properties that distinguish themselves with a high level of service and hospitality, as well as a wide variety of amenities and upscale facilities – the comfort and convenience of the guest is the staff’s prevailing concern * 5-star (deluxe) luxury properties are members of an elite group of hotels that exhibit an exceptionally high degree of service and hospitality – the flawless execution of guest services is the staff’s prevailing concern – big driveway, antiques, expensive things.

Other hotel ratings AAA diamond rating (USA) * 1-5 diamonds and “AAA approved”; similar criteria to general star rating system * Rated by AAA travel editors * Mobil travel guide (USA) * 1-5 star rating, similar to general star rating system * Rated by hotel inspectors. * Hotel & travel index (global) * From tourist to first class to deluxe * Based on reports from representatives(mystery shoppers), local and regional organisations and info from hotel or the hotel’s website * HTI editors rely heavily on personal judgement, as well as on confidential reports and reactions from HTI subscribers * Well-recognised in the travel industry

Lecture 5: Lodging 2 Ways to classify hotels: 1) By location 2) By market price levels 3) By clients type (target market) Location: Resort Hotel * Destination locations for relaxation or recreation, where all services and entertainment are under one roof, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations * Self-contained * Generally, a resort is distinguished by a large selection of activities such as food, drinks, lodging, golf, water sports, entertainment and shopping * Enough activities and attractions to keep visitors occupied for a couple of days * “captive clientele” Usually located far from external services and amenities * Everything guests need can be found in the resort * Diversified marketing mix * Families * Couples * Groups(young and old) – retirees, eco-tourists * Originally began due to rail travel * Greenbrier in west virginia, the halekulani in Waikiki, Hawaii , the ritz carlton kapalua in maul, Hawaii. Location: Airport hotels * High occupancy due to location * Biz, group and leisure travellers * Full service * 200-600 rooms Convenient location – next to or in airport, especially for travellers in long transit wanting to rest * Airport shuttle service (from hotel to airport) * Economical pricing (due away from the city) Location: Freeway hotels * Prominent in the 1950s * Easy access to roadways – because located along freeways * Park outside the room entrance * E. g. motel 6 Classifying hotels by price segment * Based on average rate for a standard room: * Budget – hotel 81 * Economy – Ibis * Mid-price – orchard hotel * Up-scale – marina mandarin * Luxury – St. Regis All-suites – raffles hotel Classifying hotels by target market * Sources of demand for accommodation: * Biz travellers * Leisure travellers * Tour groups * Conference participants * Govt officials/military * Other users ( e. g. medical tourists, educational groups etc) * Casino hotels * Growth segment * Low room rates as main revenue source is from casino * Themes are popular e. g. venetian, luxor, treasure island, circus-circus * 500-plus guest rooms * Variety of F&B operations * Subsidized F&B offerings, e. g. $2 buffet * Convention hotels (convention consumers) Cater to large groups * 500-plus rooms * Larger public areas to accommodate greater public demand * Large banquet/ function areas w/n and around the hotel * High percentage of double occupancy (2 ppl in the room) * Full-service oriented * Hilton Americas – houston * Full service hotels *

Typically “biz oriented” (i. e. biz travellers) * Multiple F&B outlets * Meeting and convention services * Chain hotels e. g. the four seasons, Shangri-la hotels & resorts * Boutique hotels * Target a very niche market of travellers * Characteristics: Small but exclusive developments (under 100 rooms) * Unique decor/theme/design that’s departure for the norm * Intimate ambience makes guests feel comfortable, at ease and at home * High level of personalized service * Attracts niche market segments who are looking for something unique and a departure from the standard hotel product * E. g. ice hotel in Swedish Lapland, treetops hotel in Kenya Organisational structure of a large hotel: various departments * Front office * Also includes reservations, bell desk, concierge, telephone sections Check in/out of guests, guest messages, handle guest enquiries/complaints, currency exchange, baggage handling, wake-up call, reservations * Housekeeping * Includes laundry, florist, seamstress, staff uniforms, hotel linen * Cleaning of guest rooms and public areas, decor * Food & beverage * Includes kitchen, restaurants, bars and lounges, stewarding(clean dishes), banquet/catering * F&B service, food preparation, cleaning and maintenance of F&B equipment * Security * Safety of the hotel, guests and staff, first aid, fire fighting * Fitness centre/spa

Also includes all other recreation facilities * Recreational facilities bookings and maintenance, spa services, training, health /fitness consultancy * Sales & marketing * Also includes room, MICE and catering/banquet sales, marketing communications * Sale of rooms and meeting facilities and services, implementing A&P, planning of client events * Engineering/maintenance * Includes electricians, painters, carpenters * General maintenance and repair of hotel furniture and fixtures * Human resource * Includes training * Recruitment, training and retention of staff, staff welfare and admin matters. Finance * Includes purchasing, cost control, MIS (management info system), night auditor * Handles all hotel accounts and transactions with guests and suppliers, purchasing, costing, payroll, receiving (of goods) and store Management structures: 1) Owner-managed * Owner of property manages/runs hotel * Independent properties e. g. B&Bs, boutique hotels * Advantages: * Not bound by corporate policies – easier decision making * Creative and quicker response to guests needs *

Disadvantages * Lack of marketing, management, systems operations, financial support * E. . scarlet hotel 2) Franchise * Hotel owner (franchisee) pays a fee/buys the rights to use the brand and operating systems of a recognised hotel brand fom the franchisor (brand owner) * Franchisor – the parent company, gets royalty and dees from franchisees * Application fee(1-time) * % of annual revue/room revenue * Marketing/reservation fees * Benefits to franchisee * Set of plans and specifications for hotel building * National advertising * Centralised reservation system * Participation in volume purchasing discounts * Listing in the franchisor’s directory Low fee percentage charged by credit card companies * Drawbacks to franchisee * Lack of operational power – must conform to franchisor’s standards * Must meet standards as set by franchisor * High fees – both to join and ongoing * Central reservations produces 17-26% of reservations only * Benefits to franchisor * Increased market share/recognition – allows for a company to expand rapidly * Up-front fees – uses other people’s money (franchisee) * Disadvantages to franchisor * Need to be careful in selection of franchisees * Difficulty in maintaining control of standards 3) Management contracts Hotel owner engages the services of a hotel management company to run and manage the hotel * The players – owner (financial responsibility) , management company (operational responsibility (market and manage) * Fee structure – annual fee 3-6%of total room revenue , profit sharing * A way for hotel chains to expand w/o capital investments in physical facilities * Benefits of management contracts: *

Management quality can be improved as targeted expertise can be obtained * Documented managerial effectiveness is available * Payment for services can be tied to performance Partnership opportunities are enhanced 4) Chain operations * Group of related properties with common ownership and/or management control * Usually a combination of ownership, management contracts and franchises * All hotels in the chain usually operate under the same brand name * Similar benefits as franchise operates * Global expansion by a hotel brand can be achieved by several market entry choices: * Franchising its operation to other biz in other countries * Licensing other companies or properties to operate using its brand/logo * Management contracts (non-investment) Acquiring overseas properties/interests * Engaging in mergers/joint ventures to horizontally integrate biz interests to operate in a number of countries. Lecture 6: F&B 1 * Provision of F&B is key to fulfilling basic human needs: physiological and social needs * Tourists provide important source of revenues to some but not all food service operations – depends on location and targeted segments e. g. newton food centre, restaurants at boat, Clarke and Robertson quay. * Many F&B establishments rely on local customers.

Development of F&B * Travel and discovery * Exploration was motivated by discovery of new food and led to spread of F&B options * Colonization/immigrants increased popularity of regional cuisines e. g. afternoon tea, peranakan * Food preferences motivate travel to destinations * The beginnings of modern foodservice practices: * France is credited with First restaurant * Most early lodging places and restaurants offered simple table d’hote menu (menu of the day) * The beginnings of modern foodservice practises: Marie-Antoine Careme’s (1800’s) grand cuisine (haute cuisine) led to the creation of the first a la carte restaurant known as “the chef of kings and the king of chefs” Also probably the first celebrity chef * The beginnings of modern foodservice practises: * Georges auguste Escoffier working in the Savoy hotel (paris) and carlton hotel (London) changed the methods and organisation of modern food service and kitchens. *

Nowadays, there are many F&B options: * Commercial restaurant operations vary from elegant, full (slow) service to quick service. * Food service include: * Company (staff canteen) Recreational (F&B at attractions/theme parks) * Institutional (school/hospital food) * Transportation food service (airlines, ships, trains) * Lodging properties (hotel restaurants) * Banquet/meeting and catering facilities * Successful F&B operators differentiate their operations by focusing on guest service, price quality (value), unique food selection and dining experience * Typical designs for delivering F&B: * Designed to serve “captive audience” (canteen, recreational, institutional) * Designed to attract guests (passer-by) who have many providers to choose from (e. . all restaurants at boat quay) Role of F&B * F&B operations may be used to attract guests to a hotel/resort property – people stay at or visit the hotel because of the restaurant * F&B may be offered to fulfil the need for food, often used to increase the overall productivity/offerings of hotel/resort property – restaurant is there for convenience of guests who need to eat. Restaurants * Vital part of daily life * Many people patronize restaurants several times a week for social purposes as well as to eat and drink * Offer society a place to relax and “restore” Offer an opportunity to enjoy the company of friends, family, colleagues, associates Restaurants classification 1) Fine-dining * Formal/serious dining restaurant * Usually very highly-rated *

Luxurious interior/furnishings * Serving the best cuisine/food in various courses at leisurely pace (slower service0 * Best chefs * Impeccable service * High price * Good selection of menu items made on premises * Everything made from scratch in the kitchen * No instant/processed food * E. g. Le Bec Fin (French) * Philadephia, USA One of the best restaurants in the world * Chef and owner Georges Perrier * Mobil 5 star and AAA’s 5 Diamond awards * Best restaurants – El Bulli (Spain), chef Ferran Adria Reasons for fewer of fine-dining restaurants * Labour-intensive that require high level of skilled labour * Overhead costs may not be reasonable * Economics of scale not easily reaped as restaurants usually have limited seating and everything is prepared fresh so can’t order in bulk to store * High setup cost * Consistency and quality not easy to maintain Only niche or limited market appeal 2) Themed restaurants * Hard rock cafe (original rock opened in London, 14 june 1971 * Rainforest cafe 3) Celebrity owned * Owned by celebrities such as Michael Jordan, Dan marino, steven segal 4) Casual dining restaurants * Moderately priced * Relaxed dining in a casual/relaxed atmosphere * Mid-scale casual restaurants: * California Pizza kitchen * Tony Roma’s 5) Specialty restaurants * Specialised in certain kinds of food or cooking techniques e. g. seafood, steak, grill ) Quick service/ fast food *

Better known as fast food * Limited menus * Theme-related (i. e. pizza, burgers, chicken) * Guests help to defray labour costs by self-serving and clearing. Lecture 7: F&B 2 * Types of beverage outlets: * Lobby bar * Restaurant bar * Catering and banquet bar * Pool bar * Night clubs/disco * Sports bar * Minibar (in room) * Hotel beverage outlet: * Place to relax and socialize for both biz and pleasure * Usually serving alcoholic beverages * Profit margin for beverage is higher than food Unlike food, beverages can be held over if not sold (not as perishable as food) * Hotel restaurants: * Number and type depends on type of hotel * Typically run by restaurant manager who is responsible for: * Overseeing the day-today operation of the restaurant including cleaning, floor plan lay-out, table settings and theme of the restaurant * Hiring, training, supervising, rostering, promoting and firing staff * Working with the chef to determine menu plans on daily basis, for special events or occasions or for groups or parties. Purchasing all items including food, beverages, eqt and supplies (excluding kitchen food prep ingredients chef job) * Managing all accounts , handling payroll and hiring accountants or book-keepers if required * meeting, greeting and getting feedback from customers (customer service) * Advertising and marketing the restaurant w/n the community Stewarding department * Responsibilities of Chief steward: * Cleanliness of back of house * Cleanliness of glassware, china and cutlery * Inventory of cleaning chemical stock * Maintenance of dishwashing machines * Pest control * Set-up and take-down of buffet lines, food displays

Catering department * Includes a variety of occasions when people may eat at varying times * Banquets * Referring to groups of people who eat together at one time and one place * These two terms are used interchangeably Catering department – organisation * Catering director must work with: * Director of sales – MICE requirements * F&B director – budget and support * Executive chef – food requirements * Catering services manager – staff and operations * Responsible for selling and servicing all catering for receptions, banquets, meetings and exhibitions/ shows Catering – Banquet event order (BEO) Contains all info pertinent to the event that has been planned * Event details: * Client contacts * Hotel rep handling event * venue * F&B requirements: * Menu: F&B * Special dietary requests * Beverages served * Room set-up: * Table and chair set-up, stationery, decor, stage, dance floor, flip charts * Include diagram of layout * AV requirements: * Billing instructions : * Who and how to settle * Deposit received (if any) Catering types 1) Tea/coffee break * Usually offered to meetings during mid-morning or afternoon * Served either inside or just outside the meeting room Finger foods and snacks (self service) * Coffee and tea 2)

Cocktail/ tea reception * Served during events like product launches, pre-dinner/show, weddings, corporate/networking events * Guest usually standing and free to move around and mingle * Alcoholic and/or non-alcoholic drinks * Finger-foods (Hors d’Oeuvres) either served or self-served from chafing dishes * Plates with special glass holder 3) Working lunch * Usually offered to meetings where they do not break for lunch * Served inside meeting room * Food served may include : Simple finger food (sandwiches), set meals, self-service buffet * Non-alcoholic drinks, coffee/tea 4) Dinner banquet * Usually for celebrations like weddings, D&D , anniversaries * Service style and food can range from fine dining to casual * food served in three ways: * Communal dining (Chinese dinner style) * Individually plated (western style) * Self-service (buffet style) * Alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks, coffee tea Room service/in-room dining * Typically found in larger hotels & resorts * Usually available 24h * Level of service and menu vary * Challenges: * Delivery of orders on time (and quality) Making it a profitable department * Avoiding complaints * Forecasting Managed services * Food service operations contracted out to professional management companies * Can be found in segments like: * Leisure and recreation centres/attractions * Conference cnetres * Airportd * Military * Airlines * Schools, colleges and universities * Healthcare facilities * Biz and industry * E. g. SATS catering, Singapore food industries – MINDEF *

Challenge to please guest and client * Guests are captive audience (may not have alternative dining option) * Foodservice may not be the primary biz e. . SATS has passenger services/cargo & mail handling/ aircraft interior cleaning * Food produced in large quantities * Volume of biz is consistent Contract management * Financial * Cheaper to outsource than build and run a whole food service facility yourself * Quality of program * Can hold contractor accountable to a higher level of performance * Expertise in management and operations * Resources available – they buy in bulk and possess necessary eqt * Recruitment of management and staff labour relations * Outsourcing of administrative functions

Building profitable operations * F&B industry faces thin profit margins and fierce competition * Highest failure rate of all types of biz – 70-80% of all new restaurants fail w/n the first 3 years of biz, owners often do not have the biz skills to succeed * Benchmarks used to measure performance (F&B % cost) * Balancing payroll costs with productivity * Food quality and cost are the results of effective purchasing * Using technology to improve service delivery * 70-80% of all new restaurants fail w/n the first 3 years of biz usually because of: * Lack of experience Insufficient capital * Poor location * Poor inventory management * Over investment in fixed assets * Poor credit arrangements * Personal use of biz funds * Unexpected growth * Competition * Low sales * Benchmarking = % total sales used for food cost, labour and others * Food cost = 28-32% * Labour = 30-33% * Others = 30% * Income before tax = about 4-10% only Hotel F&B trends * Use of branded restaurants – hotels opting not to offer self-operated, F&B facilities – leasing to branded chains/celebrity chefs * More casual atmosphere * Standardized menus in hotel chain Use of technology in guest services and overall operations General Restaurant trends *

Demographic targeting * Branding through franchising/chains * Alternative outlets * Globalisation * Continued diversification * More twin and multiple locations * More points of service * More hyper-theme restaurants * Chains vs independents Restaurant operations trends * More flavourful food * Increased takeout meals and home meal replacement * Food safety and sanitation * Guests becoming sophisticated * More food court restaurants * Segments are splitting to tiers Quick service restaurants in convenience stores * Difficulty in finding good employees Beverage trends * Comeback of cocktails * Designer bottled water * Microbreweries * More wine consumption * Increase in coffee houses and coffee intake * Increased awareness and action to avoid irresponsible alcoholic beverage consumption. Lecture 8: Ancillary tourism services (IMPORTANT) There are services that depend largely or entirely upon the movement of tourists but are seldom considered to be part of the tourism industry itself. 1)

Customs services 2) Visa issuing offices ) Companies specialising in design and construction of hotels, theatres, restaurants and other centres of entertainment. Ancillary Tourism Services * A category of miscellaneous tourism services provided to tourists or to the suppliers of tourism services. * Services to the tourist: 1) Guides and tour leaders 2) Animateurs 3) Financial services 4) Incentive travel vouchers Tour guides * Role of guides is to shepherd, guide, supervise, inform and interpret for groups of tourists participating in tours * Guides can be : 1) Employees of carriers or tour operators 2) Independent agents 3) Freelance agents Guides may be only distinguishing feature a packaged tour 9when all packages seem similar) * Guides also function to provide sight-seeing commentary on country/region * Some companies combine the roles of coach driver and guide to save (possibly unsafe or inadequate) * Tour guides must be licensed in SG. 1) Pass the general tourist guide exam 2) Must take the general tourist guide course to prepare themselves for the exam 3) Official SG guides website: guides online * General Tourist Guide (GTG) Licensed by STB to promote and conduct tours w/n SG for a fee * Taxi Tourist Guide (TTG)

GTG is licensed to conduct a tour using the taxi as a mode of transport (i. e. ferry tourists around using taxi) * Specialised Tourist Guide (STG) A tourist guide licensed by STB who has the knowledge and ability to provide guiding services in fields such as Nature, food, art Animateur * Members of the tourism industry who entertain tourists by: 1) Acting out a role 2) Providing entertainment 3) Providing instruction * Animateurs interact with tourists in a broad range of roles that will enhance the destination or attraction where they work. Financial Services * Financial services for tourists include: ) Insurance 2) Foreign exchange and credit Insurance * Important and often essential aspect of a tourist’s travel arrangements that may include: 1) Cancellation or curtailment of holiday 2) Medical/hospitalisation coverage 3) Personal accident 4) Delayed departure 5) Loss/damaged baggage 6) Loss of money 7) Personal liability * Some policies include coverage for collapse of travel agency/tour operator * Policies may be purchased: 1) As part of travel package from tour operator 2) From independent insurance company * Insurance may be provided free as an attractive incentive in marketing tour packages

Foreign transactions & credit * Many ways for travellers to pay for goods and services while abroad 1) Cash in foreign currency 2) Traveller’s checks in foreign currency 3) Advance transfer of funds to specified foreign bank 4) Using travel (pre-paid) vouchers (for tourism service) 5) Credit/charge cards * Travel vouchers with monetary value that holders can exchange for preferred travel products and arrangements, usually through specified travel agents (given as rewards for achievements) * Services to the tourism supplier: 1) Education and training * Tourism-related training options in SG:

Polytechnics SHATEC(culinary arts, F&B, hospitality and tourism) ITE NTU(cornell – Nanyang institute of hospitality management) Private institutions( tourism management institute of SG (TMIS) by NATAS 2) Trade press * Weekly and monthly journals devoted to travel and tourism (covers news of social and commercial activities, job classifieds) * Best way for tourism industry employees to update their knowledge of travel and tourism products * Main weekly trade papers(free): travel trade gazette, travel weekly * Travel guides/directories and timetables E. g. Hotel & travel index (HTI), SG convention &exhibition directory, official Airline guide (OAG) * Many publications and guides also have online versions to cut cost. * Podcast (some spoken-word guides available on internet allowing people to download and save on an MP3/media player) 3) Marketing consultants and A&P agencies * Services that provide marketing support to the tourism industry include: 1) Marketing consultants 2) Representative agencies 3) Advertising agencies 4) Brochure design, print and distribution services ) Suppliers of tourism point-of-sale material 6) Research and public relations organisations *

Marketing consultants * Offer advice to companies on organisational and operational issues such as positioning, P&S enhancement, feasibility studies, installation of a new computer system * Representative agencies * Biz that act as general sales and marketing agents for a company w/n a defined territory (usually abroad) for a retainer or commission on sales – mostly in hotel sector * Advertising and promotional (A&P) agencies Usually agencies that specialise in handling travel and tourism a/cs * Services provided include design and placement of ad campaigns, design and printing of marketing/promotional material (e. g. brochures, CD-roms, websites), marketing research, Public relations, direct marketing services (e. g. direct mail distribution, email blast) 4) Technical services * Specialist computer experts who: 1) Designs and implement purpose-made systems for the tourism industry such as property management systems (e. g. opera, HIS), accounting systems, eservations systems (for hotels, travel agents, airlines) 2) Help maintain the sophisticate computers systems for tourism suppliers Lecture 9: Destinations, attractions and entertainment Attractions: Natural locations or constructed facilities that have a special appeal Entertainment alternatives are usually temporary (e. g. events and festivals) People have always travelled to experience the special attraction of distant places.

divorce,it is a definition essay the main topic is divorce we have to break it down further into 3 subtopics and they are: children and divorce, causes of divorce, and recovering from divorce like both children and parents. we also have to have a paragrap

divorce,it is a definition essay the main topic is divorce we have to break it down further into 3 subtopics and they are: children and divorce, causes of divorce, and recovering from divorce like both children and parents. we also have to have a paragrap.

it is a definition essay the main topic is divorce we have to break it down further into 3 subtopics and they are: children and divorce, causes of divorce, and recovering from divorce like both children and parents. we also have to have a paragraph on what divorce is not.

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