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Introduction To Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage is well recognized in the world today for his great transmissible anatomy in the history of computing and as the first computer innovator. Charles Babbage also did extremely well in various philosophical and scientific subjects although his recognition and reputation today lies mainly on his immense mechanical calculating engines he designed and invented. Who is Charles Babbage? According to Swade (1991) Charles Babbage was born on the 26th of December 1791 at Walworth road, surrey in south London United Kingdom. Some argued Babbage was born in December 26, 1792 but the rumor was false. Charles Babbage had two brothers and a sister, his father Benjamin Babbage was a very wealthy and reputable banker in his days. Babbage lost two of his brothers in infancy but his sister lived longer than him. In his youth Babbage showed serious interest in algebra and became his own teacher in algebra, in his own days he could interpret most things that were printed or written in the continental mathematics. In Charles Babbage’s elementary years he went to a boarding school and has Babbage grew older, in 1810, Babbage went to trinity college, Cambridge University where he was every interested and was involved in mathematics and graduated in 1814. However, in Babbage’s days as a student of Cambridge he played an active role in the operation and formation in a couple of societies. In 1814 at St. Michael’s church in Teignmouth Babbage got married to Georgiana Whitmore without his father approval, the couple lived happily and she gave birth to at least 7 children for Babbage but only three of his children lived to maturity Benjamin Herschel, Henry Prevost and Dugald Bromhead. 1827 was a tragic for Charles Babbage. He lost two of his children (a newborn son and Charles) that same year he also lost his father Benjamin Babbage and his beloved wife Georgiana. Seven year later in 1834 Babbage only daughter died. Charles Babbage also played a major role in the calculus of functions and worked as a mathematician, two years later in 1816, Babbage was elected a fellow of the Royal Society he was also involved in the development of Cambridge philosophical society Babbage also play an outstanding role in 1820 in the creation of the Astronomical Society which was later named the (Royal Astronomical Society). Tee (1990) In 1828 Charles Babbage became a professor of mathematics at the Cambridge University and was there for up to 11 years 1839 which he never gave a single lecture. It was during that period Charles Babbage first developed the interest in the calculating machinery and for the rest of his life became his consuming passion. Charles Babbage was multi talented and his also a prolific inventor, a scientist, natural theology, mathematician, engineering designer, geologist, reformer, philosopher, traveler, incorrigible rationalist, political economist, one-time politician, visionary, socialite and also a prolific writer. (Tee, 1990) Charles Babbage also invented flashing lighthouses, games-playing machines and colored lighting for theatres, diving equipment, tree-ring dating, mechanical e-mail, signaling heliographs, shoes for walking on water and submarine navigation all these show that Babbage was a prolific inventor and show Babbage had good writing skills he also has some published works which includes: “Ninth Bridgewater Treatise” which was published in (1837), published in (1826) was “A Comparative View if the Various Institution for the Assurance of Lives” one year later in (1827) he also published “Table of Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108, 000” Also published in (1830) was “Reflection on the Decline of Science in England”. In the 1820s Babbage saw that in mathematical tables there were high amount of errors in calculations it was unreliable and the hard work of manually checking the tables for errors was another thing. He started thinking of what he could do to solve this human calculating error and Babbage said to himself that ‘he wish to God these calculation had been executed by steam’ (“The Babbage Engine”, 2008). From this point Babbage began to focus on how he could make counting easier and to calculate number with full accuracy without giving error. Babbage was influenced in 3 different factors his accumulation of knowledge working on logarithmic tables, his dislike of untidiness, and the work of the calculating machines already in existence. He went on his aspirational venture to design and build a vast machine unexampled size and elaborate, mechanical calculating engines and a machine to do away with human error and that was when Charles Babbage came up with his Difference Engine. The invention of Charles Babbage’s first machine called Difference Engine, was in 1821, and he began to build to this machine that automatically compiles mathematical tables and tabulate mathematical which was fully supported and sponsored by the government. The government made a 1500 pounds advance payment for Babbage to start on his dream to complete the Difference Engine Babbage hired a highly skilled toolmaker and draughtsman called Joseph Clement and they both worked hand-in-hand. The Difference Engine was estimated to have twenty five thousand parts and weigh up to 50 tons. It was during this period in (1827) his father, wife and two children died it was really a devastating moment for Babbage. “Clement downed tools and fired his workmen following a dispute with Babbage over compensation for moving Clements workshop closer to Babbage’s house” (“The Babbage Engine”, 2008). With Babbage’s continuous revisions of design the structure of the Difference Engine was not close to completion and they was an argument about financial issues between Babbage and his chief engineer Clement and the argument put an end to the both of them working together which halted the Difference Engine. Eleven years after Babbage started the Difference Engine in 1832 the project was still unfinished with just one seventh of machine available in 1833 Babbage got fresh ideas from the Difference Engine and came up with another new invention called the Analytical Engine. The Analytical Engine is technically demanding and is far more ambitious. Babbage set out building up his Analytical Engine, the dispute with Clement was one of the reasons why the Analytical Engine was never built but it was designed to accomplish more complicated mathematical calculations. The Analytical Machine was said to be a computing general purpose programmable machine. In 1833 at a party Charles Babbage met the daughter of an infamous British poet Lord Byron, her name was Ada Lovelace she was only seventeen as at that time and she also had some training in mathematic which as at that time it was very unusual for a woman. She was filled with wonder and delight by the small working segment of the machine and in time she showed great excitement and interest to support Babbage’s work. An article was published by Ada Lovelace in 1843 by Luigi Menabrea an Italian engineer which she translated French. Included in her notes were description that describe the steps the mathematical engine will take in solving mathematical problems, it was the first of its kind to be published and those procedures are now what we call programs. Ada Lovelace speculated that in accordance with rules the machine could generally manipulate symbols and might go beyond numbers. She also saw that the representation of entities other than quantity by numbers could represent notes of music; letters of alphabet and by number manipulations, the computing machines broaden their abilities outside the world of mathematics. As years goes by Charles Babbage saw how he could modify the design of his Difference Engine by the polished mechanisms of the Analytical Engine. Sometime between 1847 and 1849 Charles Babbage planned and designed a new engine called Difference Engine No.2. This new engine design derives benefits and techniques from the Analytical Engine. The parts of Difference Engine No.2 were 3 times less than Difference Engine No.1 for the same computing corresponding power and also elegant and efficient. The Difference Engine No.2 would weigh 5 tons; consist of eight thousand parts and measure 11 ft long 7 ft high but nevertheless the machine was not attempted to be built by Babbage. Charles Babbage committed his prominent fortune and his time towards building the Analytical Engine after 1856, Babbage never saw any of his designs completed. A Swedish printer called George Scheutz, successfully constructed a machine in 1854 that was established on the designs for Charles Babbage’s difference engine. Though Henry Prevost Babbage one of Charles Babbage’s son continued his work after his death in 1871, he was also unsuccessful and did not complete the Analytical Engine. What is the Difference Engine? Charles Babbage in 1821 designed the Difference Engine No.1. The Difference Engines of Charles Babbage are strictly calculators. The crunching of numbers by adding repetitions agreeing to the method of finite differences. The engines are based on mathematical principle that’s why they are called the Difference Engine. The outstanding example of its kind of method is that it removes the need for division and multiplication which are harder to implement mechanically and it uses only arithmetical additions but nevertheless general arithmetical calculations cannot be used on the machine. The Difference Engine also detects its Decimal, Error-detection and Binary (“The Babbage Engine”, 2008). Babbage’s engines uses the ten numbers that we are familiar with ‘0’ to ‘9’ which makes them decimal digital machines in the sense that it only recognize whole numbers as valid. On the gear wheel they are representation of number values and every wheel has its own digit of a number each. The error-detection is when calculation has been compromised. If a wheel remains on a particular position around the middle of a scale of evaluation the value will not be precisely determined Babbage designed his engine to jam when such an incident occurs. He also included binary and number bases 3, 4, 5, 12, 16 and 100. It was due to engineering efficiency that was why settled for decimal for everyday familiarity and the reduction of moving parts. Charles Babbage started with the Difference Engine No.1 in 1821 the vast machine was designed for calculations and to tabulate multinomial functions. The description of the machine design is to print results automatically in a table from the calculations from series of values (Swade, 1991). In 1824 Babbage’s largest practical ventures kicked off and machine called for an estimated twenty five thousand (25,000) parts divided evenly between the printer and the calculating section. The machine would have weighed up 50 tons if it had been built and measured 8 ft high 7 ft long and 3 ft deep (2.4*2.1*0.9 m). “Charles Babbage was not the first to suggest a printing calculator nor was he the first to consider method of differences as a suitable principle upon which to base a calculating machine” (Swade, 1991). This distinction belongs to an engineer and master builder called Johann Muller (1746 – 1830). Between 1847 and 1849 Babbage had a complete design of Difference Engine No.2 This Engine can tabulate up to the seventh order of polynomial and calculates with number 31 digits long and requires 3 times less the parts than the previous Engine. A simple design for the same computing power as Difference Engine No.1. Babbage Never made any effort to build his Difference Engine No.2 and it was not completed in metal like all his other designs.

Assistive Technology for Differently-Abled Learners

Introduction The Introduction of Technology in the sphere of Education has proved to be a turning point in the transfer of knowledge in a traditional classroom setting. Integrating Technology with teaching and learning has developed an interactive environment while also fostering creativity wherein students find themselves engaging more than in the usual lecture method classroom setting. A trend that is on a rise, the usage of technology has become more predominant; switching textbooks with tablets, assignments are turned in via online portals, and classwork and course materials can be accessed using wireless mobile devices. The incorporation of technology in education has also resulted in students being equipped with skills that helps them enter the workforce once they graduate. With all these developments, Technology has played a major role in creating an environment of equal opportunity by paving the way for differently-abled learners to engage and be a part of a traditional classroom setting. In the past, differently-abled students struggled to be a part of classroom program is due to accessibility and instructional issues. Through computer-based learning programs, these students are given the opportunity to manage their disability and overcome issues be able to engage, participate and have the same educational experiences as a regular student. They can perform tasks and participate in activities that would previously not be possible for them due to the limitation of their disability, be it physical or any other form. With the advent of Technology, differently abled students, have been provided with prospects that give them more flexibility, independence and access, thus enhancing their quality of life in the present and that of the future. The aim of this research paper is to talk about how through the integration of technology, more importantly Assistive Technology, learners have been given an opportunity access education in the traditional classroom setting as any regular student. It will also talk about cons of why and how technology, though on the rise, still has limitations and drawbacks for differently-abled learners in terms of accessibility. Additionally, the aim is to also talk about creating an environment, so learners do not face any sort of exclusion based on physical abilities or mental faculties. Body Over the past decade, we have witnessed Technology play a crucial role in revolutionizing classroom learning. With the advent of interactive technology, the manner of instruction has undergone a dynamic shift. There has been a transformation where classrooms are now more diverse, engaging and encourage collaborative learning that focuses on better understanding, learning, and retaining practices. Through Computer based and Online E-Learning programs, differently abled students can now access coursework, communicate thoughts and ideas and engage in educational experiences. Providing differently-abled student increased access to traditional college experiences, through technology, helps them to experience and participate in academic life. For example: through online learning differently abled students can access campus and course facilities, which in the past could pose as a possible hindrance to them. Before going further, it is essential to understand how different technologies have been introduced and existing technology has evolved based on the various forms of disabilities that exist. The term “Disability” is an umbrella term, covering the various forms of disabilities that exist. No one form of technology will work or can be used as the only assistive method. To begin with, it is important to understand how disabilities are categorized: Physical/Sensory Cognitive Psychiatric Health-Related In many cases, there is a possibility of a student experiencing more than one kind of disability. For the student to be able to manage their disability and also complete tasks and challenges that comes along with being a student is tough. Hence, Assistive Technology has been a powerful tool in helping students in being able to perform tasks they previously would not have been able to complete or achieve What is Assistive Technology? According to the website of the Assistive Technology Industry Association, Assistive Technology is “any item piece of equipment, software program or product systems that is used to increase maintain or improve the functional capabilities of persons with disabilities. It helps people who have difficulty speaking wiring, typing remembering, pointing, seeing, hearing, learning walking and many other things. Different disabilities require different assistive technologies.” Therefore, Assistive Technology is any apparatus that helps differently abled students with learning and education. This was defined with the implementation of the Assistive Technology Act 1998, that was designed to make sure every disabled student is provided an equal opportunity and format to education. Introduced by former president Bill Clinton, the act defines AT as; “Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. AT service is directly assisting an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.” The term includes- (a) The evaluation of the needs of a child with a disability, including a functional evaluation of the child in the child’s customary environment; (b) Purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition of assistive technology devices by children with disabilities; (c) Selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices; (d) Coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs; (e) Training or technical assistance for a child with a disability or, if appropriate, that child’s family; and (f) Training or technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education or rehabilitation services), employers, or other individuals who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of that child. (Edyburn, 2004) It is important for caregivers and teachers to understand what particular technology or a combination, will be of most help to the student. The tools chosen and used, should help the student in optimal utilization of his capabilities, that suit his needs and are able to give him the best experience. Anytime assistive technology will be considered for a student, there needs to be an accurate and detailed assessment to determine exactly what the student needs. There are many devices available and it is imperative to choose the one that is a good fit for the student. It is often a good practice to see if there can be a trial period to try out the device before purchasing it. (Dyal, Carpenter, Wright, 2009) The role of Assistive Technology for differently abled students is that it compensates for the skill that the student is lacking in or for their area of disability. These may act in assisting the student with the task but cannot be considered long term remedial solutions for the student’s disability. For example: A brail to text software that converts the brail for a blind student, into readable text. The function it performs is in an assistive measure, to improve the skill deficit, and not a solution to cure the disability. Currently, various different types of Assistive Technology are available for differently-abled students based on their disability. As mentioned before, the kind of assistive technology to be used, or a combination of a few, will depend on firstly the need of the student, and second how best it would suit them. Some of the few, commonly used assistive technologies used to help differently abled students are: Recognition Software, Conversion Software, Assistive Listening Software, Visual/Audio Aids, Physical Mobility Aid etc. Assistive technology devices and services—from such high-tech innovations as computer screen— readers for people with visual impairments to lower-tech products, such as head pointers or pencil grips—have aided learning for many students with physical impairments. Positioning devices have enabled students with physical disabilities to join their classmates at tables; auditory trainers have helped those with hearing impairments comprehend instruction in the regular classroom; and portable text-reading devices have enabled learners with sight problems to access information from libraries (Bauche and Hasselbring, 2005). With all these measures in place, there are still factors that pose as challenges for the differently-abled learners that technology is yet to catch up to. There are certain obstacles that have not yet been accounted for and found solutions to. There are several limitations to assistive technology, such as; High Costs: Most of the technology and equipment available are specialized devices and are also customized to suit the learner’s requirements. This can result in an increase in the cost of acquiring the technology. Hence, it is one of the major reasons why there is a lack of availability of technology/devices to those who require it, as financially, this is not a feasible options for them and their families. Development and Implementation is Time Consuming: Much of the technology that has now evolved, has been a result of decades long research and development. It cannot be produced overnight as it requires great amounts of trial and error and testing to the if the product, produced, works efficiently. Also, for many software, it needs to be user friendly and manageable so it acts as an assistance not as a hindrance for the user. Possibility of Malfunctioning: The devices produced do undergo long research and development and quality testing before it is released, but at the end of the day it is machinery and a piece of equipment, the possibility of malfunctioning for which is always there. This could require the re-call or re-development of a technological product. Training is needed for the Operation: Those handling and operating the equipment, need to be trained for its usage and need to get accustomed because there devices can require a specialized handling. Be it teachers, nurses or caregivers, training is an important part of handing assistive technology. Equipment could be bulky, and also space restrictive Complex: In conjunction with the previous point, complex pieces of machinery, that have several different parts to an equipment, can be cumbersome in the beginning to work with and therefore, this can cause inconvenience to those using or handling it. This is something developers of assistive technological need to keep in mind, that this is supposed to act additional help and not end up being complex to cause problems. Conclusion Through the research, we have tried to provide an insight on how differently-abled the education systems have been able to create an inclusive environment, for differently abled students. This is important not only for the students in terms of opportunity, it uplifts them and also gives them the confidence and motivation. This endeavor should be an ongoing effort to create equality in educational opportunities for the differently- abled. As assistive technologies have advanced over the years, they have delivered instructions in new ways. But simply improving access and delivery will not necessarily improve instruction. On the contrary, improved learning for all students depends on the quality of instruction—not on the medium with which it is delivered. (Bauche and Hasselbring, 2005) References Dyal, A., Carpenter, L. B.,

Writing Activity 2 has four sections to complete. You will use the writing templates in your Webtext to complete them. Once you complete all templates, you will be able to download your work and submit it to Blackboard. The Webtext will guide you through

assignment writing services Writing Activity 2 has four sections to complete. You will use the writing templates in your Webtext to complete them. Once you complete all templates, you will be able to download your work and submit it to Blackboard. The Webtext will guide you through. I need an explanation for this English question to help me study.

WRITING ACTIVITY 2
Use the writing templates in chapter 5 of the Webtext to:
1. List the feedback you received on writing activity one
2. Explain how you used feedback from writing activity one to write activity two
3. Discuss how the feedback on writing activity one will help you with future writing
Section 4
Feedback Reflection
Use the Webtext writing templates to set up your essay and write the first two paragraphs. Chapter 5 of the Webtext will provide you with guidance.
Section 3
Starting Draft
ENG215 Writing Activity 2 (rev. 2018-12) 2
This is a one-sentence statement summarizing the main idea of your essay. It should tell your reader what your topic is, what your position is on the topic, and how you will support it. Use the template in chapter 4 of your Webtext to write your working thesis statement.
Section 2
Working Thesis Statement
Create an outline. The outline is the plan for what to include in your essay. See chapter 4 of your Webtext for information on how to create a great outline.
Section 1
Outline
Writing Activity 2 has four sections to complete. You will use the writing templates in your Webtext to complete them. Once you complete all templates, you will be able to download your work and submit it to Blackboard. The Webtext will guide you through the process.
Instructions:
Due Week 5 and worth 100 points
Outline, Working Thesis Statement & Starting Draft
Writing Activity 2 has four sections to complete. You will use the writing templates in your Webtext to complete them. Once you complete all templates, you will be able to download your work and submit it to Blackboard. The Webtext will guide you through

Economics homework help

Economics homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on The law enforcement issue COOP 22-slide PowerPoint . The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,The law enforcement issue COOP 22-slide PowerPoint,CJSA 1382 COOP POWERPOINT Project 20% of total grade Prepare a 22-slide PowerPoint (including the title and Works Cited slides) presentation on a specific topic that you choose related to any subject matter on the criminal justice system. This could include a current legal case, law enforcement issue, or technological advancement related to law enforcement or criminal justice. The project may also be related to your internship at the agency (containing factual information about the agency, interesting cases not containing any confidential information, use of high-tech equipment, etc.).,Each slide must contain at least four (4) bullets, no more than six (5). Depending upon your subject matter and presentation, you should have no more than five (5) slides containing only narrative paragraphs with no bullets. Overall, slides may contain pictures, exhibits, graphs, charts, etc.,Proper grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence construction are required in this presentation. At a minimum, please include an introduction, factual explanation with supporting documentation, and a conclusion. You must include a Works Cited slide at the end of your PowerPoint citing at least three references. I would like to do this PowerPoint on Terrorism Was not sure what to put as how many pages to put.This is a 22 point slide power point.,Remember, ensure  that the paper is at least three pages exclusive of the cover and the reference pages. Also, ensure that you include all the references you use in finding research for this assignment paper. References should be at least three for the paper. All references, citation, and writing should follow the APA formatting and styling guidelines. Finally, ensure you focus on the assignment topic in detail.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Economics homework help

Three Schools of Thought of Classical Management Theory

Three Schools of Thought of Classical Management Theory. Classical Management Theory is a “Body of management thought based on the belief that employees have only economical and physical needs, and that social needs and need for job-satisfaction either don’t exist or are unimportant. Accordingly, this school advocates high specialization of labor, centralized decision making, and profit maximization.” (www.businessdictionary.com) To have originated at the end of the nineteenth century and in the beginning of the twentieth century, the Classical Management Theory dominated management thinking in the 1920s and 1930s by emphasising on the efficiency of the work process. Classical Management Theory has three schools of thought Scientific Management, which identifies the best way to do a line of work; “Bureaucratic Management, which focuses on rules and procedure, hierarchy and clear division of labour; and Administrative Management, which emphasises the flow of information within the organisation.” (www.lehren.org) The aim of this essay is to discuss the three schools of thought of Classical Management Theory and to find out that whether they have really become outdated and are of little relevance to work and organisation in today’s world. 1. Scientific Management Frederick Taylor is known as the begetter of Scientific Management. Taylor’s approach was to increase organisational productiveness by increasing the efficiency of the production process through emphasising on the empirical research. Especially in the United States where labour, especially the skilled labour was short in supply at the start of the twentieth century and the only way of increasing productivity was by raising the efficiency of the workers. Scientific Management states that the line of work should be designed in such a way that every worker has a well-controlled and well-stipulated task, and specific methods and procedures are strictly followed for each job. (www.lehren.org; Cole, 2004) Taylor’s management theory is founded upon a fundamental belief that managers not only are intellectually better than an average employee, but they have a positive duty as well to oversee staff and to organise their work activities. Therefore, his theory was only used on low-level repetitive and routine tasks which could be easily managed at supervisory level. Taylor developed four principles for his theory of Scientific Management. First principle is to scientifically develop best methodology to perform each task. Second principle is that managers should make sure that the best person is picked to perform the task and to ensure that he/she gets the best training. Third principle is that managers are responsible for assuring that the best person selected for the job does it by applying the best methodology. Last principle Taylor developed was that total responsibility for the work method should be removed from the worker and should be passed on to the management, and the employee is only responsible for the actual work performance. (Cole, 2004; Stoner et al, 1996) On production-line time studies Taylor has based his management system. Taylor contrived the best and quickest methods of performing each component by breaking down each job into its components and applying time study as his base. He also tried to persuade employers to pay a higher rate to more productive workers. In the early parts of twentieth century Scientific Management Theory became very popular as its application was shown to lead improvements in productivity and efficiency. 2. Bureaucratic Management Max Weber is known as the father of Modern Sociology. He had first used the term ‘bureaucracy’ to describe an organisational form which in his view was superior to others. He viewed an ideal organisation to be bureaucratic whose divisions of labour were clearly expressed and whose objectives and activities were rationally thought. He believed that performance evaluation should entirely be made on the basis of merit and that technical competence should be emphasized on. The key elements of a bureaucracy are defined by Weber as: A clear chain of command within a well-defined hierarchy where the top post holders have the authority and the right to control the lower post holders; Specialisation of skills and division of labour, where every employee will have the authority and essential expertise to finish a particular task; In writing, accurate and complete rules and regulations, to control and govern all decisions, activities and situations; Impersonal relationships between employees and managers, with clear duties of personnel and statements of the rights; And all the decisions regarding selection, recruitment and promotion will be made on the basis of technical competence. The framework Weber provided for his theory of Bureaucratic Management advanced the formation of many huge corporations such as Ford. (www.lehren.org; Stoner et al, 1996; Cole, 2004) 3. Administrative Management Henri Fayol a French industrialist was one of the most influential management thinkers who developed one of the Classical Management Theory known as ‘Administrative Management’. Scientific Management theory was concerned with increasing the productiveness of the shop floor while Fayol’s theory grew out of the need to find guidelines to manage complex organisations like factories. An early effort pioneered by Fayol was to identify the skills and principles that underlie effective management. According to Cole (2004), Fayol believed that sound management falls into certain patterns which once identified can be analysed, so he focused on management of business operations, which he felt had been the most neglected. He developed fourteen general principles of management based on his management experience. It was generally believed that mangers are born not made, before Fayol. He insisted that management was a skill like other skills which could be taught and learned once the principles underlying it were understood. The ideas Classical Theorists have presented still have many applications in the management of today’s organisations but with some modifications. Managers of today are facing many internal challenges which are similar to the ones faced by the managers during earlier periods. Like Taylor’s concern for increase productivity of workers is still shared by managers. The Scientific Management theory is still relevant, even today but it is not as popular as it was in the past. The job design it presented is still widely used in industries today and has made most of the industrial work repetitive, tedious, menial and depressing, and can be noted for example in fast-food restaurants like KFC and McDonald and in assembly lines of automobile manufacturers. McDonald’s divides its operation into a number of tasks such as operating a deep fryer or cooking operation, supervising and assign people to perform the tasks. The modern mass automobile assembly lines pour out finished merchandises faster than Taylor could have ever thought off or imagined. In addition to this, the efficiency techniques of Scientific Management ate used in the training of Surgeons. Today’s armies also employ Scientific Management. Of the main points listed – select workers with appropriate skills for each job, a standard method to perform each task, training for standard task, eliminating interruptions and planning work, and wage incentive for increasing output – all but wage incentives are used by modern military for increased output. Wage incentives usually appear in the form of skill bonuses in armies. Furthermore, industrial engineers of today are also taught Scientific Management methods which include job-tasks analysis, time and motion studies and detailed production planning regarding the field of operation research and management. (Backer, 1998) In United States Bureaucratic Management is still used by service-based organisations like libraries. Libraries of Wichita State University are one concrete example where Weber’s Bureaucratic Management ideas are still applied. Postal service in United States is also still using bureaucracy. (www.biz.colostate.edu) Piece rate systems and mass production line are used in the manufacturing and garment industries in Mauritius. Sea-food hub is another industry where the Classical Management Theories are still applied, more specifically at Tuna Processing plant in Mauritius. (www.biz.colostate.edu) But since the emergence and formulation of the Classical Management Theories in the nineteenth century the economic landscape has rapidly changed. Businesses of today do not exist in a vacuum. They have become open systems with dynamic and constant interaction with the environment. Business environment of today is highly competitive and global, and managers of today are increasingly becoming aware of the business environment and its effects. There are two types of business environment known as the internal and the external environment. Factors that can be relatively controlled by the organisation relates to the internal environment. These factors are the employees, owners, customers, suppliers, pressure groups and authorities. The external environment constitutes of Political, Economical, Social and Technological (PEST) factors that cannot be controlled by the organisation. Business environment of today is characterised with uncertainty, changes and innovation. At the same time concern about the natural environment has also emerged worldwide. Current natural concerns are climate changes, pollution, ozone depletion and other global issues like population and food security. It is becoming more challenging because of the commotion in the financial sector and global economic slowdown. Businesses must adapt to the environment at all cost or die. As McDonald’s have concluded managers of today have to be concerned not only with the scientific facts but with the environment and the public perception. Conclusion Organisations today are mostly influenced by the external environment (continuous technology change, globalisation, fierce market share competition, hiring and retaining front line workers and executives) that often fluctuate with time. Yet Classical Management Theories only portrays the image of an organisation that is not shaped by the external influences. In today’s world of Classical Management Theories are gradually fading and the principal reason behind this is that people and their needs are considered as secondary to the needs of an organisation by Classical theorists. Nowadays, Human Resource Management has also very seriously challenged the scientific approach. Furthermore, in organisations the Bureaucratic Management is rapidly giving way to the Matrix structure. However, Classical Management Theories are still important because they had introduced the concepts of management for intellectual analysis and provided ideas which were further developed by the subsequent management schools of thought. References Classic School Of Management, [online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/classical-school-of-management.html [Accessed 8 December 2010]. Cole, G.A. (2004). Management: Theory and Practice. 6th ed. London: Thomson Learning Management Evolution, [online] Available at: http://www.biz.colostate.edu [Accessed 8 December 2010]. Module: Fundamentals of Organisation. [online] Available at: http://lehren.org/foundations/fundamentals.htm [Accessed 8 December 2010]. Backer, P.R. (1998). Scientific Management. [online] Available at: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/pabacker/scientific_mgt.htm [Accessed 8 December 2010]. Stoner, J.A.F., et al (1996). Management. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Three Schools of Thought of Classical Management Theory