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Introduction In Brideshead Revisited English Literature Essay

The first of the two sections, “Et in Arcadia Ego,” makes clear that the beauty and joy which the young men experience, and their sense of escape from the oppression of family, are illusory. The importance of the title of the second section, “A Twitch upon the Thread,” is made clear by Cordelia Flyte who reinforces the ‘Divine purpose’ throughout the novel. The emphasis on the biblical allegory of a prodigal son to Charles Ryder highlights his ultimate return to God after his wander between the “profound and secular life.” Essay Young Agnostic Artist, Charles Ryder Here, an indication that the young artist Charles Ryder at Oxford is agnostic is assumed from the very start of the novel through the subtitle: “The Sacred and Profane Memories of Captain Charles Ryder.” The diction with two contradicting adjectives stresses upon his memories of his life by associating with a decadent society. Furthermore, it suggests a certain degree of a potential religious conversion of Captain Charles Ryder, which appears true through the gradual character development in the novel, as he is influenced by both the magnetic pull of religion and the desires of his secular life. With an emphasis of the polarisation of the two words, Waugh from the very beginning of the novel foreshadows the journey of Charles from an agnostic student in love with the worldly possessive art into a devout Catholic captain with a great realisation of Catholic faith based epiphany. After prologue, Waugh describes Charles Ryder’s discovery of a world of architectural beauty and his struggles to build a life as an artist in book one: Et In Arcadia Ego. The overriding theme created from the motto: Et In Arcadia Ego is intended to create a pastoral reminiscence, depicting a Young Ryder who is searching for love. This is shown through the author’s use of vivid imagery of his first encounter with Brideshead which is portrayed as an eternal, Utopian dream where he is captivated by the foreign beauty of the physical environment of Brideshead, “a new and secret landscape”. Sebastian drives to Brideshead with Ryder. They stop to picnic on strawberries and wine “on a sheep-cropped knoll”, a truly Arcadian, pastoral setting. Although a homosexual idyll may be suggested by the passage, of greater significance is Sebastian’s wish to escape to an idealized, timeless world. For him, the sunny knoll is a place “to bury a crock of gold” so that he can someday come back and “dig it up and remember”. In contrast to Charles’ fascination of the aesthetic dimension of Brideshead, Sebastian dreams for an escape, despite his recognition of its beauty. This further attracts Charles to the enchanted beauty of Brideshead as a whole. Here, the physical standard of beauty in the novel is established and Ryder begins his immature love for Sebastian. His longing for someone like Sebastian is stated when he first joins Oxford, which explains why they were able to develop a close friendship. “[… ] and my earliest friends fitted well into this background; they were Collins, a Wykehamist, an embryo don, a man of solid reading and childlike humour, and a small circle of college intellectuals, who maintained a middle course of culture between the flamboyant “aesthetes” and the proletarian scholars who scrambled fiercely for facts in the lodging houses of the Iffley -Road and Wellington Square. […] but even in the earliest days […] I felt at heart that this was not all that Oxford had to offer. 28″ The list of many types of kinds Oxford had did not satisfy what Charles was looking for, it was Sebastian that Charles was captivated by. This is shown through Charles insisting on Sebastian’s “beauty, which was arresting”, elsewhere describing him as “entrancing, with that epicene beauty which in extreme youth sings aloud for love and withers at the first cold wind.” Furthermore, the discovery of an “enclosed and enchanted garden” begins his journey captivated by the Brideshead castle and later on by the charm of the Flyte family. This beauty does not stop with just Brideshead and Sebastian; it continues to reach the entire Flyte family. Sebastian’s description of his family as “madly charming42” acts as a trigger which allows artistic Charles to further investigate the family, and eventually the Catholicism which lies within them. While Ryder is captivated by the superficial beauty of a new society he is entering, Waugh depicts the emotional intensity of Ryder’s love for Sebastian. From the very first visit of Brideshead, Ryder encounters the traces of Catholicism that is embedded in Flyte family’s life. This is suggested by the subtle use of Catholic symbolism “there was a rocking horse in the corner and an oleograph of the Sacred Heart over the mantelpiece.” The old nursery room which has turned into Nanny Hawkin’s private room is surrounded by the blended remains of childhood and faith which acts as an indirect trigger of Charles first step into the “Scared” society to further develop his love relationship with Sebastian. The imagery of the Sacred Heart acts as the first revelation exposed to Ryder. Moreover, the image sometimes portrays thorn crowned Jesus Christ’ pointing at his firing heart with his hands covered with Stigmata. Such biblical reference alludes to the manner of His death which represents the transformative power of love and the progress of the articulation of His love. In the novel, the theory seems to apply to Charles Ryder, from his first encounter with the Divine love as an agnostic artist; he develops a fonder love towards Sebastian. The combination of the signs of religious faith with the relics of childhood becomes increasingly ironic as the novel progresses, and as Catholicism comes to be strikingly and problematically associated with both childhood and youthful love. Indecisive nonconformist of religious and secular life The association between the three elements that develops Charles Ryder, as a whole through the Bildungsroman plot, is first made in two nostalgic comments by Charles about his youthful self’s state of mind soon after the beginning of his friendship with Sebastian. Charles says that: “It seemed as though I was being given a brief spell of what I had never known, a happy childhood, and though its toys were silk shirts and liqueurs and cigars and its naughtiness high in the catalogue of grave sins, there was something of nursery freshness about u that fell little short of the joy of innocence.” Then, a little later, he observes: “There is no candour in a story of early manhood which leaves out of account of home-sickness for nursery morality, the regrets and resolutions of amendment, the black hours which, like zero on the roulette table, turn up with roughly calculable regularity.” The underlined phrases, “nursery freshness,” “the joy of innocence,” and “the home-sickness for nursery morality,” perhaps suggest that Charles’s later conversion to Catholicism should be seen not only as a late attempt to share Flyte siblings’ childhood experiences of religious faith, but also as an unconscious effort both to attain the innocence and bliss of the “happy childhood” he never knew in reality and to regain the Utopian bliss of his early love for Sebastian. Charles, growing up with a male inarticulate single parent, did not receive a chance to have a comfortable experience with his family. Charles describes his relationship with his father as very superficial and restricted by his father’s obsession with deep solicitude. “If we met in a passage or on the stairs he would look at me vacantly and say “Ah-ha” or “Very warm,” or “Splendid, splendid,” but in the evening, when he came to the garden-room in his velvet smoking suit, he always greeted me formally.” The examination of Mr Ryder’s two attitudes: bitter and completely formal reveals the effect of his cold treatment to Charles: his emotional attachment to Sebastian and the Flytes. As shown by Charles’ wishful thinking, “Perhaps I am rather curious about people’s families- you see, it’s not a thing I know about. There is only my father and myself,” he is more drawn to Sebastian and his family to indirectly re-experience his happy childhood. Waugh also creates a contrast with Ryder’s experience of childhood to Sebastian’s. While Charles lost his mother and lived with a father who believes that family is just a burden and solicitude is all he left to enjoy, Sebastian lost his father to the decadent society and lived with a saintly mother, whom he wanted to escape from. The fact that Charles is interested in aforementioned aesthetic beauty of the family and the environment shows that he will begin to immerge himself more in Catholicism as the Flyte family is deeply associated with it. Nevertheless, Charles continues with his old secular life after his first visit to Brideshead. Together with Sebastian, he “infused with a kind of gluttony, for food and wine, for the splendours of the recent past, and for rhetorical and ornamental language,” which gluttony is comprised as one of the seven most deadly sins in the Bible. It is important to note that Charles’ views Sebastian as an aesthetic identity, which makes him very “charming” and hard to get out of. He further develops his passion for visual arts when he visits Brideshead for the second time and explores the heavenly period at Brideshead again which enacts as his escape to his paradise. Charles’ narration “I, at any rate, believed myself very near heaven, during those languid days at Brideshead 4.91” portrays his passion to stay closer to Brideshead and his homosexual love for Sebastian. The connotations of the word “heaven” are, at a literal level, the paradise depicted by Catholicism and pure happiness, with no negatively associated emotions. His stay at Brideshead brings him closer to the religion and God as he subconsciously experiences the God’s promises to the earthly beings, eternal happiness in Heaven, if they believe in God. His indecisive nature in his religious and secular life is further depicted as he grows his love for art. Charles starts picturing the fountain at Brideshead which “one might expect to find in a piazza of Southern Italy,” and wine-tasting since “those tranquil evenings with Sebastian that he first made a serious acquaintance with wine and sowed the seed of that rich harvest which was to be my stay in many barren years.95” Moreover, he fully gets to know of Sebastian, who appears to be the ultimate aesthete. Sebastian’s description of Christmas is merely “a lovely idea,” so Charles further investigates why he has to “believe things because they’re a lovely idea.”And the answer comes as “that’s how I believe.(63-66)” He discovers Sebastian’s tendency to turn everything in his life into art, such as religious beliefs into art. This allows Charles to wonder between the religious and secular life within the novel as an indecisive nonconformist as he gets more attracted to arts but at the same time experiencing the role of religion in his peers’ lives. Earlier on in the novel, Sebastian is scared of his charming family taking Charles away from him, and when Charles goes to Brideshead again, through an epiphany, “that night I began to realise how little I really knew of Sebastian, and to understand why he had always sought to keep me apart from the rest of his life. He was like a friend made on board ship, on the high seas; now we had come to his home port.”His realisation shows that religion is the discord between them but also that by exploring more of Catholicism; he can be more intimate with Sebastian and his aesthetic beauty. After his years at Oxford, Charles gets married but is gloom as he cannot find the equivalent sensation he could get from his relationship with Sebastian. Waugh establishes that Charles’ cannot get his mind off the beauty of Sebastian, so in the prologue as a reminiscent, Charles narrates his wife was “stripped of all enchantment now and I knew her for an uncongenial stranger to whom I had bound myself indissolubly in a moment of folly (5).” Charles admits that he “knew Sebastian by sight long before I met him…eccentricities of behaviour which seemed to know no bounds.” Moreover that he could guide him artistically by introducing him to Brideshead and his family. While dwelling in the pagan world, without Sebastian, Charles finds Julia, Sebastian’s sister and possibly his alter ego. The first person narration “she so much resembled Sebastian that…I was confused by the double illusion of familiarity and strangeness. (116)” indicates the shift of his love from Sebastian and his wife to Julia. Converted Captain Charles Ryder His conversion is most importantly triggered immediately by Julia’s determination to return to God in the “Twitch upon the thread.” The “twitch upon the thread” embodies the religious epiphany of the characters, firstly by Sebastian, Lord Marchmain, Julia and Charles. Sebastian who attempted to physically get away from Lady Marchmain, the living Eucharist,
Introduction Hegel’s interpretation of the world in his Phenomenology of Mind focuses on the ‘idealist form’. He asserts that his concept of idealism requires a subject to assume an identity of both thought and being in order to acquire an understanding of the world. This reasoning capacity possessed by the subject creates an innate knowledge that is known as ‘absolute idealism’. This paper supports Hegel’s argument based on three premises. First, the notion that man is reduced to self-consciousness and that the human consciousness is identified with objectivity is brought to fore. Secondly, the author of this paper agrees with Hegel on the issue that it is actually the role of philosophy to resolve the differences within the human consciousness through Absolutism. Finally, the fact that the course of negation ensures that the free will of existence paves way for a conventional correlation with other selves in an effective unity. Objection To The Notion That Man Is Reduced To Self-Consciousness Hegel maintains that consciousness is not affronted by mere alienated objectivity but rather by ‘objectivity as such’ with the result that the consciousness itself becomes estranged from that objectivity. Karl Marx on the other hand seeks to preserve the thought of estrangement in a more determinate logic. According to Marx, what brings about the alienated objectivity surrounds the circumstances in which the particular alienation has occurred. It is therefore not as a consequence of nature of objectivity as such that it has assumed the ‘peculiar’ eminence. Marx’s contention has elicited some reactions from his fellow philosophers regarding the notion brought to fore by Hegel. Consciousness is affronted by objectivity as such. According to them, it equates entities to something alien or ‘other’. The advancement of the phenomenology portrays the exclusion of such objectivity. Hegel states that in progressing towards its true being, consciousness will eventually eliminate the facade of being burdened with something alien. Therefore, it is contended that Hegel’s objectivity is as a result of consciousness as an alien or ‘other’ hence something that is inherently ‘alienated’. There is also the connotation that Hegel’s phenomenology is antagonistic to objectivity. The connotation relies on the assertion by Hegel that consciousness is affronted by objectivity as such. Reply To The Objection That Man Is Reduced To Self-Consciousness The problem with the above objection is the fact that it comes to an erroneous conclusion from this contention about Hegel’s opening argument. The fact that objectivity is seen to start at the beginning as alien does not necessary imply that eliminating the façade of being burdened with an alien entity gives way to the obliteration of objectivity as such. It is actually possible that the burden is eliminated without getting rid of objectivity as well. Marx himself does not expressly contend that the ultimate solution to entities from which we are alienated is by only getting rid of them. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rather, the alienation can be conquered and as a result brought to an agreement with the entities in question. For example, in his early works, Marx illustrates how individuals have become alienated from their property as a result of privatization. His solution is to reinstate the individuals’ cherished connections to their property in a rather rational manner. Why is Hegel faulted in his attempt to treat alienation in that same manner? That is, as something to be conquered without necessarily having to eliminate the other. The only obvious distinction between the two philosophers is that Marx on the one hand presupposes that a non-alienated situation precedes the alienation such that the prior notion of harmony seems to be the only acceptable and genuine solution. For Marx therefore, he probably assumes that for Hegel’s consciousness to be burdened with something alien, it means that Hegel actually believes this alienation to be intrinsic in objectivity as such. Nonetheless, though it seems that Hegel implies that objectivity is actually a problem, this is not the case. Taking objectivity and alienation as primarily coextensive does not necessarily mean that objectivity and alienation should be treated as such. The course taken by consciousness to eliminate the façade of being burdened with something ‘other’ as contended in the objection is also considered. In the phenomenology of Mind, this course assumes the structure of cognition that leads to and becomes a component of ‘absolute knowledge’. This appears to be somewhat logical. Entities will appear alien precisely to the point that they become rationally incomprehensible to us. Therefore, for this alienation to be conquered, it is not of necessity to eliminate the entities but rather familiarize ourselves with them. Such knowledge safeguards the objectivity of what is actually ‘known’ despite its primary peculiarity. Taken this way, it is therefore imperative to argue that phenomenology does not in itself encourage the connotation raised in the objection. The main issue with the objection is the fact that it actually considers Hegel to be furnishing us with common information of how consciousness correlates to objectivity. As a matter of fact, Hegel believes that consciousness only correlates to the theistic objectivity. Therefore, by overcoming the entity of consciousness, Hegel refers only to religious consciousness. Therefore, this response supports Hegel’s conclusion that man is reduced to the notion of self consciousness. Objection To The Notion That Philosophy Reconciles Human Consciousness On the issue of idealism, Hegel maintains that resistance and separation need to be reconciled and that the role of reconciliation falls on philosophy by inception of Absolute. Kant argues that pure concepts cannot be taken as the components of reality. For him, he attributes the importance of pure concepts to epistemology rather than metaphysics. According to him, he states that knowledge entail the sensory component, in which he argues that the mind remains inactive, and the rational component that consist of an active synthesized mind. We will write a custom Essay on Phenomenology Of Mind: Upholding The Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, our knowledge is influenced in part by the mind and thought. Kant’s transcendental idealism entail considering the fact that the mind is only aware of only phenomena that inherently appear within it and cannot be acknowledged at first hand. He seeks to bridge rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism allows knowledge to be obtained solely by reason before an experience while empiricism provides that knowledge is achieved through senses only after an experience. It is therefore his contention that whilst the sensory experience allows us to be aware of what is going on around us, it is also possible to ascertain the structure that they must assume before that particular experience. According to him, there exist ‘things in themselves’ other than mere awareness and thoughts in our minds. Kant’s proponents argue that Hegel’s disagreement with Kant’s epistemology emanates from Kant’s comprehension of consciousness as a sense of mind. If consciousness is taken to be a sense of mind, then it would result to the assessment of its own sense leading to an infinite degeneration. Instead, Hegel maintains that consciousness is obviously progressive and an idea in itself. The notion that consciousness occurs from some meticulous substance that is present in our representation is thereby discarded. It is contended that self-consciousness is not as a result of associating each and every representation with consciousness. Rather, the same is achieved if the representations are systematically adjoined to each other on the one hand and being conscious of their fusion on the other. Hence, it is only through the combination of various representations in a single consciousness that leads to the depiction of identity of consciousness. Accordingly, it is contended that space and time are the pure structures of intuition. If diverse structures of intuition are achieved, then the experiences of the human being will have to compose a harmonious universe so as to attain self consciousness. Further, the question that arises on the concept of the finite and infinite is whether the two can be enjoined without disbanding each other. The gap that seem to separate the two concepts inevitably tends to amalgamate and in the process reduce one of them. This tends to deny the significance of each other. Reply To Objection That Philosophy Reconciles Human Consciousness The objection raised above is generally weak and cannot be fathomed. The mind associates itself with resistances, disagreements and separation while reason seeks to conquer these in various cultural-historical epochs. The Absolute therefore gives way to consciousness. In Schelling view, if Absolute is to be transformed, the reflection of the predicament must be put into consideration. He poses that the reflection acts as a perceptive and therefore brings out resistance and separation. Perception should therefore be enjoined with transcendental intuition. By distinguishing oneself from Schelling view, it is important to note that transcendental intuition does not necessarily mean supernatural intuition. It is based on reason. Not sure if you can write a paper on Phenomenology Of Mind: Upholding The Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through the explanation of human reason, Hegel creates a clear definition of both nature and spirit. This is what Hegel refers to as the ‘philosophy of right’. Through this philosophy, an interrelationship between the subjects through a mutual recognition is achieved. This concept seeks to verify the quest for human reason in a bid to understand their subjective existence within an object. Further, Hegel takes different approach from his predecessors by emphasizing the need to understand the notions of reality and practicability hence solidifying his argument. The concept of idealism that Hegel brings out is well articulated and his argument on the same is fully supported. It is not in doubt that the purpose of integrating a philosophical query and knowledge is to generate an idea. His argument that various concepts and phenomena need to be explained and that the explanation is given in form of science is upheld. Philosophy is therefore equated to science. This is justified in the fact that it is important to create a valuable hierarchy of things that validates the origin of each and every object and subject. His argument also brings to fore the concept of teleological explanation that develops the idealism approach. The idealism approach explains the various types of consciousness that explains the phenomena of mind. The concept of idealism that Hegel brings out is well articulated and his argument on the same is fully supported. It is not in doubt that the purpose of integrating a philosophical query and knowledge is to generate an idea. It is for this reason that various concepts and phenomena need to be explained and the explanation given in form of science. Philosophy is therefore equated to science. This is justified in the fact that it is important to create a valuable hierarchy of things that validates the origin of each and every object and subject. This assertion brings to fore the concept of teleological explanation that develops the idealism approach. The idealism approach therefore explains the various types of consciousness that explains the phenomena of mind. Objection To The Notion That Negation Is The Producing Principle Though Hegel is commended for portraying negativity as a self-sufficient positive, his argument is said to be conventional and ideally stuck at the juncture of the ‘negation of the negation’. Marx argues that Hegel fails to keep his own promise of ensuring a true notion of negation of the negation. This is attributed to the fact that the notion in itself is lacking and therefore inadequate. The speculation and self-substantiation inherent in the negation of the negation is a speculation that is in itself uncertain and one that is still distraught with its opposing self. That is, the notion in itself seeks some kind of verification that is not obtainable through its own subsistence. This line of argument is of particular concern as it permits a more optimistic elucidation in Hegel’s argument. The problem of Hegel’s notion of negation is therefore attributed to atheism. The trouble with atheism is that as an inference to human race, it is still integrated with the theism that that is so against. According to Marx, the thought of the Supreme Being (God) is the original negation and atheism negates this negation. What is then required is to precede atheism to achieve the constructive consciousness. Reply To The Objection That Negation Is The Producing Principle The objection raised to the effect that atheistic humanism should be rejected as it is infatuated with its opposite does not hold water. Consciousness is in itself self-motivating and regularly conceives a dissimilarity that attempts to conquer that same dissimilarity. In the event that consciousness, in the process of this self-assessment, comes to the realization that the two moments cannot match up, it becomes obvious that it has to modify its data in order to achieve its precision. Nevertheless, the two moments are so intertwined such that the modification of one automatically modifies the other. Thus, both the principle and knowledge becomes unsuccessful hence creating a new substance. The substance created is said to portray itself as ‘not in-itself’. Though the substance is acknowledged, consciousness perceives it as being ‘not in-itself’ hence the principle fails. The unsuccessful nature is what is known as the negation of consciousness. This particular negation is what Hegel calls the determinate negation. The fact that consciousness perceives itself as fictitious does not necessarily render it a negative process. The negation therefore becomes a negation in itself. The new creation of consciousness therefore highlights the nature of total knowledge itself. The Theoretical Observation One of the main theoretical observations evident in Hegel’s discussion is the notion of self-consciousness. He equates phenomenology to the discipline of consciousness. It is observed that Hegel commences with natural intuitive consciousness and then identifies its dialectical progression until it attains absolute knowledge. According to Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind, self-consciousness assumes the structure of desire. He observes that the ‘self’ interests itself with the exterior entities but assumes some kind of satisfaction through the distinctiveness of desire. However, this approach of desire disintegrates when other selves are involved. The occurrence of the ‘other’ therefore becomes important in creating self-consciousness. A developed self-consciousness can only be achieved when the ‘self’ identifies itself and other selves. The occurrence of the other self thus serves as a provision for self-consciousness. Reason is also brought to being by a fusion of consciousness. He develops the concept of reason through a sequence of dialectical stages. In the first stage, reason achieves an indication of its own likeness in nature. Secondly, the science of formal logic and pragmatic psychology is implanted in it and finally, as a manifestation in itself in various aspects of the universe. This argument takes a significant approach in explaining the power of consciousness through reason in the society. This self-consciousness embodies the concept of free will that acts as a unifying factor. To understand Hegel’s argument, it is better to dwell on how most things are often defined. All definitions, it is argued, rely on the dichotomy of words. Hegel takes a different approach. In his phenomenology of spirit, he examines the concept through the notion of self-consciousness. In his argument, he contends that humans are able to learn more about themselves based on their relationships and continues to equate self-consciousness to desire. He asserts that self-definition should be taken as a consummation of self acceptance as opposed to a restraint against each other. What Hegel contends here is that definition is based on the freedom of self-transcendence. Hegel draws the progression of consciousness from the barbaric form that fails to meet the threshold of ‘realism’. For example, the society is placed under the leadership of a master and his servants. Each and every one of them needs to possess a kind of consciousness in order to coexist. The master therefore assumes mastery self-consciousness. This consciousness helps him to draw some kind of attention to himself hence bringing with it a kind of fear to the outside world. The servant who assumes the servant self-consciousness is obedient in nature and learns to endure all the hardship that comes with his position. Significance Of The Argument The dialectic of master and slave is an important aspect in towards the achievement of self-conscious liberty. This dialectic depicts the account of the self consciousness achieved through interpersonal affiliations experienced in the course of labour. The argument plays a significant role in building the social and individual development that brings to light the need of a civil society policy. This policy is created in order to manage the predisposition towards alienation and poverty in the modern society. Hegel’s assertion gives an option to the rising disagreements and disasters of market societies in the current state. His argument confronts the eccentric and ahistorical assumptions of the contemporary laissez-faire convention. A clear understanding of Hegel’s theory furnishes us with a practical idea for future labour system. It integrates an evaluation of the current catastrophic Classical liberalism and modern market. Conclusion The Phenomenology of mind is considered to be one of the greatest works done by Hegel. This paper supports the argument presented in his work and relates the said arguments to our present lives. His notion of creating an ‘ideal’ model is based on logical science. His central purpose in this work is to establish a ‘determinate being’ through positive means as opposed to negation of self-consciousness. He therefore upholds the notion of freedom to act as a justification to our fundamental beliefs in matters of equality and reason.
ASE Sentencing Disparity Discrimination and Philosophies & Death Penalty Discussion.

Respond to these 3 posts. Don’t forget to use sources.Post 1: Sentencing Philosophies”Gaines & Miller (2019), identify the five sentencing philosophies as retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and restorative justice.First, is retribution. Retribution is the oldest and most usual form of punishment in which society believes a person who commits a crime should be punished equal to the seriousness of the crime (Gaines & Miller, 2019).Second, is deterrence. Deterrence is an attempt to use the criminal as an example to prevent further crimes from happening by others and a way to convince a criminal they should not commit further crimes (Gaines & Miller, 2019).Third, is incapacitation. The purpose of incapacitation is to incarcerate criminals to keep them from committing any further crimes and to separate them from society (Gaines & Miller, 2019).Fourth, is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is the philosophy that intervention by providing resources to remove the offender out of their situation would possibly stop them from reoffending (Gaines & Miller, 2019).Finally, is restorative justice. Restorative justice is focused more on the victim and community where the crime was committed (Gaines & Miller, 2019). The theory of this approach is to have the offender give back to the victim or community by way of apology or restitution (Gaines & Miller, 2019).I feel that each form of punishment has its pros and cons. I think to determine to most effective or ineffective form to be used needs to be considered on a case by case basis. For example, the severity of the crime, the offender, and the victim should all take into account to reach a form of punishment that best fits the situation.”Post 2: Sentencing Disparity and Sentencing Discrimination”Sentencing disparity can be described as a lack of consistency in punishments for comparable crimes. There are many reasons this occurs.One reason sentence disparity is caused by how judges view the seriousness of certain crimes (Sentencing disparity, 2020). For example, one judge may have the opinion that larceny cases are more serious than drug cases; therefore, that judge may decide on a stronger punishment for a stealing offense. Another reason that is a cause of sentence disparity is the inconsistency of punishments amongst judges for similar crimes (Sentencing disparity, 2020).One way to correct sentence disparity would be to have a small panel of judges hear the facts of the case. An option that may help with sentence and punishment reform could be the creation of a panel of judges from different jurisdictions. The panel of judges would hear the facts and evidence related to the case; however, they would not be given the names, sex, or gender of the defendant or the victim and they would have to agree on a punishment for the crime based only off that information.”Post 3: Death Penalty”When it comes to the death penalty society has vastly different opinions. I agree with the death penalty; however, I do not think it is the right punishment for all crimes. As I stated in another discussion post to determine the penalty for a crime committed there are many factors that should be taken into consideration.I feel the death penalty is appropriate for the offenders that are responsible for murder. I am not referring to those that have caused the death of another recklessly or negligently and have been found guilty or entered a plea of guilty for, what is known in Missouri, as involuntary or voluntary manslaughter. I am referring to murder first degree, an offender that intentionally and knowingly takes the life of another. If a person can take the time to calculate a plan and make the decision to take the life of another person then I do not feel they should continue to live their life.I do understand that this may not bring closure to the families of the deceased victims, but it does protect society.I also agree with The National Conference of State Legislatures in an article titled States and Capital Punishment (2020):The court has abolished the death penalty for mentally disabled offenders (Atkins v. Virginia, 2002), juvenile offenders (Roper v. Simmons, 2005), and for those convicted of raping a child where death was not the intended or actual result (Kennedy v. Louisiana, 2008) – each ruling states that the execution of such individuals is unconstitutional, violating cruel and unusual punishment. (States and capital punishment, 2020). I think alternative forms of punishment should be used for the offenders that fall into those categories.”
ASE Sentencing Disparity Discrimination and Philosophies & Death Penalty Discussion

Parent involvement and the relationship parents have with their child’s teacher/school, psychology homework help.

Parent involvement and the relationship parents have with their child’s teacher/school are important for all children. This is especially true for children with disabilities. For this assignment, you will be asked to contact a local preschool, Head Start, or Early Head Start program. You will interview a director, teacher, or parent coordinator to find out how they collaborate and communicate with families who have children with learning differences. Be sure to describe the type of program you gathered information from and the role of the practitioner that you interviewed. Find out the following information:How do families get information at the time of enrollment? Is there a handbook for the center? What resources does the center offer to families? What services are available to families in their community and do families get information about these services from the program or school? How does the center communicate on a day to day basis? For example, is there a family notebook that goes to school and home each day for teachers to touch base? Do they use email? Newsletters? How does the practitioner view the effectiveness of these communication techniques? What does he/she feel works well? What does not work well?After you gather this information, write a statement describing your own beliefs about school/home communication. Discuss ideas and approaches to communication you might use in your own classroom. Make sure that evidence of the interview is woven throughout your paper. This two- to three-page paper, not including title and reference pages, must be formatted according to APA style. Make sure to cite who you connected with and utilize at least one scholarly resource.
Parent involvement and the relationship parents have with their child’s teacher/school, psychology homework help

NJCU Foundations of Theory in Health Promotion & Health Behavior Presentation

NJCU Foundations of Theory in Health Promotion & Health Behavior Presentation.

based on the provided reading I attached please prepare 10-12 slides of PowerPoint presentation discussing the Foundations of Theory in Health Promotion and Health Behavior and describes ways that
theories and models can be useful in health behavior/health promotion practice and
provides basic definitions. include the following: Why Is Theory Important to Health Promotion and Health Behavior Practice? What Is Theory?
How Can Theory Help Plan Effective Programs? Explanatory Theory and Change Theory Fitting Theory to the Field of Practice Using Theory to Address Health Issues in Diverse Populations use the provides readings/pages to prepare the slides
NJCU Foundations of Theory in Health Promotion & Health Behavior Presentation

Central Michigan University Communications Media and Digital Citizenship Essay

essay helper free Central Michigan University Communications Media and Digital Citizenship Essay.

I. Media Literacy – The Power (and Responsibility) of Information | Lisa Cutter | TEDxCherryCreekWomenWhat is fake news? Who can you trust and how do you know? Trust in the media has diminished significantly over the past several years, and yet the media plays a critical role in democracy. Considered the fourth estate, credible and responsible media outlets can shine a light on the dark places and tell stories that need to be told. To keep up with the overwhelming flow of information in our lives, we need to understand how to evaluate our media sources; we need to become media literate. It’s not difficult, but it is our responsibility as individuals to look with a critical eye at the information we consume and share. Lisa Cutter is a public relations professional turned legislator, and she has championed media and ethical communications in both of these roles.Jan. 3, 2020 Total Runtime 12:27 (Links to an external site.)_______________________________________________II. Rethinking Digital Citizenship – Richard CulattaISTERichard Culatta discusses the new lens on digital citizenship that focuses on the do’s of digital citizenship: improving your community, respectful debate, shaping public policy and recognizing the validity of online sources.Oct. 11, 2018 Total Runtime 11:08 (Links to an external site.)Questions to Consider:1. How do the two speakers view media literacy? In each case, who or what part of society is held responsible for helping to create the form of “literacy” he/she describes? 2. Do you believe an even more basic level of media literacy must be achieved before either Richard Culatta’s digital citizenship or Lisa Cutter’s media literacy can be achieved?3. What measures to you take to exercise media literacy? media citizenship?
Central Michigan University Communications Media and Digital Citizenship Essay

California State University Northridge Statement of Purpose Discussion

California State University Northridge Statement of Purpose Discussion.

Statement of Purpose InstructionsThe Statement of Purpose is an important part of your application and should demonstrate your motivation to enter a graduate program in the field of Accounting. This statement will be used to assess your creativity, critical thinking, self-awareness, and writing skills.Your Statement of Purpose should no more than two (2) double-spaced typewritten pages. Please use Times New Roman, size 12 font, and 1″ margins.The following points should be included in the Statement of Purpose:Explain your motivation to pursue a graduate degree in Accounting. How did you become interested in the field of Accounting? What aspects of CSUN and the MPAcc program appeal to you? What positive aspects (i.e. skills, experience, etc.) do you bring to the program?Discuss your short-term and long-term career goals. That is, what do you expect to be doing in five years or ten years from now? How will a graduate degree in Accounting help you reach your personal/professional goals?
California State University Northridge Statement of Purpose Discussion

Is Keeping Animals In A Zoo Cruel?

Is Keeping Animals In A Zoo Cruel?. Until recently, the existence of zoos in our society was never something which we thought twice about. Zoos were widely accepted as educational and entertaining institutions. Children, and adults, love seeing animals, and a visit to the zoo has always been something we look forward to. Gradually, however, discussion has aroused about the morality of keeping animals, and other creatures in captivity, as animals have rights such as we do. “There are around 430 zoos in Britain alone and 10,000 worldwide. Conditions vary greatly, with the worst being nothing more than concrete prisons holding very distressed animals.” (Born Free Charity). This quotation shows the insensitivity of the proprietors of such establishments and gives us a clear picture of the conditions in which creatures are kept. Rather than encouraging animals to thrive in natural settings, zoos place very unnatural boundaries on their residents. For example, in zoos, polar bears are usually confined to spaces that are only around one-millionth the size of their minimum home range in the wild. Animals who stray across large distances in nature often develop ‘zoo chosis’ in captivation which is similar to dementia in humans. Typical behaviours resulting from boredom and distress when placed in zoo enclosures, are endlessly pacing or swimming in circles. Animals have evolved from nature, just as humans, and each belongs undisturbed in its own natural habitat. To remove these animals from what they are used to against their will is immoral. As humans, we must treat animals humanely in our role as “stewards of the earth.” It is therefore unacceptable that animals in zoos under our care, are suffering from neglect and early death, through distress and health problems. In the wild, creatures such as the ones found in zoos are free to roam without restraint and interact with other species. Whereas, in captive conditions they are only able to mix with their own species, sometimes only being a few of each species. If these animals do not get on with the others in the enclosure, they have no way of escaping each other’s company, and animals, like us, have personalities and forge friendships and rivalries. Furthermore, animals do not gain the necessary skills for survival in zoos and so will never be able to be reintroduced back into the wild and survive. Therefore they will have to live an enclosed, cramped lifestyle entirely dependent on humans who do not always care for them appropriately, for the entirety of their lives. On this note, Attachment relationships between animals are often studied by separating pack animals and recording their subsequent behaviour. Studies of primates have shown that separation results in changes of behaviour that are symptomatic of both psychological and physiological stress. Because of this, it is clear that in order to maintain physical and psychological well being in animals, it is vital that animals which are used to being together with animals of their kind should not be isolated from one another. In many zoos, it is felt necessary that animals should be alone as it saves costs and ensures there are no conflicts between them. Zoos are therefore knowingly causing the animals’ psychological and physiological trauma. Animals kept in zoos have no privacy; they are continually watched by the public and have little enclosed space where they can hide. Zoo animals develop anxious behaviours if they are always in the public gaze. Being stared at all the time can be predatory and threatening. Another strange species staring at you or enproaching in your environment is disconcerting and agitating for wild animals in the same way that a tiger coming into your house and staring at you would be not just threatening, but simply terrifying. This in turn can lead to aggression and distress in the animals. Even when the animals are not disturbed by human presences watching over them, there is constant noise of other creatures and maintenance works on the zoo (e.g. Tractors). They will get no peace and quiet. This is not natural for any animal. They should be able to have time on their own to relax in harmony. Zoo Keepers and many employees of zoos do not treat the animals living within the exhibitions with enough compassion or care. A San Diego Zookeeper described an incident in which an African Elephant was beaten for two days with axe handles, as ‘a way of motivating the animal to put on a display for visitors’. This kind of treatment is extremely vindictive and clearly demonstrates how in some zoos, the living beings are not treated as well as they should be. Even though they are given all the ‘necessities’ for life and they have a veterinary surgeon on hand at all times, the animals only get enough to get by, and no more. After all, zoos are a money making business. They often scrimp and save at the expense of the animals’ well being and comfort. Large animals such as elephants are often subjected to cruelty above and beyond that of smaller animals. A study has proven that in a certain American zoo, the elephants there were dying at a faster rate than they were breeding, as a result of disease spread by the lack of space and dirty cages. The exhibition of animals in captivity tells an impressionable public that cruelty to animals can be condoned. Many zoos claim that they are of high educational benefit, and although some visitors only spend around two minutes at each inclosure, using the animals for entertainment rather than for instructive matters. Although, children do get to see animals and experience how they live, which they wouldn’t get the chance to do if animals were only in the wild. Zoos have to educate the public about the value of animals so that people understand the importance of conservation. After a fun trip to the zoo, visitors leave with a newfound awareness and perceptive about animals. How are they going to discover these interesting facts if they don’t get to see the creatures? Zoos give people an appreciation for animals. They need to see, listen to and smell an elephant to gain love and respect for the creature. Viewing an animal on TV does not give a person the same effect as seeing it first hand does. An arguable advantage of having zoos present in today’s society is that many endangered species will be protected and will refrain from becoming extinct. Zoos promote the awareness of animals that are being wiped out. This would allow for people to help fund the repopulation of those animals. If more people are aware of new animals on the endangered species list, there is more of a chance that researchers will get more funds. But endangered species may not gain as much support and attention of the crowds as people are only usually interested in popular species like Lions. Furthermore there is some debate because of the inadequate gene pool of a species in zoos. This could, lead to inbreeding which would then create mutations and defects in the offspring. In conclusion, animals are born wild and therefore should live and die wild. It is wrong that wild creatures should be kept in enclosures in zoos as they do not get to behave naturally: a lion cannot hunt for its prey, or experience the nobility of living with other lions in a pride. My overall view is that keeping animals in zoos is extremely cruel as they are not free to convey their natural way of living, whether it is to roam in a large area, to breed with a partner of their choice, or to kill their own prey. The animals are troubled every minute of the day by people observing them, something which, in the wild, would hint great danger. All of these factors contribute to my strong sensitivity to this topic of treatise. Word count- 1310 Sources Pros and Cons : A Debater’s Handbook [Paperback] published 1999 Is Keeping Animals In A Zoo Cruel?

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