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Interpretation of Environmental Stimuli Aids by James J Gibson Discussion

Interpretation of Environmental Stimuli Aids by James J Gibson Discussion.

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Interpretation of Environmental Stimuli Aids by James J Gibson Discussion

Effects Of Psychotropic Drugs Psychology Essay. Many general practitioners as well as psychiatrists have begun to use off label prescribing for psychotropic drugs with little regard for impact on childrens health, mental or otherwise. [1] Only gradually are scientists beginning to explore the neurological, endocrine, metabolic and social effects of psychotropic drugs prescribed to children and adolescents. Drugs never intended for youth–especially as a cocktails containing several different types– have begun to interact with children’s brain chemistry, sometimes causing irreversible damage. [2] By treating what society deems psychiatrically “abnormal” children with psychotropic drugs, we must consider the possibility that we are creating four additional types of abnormalities: metabolic, endocrine, kinetic, and social. These unintended abnormalities or side effects are leading psychiatrists and physicians to add additional drug therapies in order to treat co-morbidities related to original drug intake. [3] Metabolic Side Effects: Drugs will always play a role in the chemical composition of the brain and the signals it sends forthwith to the body. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that control and are capable of altering brain function in the broadest sense. They can be found in both pre- and post synapses. The way they affect functions, however, differ significantly. Presynaptic effects are seen through the enhancement or suppression of reuptake of neurotransmitters to the presynaptic receptor, whereas, postsynaptic effects are known to modify transmission by acting as an agonist or antagonist to the postsynaptic receptor. In layman’s terms modification of the presynapses by inhibiting the reabsorption of neurotransmitters, the signal senders, helps continue the excitation between the synapse for an extended period, whereas in the case of postsynaptic effects the flow of neurotransmitters is inhibited across the synapse to their postsynaptic receptor therefore the signal is not as strong or non-existent. Antidepressants generally work on the presynaptic receptors while antipsychotics work on postsynaptic receptors. [4] The release of hormones and the way drugs effect the secretion of several key developmental hormones have potentially dangerous effects on children’s metabolic function. Some psychotropic drugs (second generation atypical anti psychotics and some classes of antidepressants) have high binding affinity to Muscarinic M₃ receptors on pancreatic Beta (β) cells. [5] The Vegas Nerve X, originating in the brain and affected by psychotropic drugs, releases Acetocholene (Ach) to stimulate the Pancreas. In turn the Pancreas excretes numerous hormones through parasympathetic stimulation such as Glucagon, Epinephrine, Corticosteroid and Growth Hormone all of which induce a hypoglycemic state in excess. It also controls the hormone Insulin, which in surplus will contribute to hyperglycemia. Robinson et al. suggests that the M₃ receptors on the β cells which are stimulated through parasympathetic control from Vegas Nerve are affected by the neurotransmitters (Ach) of the brain which is in turn manipulated by the drugs ingested. As we explore the effects of drugs on the brain and in turn on the body, let us concentrate on insulin and the detrimental effects it has on the body when there is a surplus or a deficiency. One of the most lethal and debilitating problems our youth face today is obesity. Prescription drugs are increasingly contributing to effects on metabolic functioning resulting in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). One class of drugs that contributes to significantly to these findings is Second Generation Antipsychotics as well as specific types of Antidepressants. T2DM is encountered when body becomes unable to remove glucose from the blood due to down regulation or a decrease of insulin receptors. [6] Generally an increase in glucose triggers an increase in insulin that will initiate the liver and muscles to cycle glucose out of the blood by storing it as glycogen and eventually fat; however, long term exposure to increased amounts of insulin causes cells to become “insulin resistant” through the down regulation of receptor cells. The results of this is glucose intolerance and diabetes are expedited unfortunately studies show that symptoms progress more rapidly in the case of children. Foggarty et al. have noted that T2DM carries an increased risk of early complication for micro- and macrovascular, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and failure, vasculopathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and ketoacidosis in the case of children as opposed to adults. [7] Although there are a plethora of negative metabolic side effects for children while taking psychotropic medication, T2DM has attracted the most attention of the scientific community due to its rapid progression, and connection to multiple life threatening diseases. Many drugs that have seen significant testing and are proven to negatively affect metabolic function but none are so severe as Second Generation Atypical Antipsychotics as well as specific classes of Antidepressants. Second Generation Atypical Antipsychotics are used to treat mood and psychotic conditions in schizophrenic patients and bipolar (BD) patients. Arizona Health, a well regarded publishing, lists positives and negatives associated with the medicated child. They claim that these drugs work to alleviate aggressive behavior in many cases but some side effects such as, weight gain, sedation, dizziness, insulin resistance, and muscle rigidity, are many times severe and should be taken into account. [8] Correll et al. write in depth pertaining to how exactly Atypical Antipsychotics block Insulin secretion by mediating Muscarinic receptor activation by acting as an agonist. [9] In other words the impulse to release Insulin is halted because the Muscarinic receptor is unable to be excited and pass on the signal. Diabetes and glucose intolerance are consequences of these drugs. Arizona Health lays out very simply the dynamics and function of antidepressants showing how they work on several different neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. In general they inhibit the reuptake process of specific neurotransmitters causing an increase in the specified chemical in the brain. [10] Antidepressants are used for a plethora of mental disorders including: anxiety, depression, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD), child enuresis and BD as well as other numerous off label uses. There are several different classes of antidepressants: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI), Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI), Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI), Others. Each produces collectively similar side effects such as nausea, headache, insomnia, agitation, and sexual problems as well as carrying issues specific to each class. All cause a change in weight whether it is a gain or loss, however, only SSRI’s and SNRI’s are associated with hypoglycemia. [11] Endocrine/Sexual Development: It has also been shown through various researches that endocrine function is impacted in children treated with psychotropic medication. The role that atypical antipsychotics play in their binding affinity and ability to act as an agonist or antagonist for the dopamine receptors within the Hypothalamus exerts significant control over the Anterior Pituitary. Remembering the function of an agonist is important as it pertains to the dopamine (neurotransmitter) receptors. Literally, this means that the function the organs are meant to perform are slowed or even blocked. It is significant as the organs affected is a part of the brain that oversees the organ, Anterior Pituary, that is mainly in control the hormones associated with the management of growth functions. One such hormone is prolactin. Correll et al. has researched the affects that Atypical Antipsychotics have on the hormones and realized there is an incredible correlation to children who take these drugs and certain types of hormaonal disorders. He writes about how Atypical Antipsychotics raise prolactin levels severely possibly causing hyperprolactimeia. [12] This may have several effects on the body such as suppressing gonadatropin releasing hormone secretion which consequently will inhibit secretion of lutenizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone leading to hypogonadism. Other effects are: suppression of penile erection, stimulate secretion of adrenal androgens and delay puberty. This is a difficult topic to research due to its controversial nature and complexity the number of variables inherently associated with the study of sexual development in children and young adults. For instance, variables in young women may include: the onset of menstruation, which varies for a assortment of reasons, the multiplicity of reasons young women experience an increase in BMI during these years, and the fact that puberty is inherently a time of flux, which can lead to embarrassment and confusion in adolescents may lead to distortions in the reports of young patients. [13] I realize all of these are considerations that make data collection exceptionally difficult as each case is grouped according to norms and not explored on an individual basis. Neurological Discrepancies: The changes to a human’s brain chemistry are most profound and impressionable during their youth. The term commonly used for the developing brain during this period of development is pliability. The environment that is given for maturity must be carefully monitored and protected. It has been shown through more recent studies by Anderson et al. that long term exposure to psychotropic drugs can have not just detrimental but many times delayed effects on the neurological framework of the brain. [14] This in turn interrupts future growth and psychological functioning. The psychological functioning is not just seen through school but is physically apparent through the development of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). The long standing effects of these drugs are called neuronal imprinting. Unfortunately, children because they are at a more vulnerable state have a compounded effect, which adults seem to escape due to the fact that they have a more fixed neurological framework. Multiple studies by Anderson et al. were done on baby rats which have proven the hypothesis of the extended effects on childhood development after significant exposure to psychotropic drugs. It was recognized by Greenhill that the due to the decreased ability of children to metabolize drugs they were essentially slowly poisoning them. [15] Unable to cycle the toxins out of their system children had residual buildup that sometimes did not present until later. One of the many detrimental effects seen with taking children off of psychotropic medications is tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD is syndrome entailing multiple mixtures of hyperkinetic involuntary movements such as orofacial dyskinesia, chorea, athetosis, dystonia and tics. Basically this means children suffer from muscle rigidity and uncontrolled movements of not just the body but the face. The repercussions of the physical sadly are perpetuated and become highlighted by social stigmatization. These symptoms have an increased frequency among patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Neuroleptics, generally used for their sedative or tranquilizing nature, act on dopamine receptors in different capacities to produce desired behavior or effect. A link has been reported between patients treated long term with antipsychotics as well as those treated for any length and who develop TD, Acute Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) and with drawl emergent symptoms (WES). What is unclear is the distinction and separation, if there is one, between TD and with drawl dyskinesias. Unfortunately it is an ambiguous line and an obvious delineation cannot be made. Ordinarily movements that emerge as nueroleptic withdrawl are tics, stereotypies, nervous mannerisms, imitative gesturing and psychotic posture. Some will argue that these movements are associated with the original diagnosis and the medication contributed in no way. This seems to hold some truth as various diseases maintain choreiform movements as a symptom; however, not all diseases treated through antipsychotics are associated with movement disorders or hyperkinetic movements. In fact it must be noted that in some cases neuroleptics may suppress stereotyped movements. Discontinuation of the drugs can lead to reemergence of the stereotypy movements. It is up to researchers and individual physicians to do thorough intakes to assess the validity and type of abnormal movement. It is theorized that there are two types of dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia: excitatory and inhibitory. Studies also indicate that they develop at different stages so that the effects of neuroleptic medications have effects that are almost impossible to trace and make systematic research tremendously difficult. For this reason, clinical manifestations differ for children as opposed to adults. In children, and adolescence dyskinetic movements generally reported to be facial tics and grimaces, choreathoid and myoclonic movements of the extremities and body, abnormal posturing, generalized motor restlessness and ataxia [16] . The above theory is supported by two generalized groups with TD. Group one appears to do worse when the drug is withdrawn and do better with the reinstatement which would indicate a dopamine dominance and acetocholine deficiency. This group also seems to worsen with the introduction of anticholinergenics. Group two’s indicates a dopamine deficiency and acetocholine dominance as we see their symptoms improve when the drug is decreased or stopped. [17] Anticholinergenics are seen to either agitate or alleviate the symptoms according to the time of supplementation. [18] In the end TD is thought to generally arise from postsynaptic dopamine receptor sensitivity, whether it be an excitatory or inhibitory synaptic sensitivity, an increase or a decrease in dopamine is hypothesized to be at least partially effected by development. To quote the Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, “The notion that dopamine receptors might demonstrate different patterns of vulnerability to the noxious effects of neuroleptic drugs at different developmental stages might ultimately shed some light on the changing clinical manifestations of drug-induced dyskinesias in patients of different ages.” [19] The Socially Abnormal Child: The vast majority of psychotropic drugs prescribed to children and adolescence is done through off-label prescription. As Minde stated at a Toronto conference it should be noted the prescribing physician is generally not a psychiatrist and these children have not been through a proper psychiatric evaluation. [20] What is more, he agrees with recent efforts to increase regulations of the practice parameters and set standards for the psychiatric treatment of youth and the continued trial testing on drugs. Childhood and adolescence, a time of flux and uncertainty, simultaneously becomes a time in which there is increased pressure to conform to peer group norms. Consequently, the impact of stigmatization of abnormal can lead to social withdrawl and noncompliance, creating new social abnormalities. Doing this can unintentionally foster a condition that a doctor would consider co morbidity, and in turn, increase the need for supplemental medication which can create a vicious self-fulfilling cycle as most drugs are not tested in combination because it is too difficult and lengthy a process. [21] Due to many significant factors physicians need to exercise caution when administering “a life sentence.” These diagnoses are not just a simple fix. These are life-long stigmas that children begin to identify themselves as if they are not careful. [22] It is unfortunate that physicians dispense diagnoses so callously. These children are not only identifying themselves as their illness but are suffering psychological side effects from the drugs- loss of identity as an individual, losing self-esteem, isolating themselves. [23] With these effects, the chance of a normal childhood is gone. The damage can be irreversible. Conclusion: Drugs are a necessity in some cases and do enhance the lives of some children, however, the question of what is “abnormal” and who is truly benefiting from the treatment of these children has yet to be fully explored. The drugs administered create significant side effects that make it difficult to determine their utility thus raising questions regarding the motives of drug companies and even possibly the new “hands off” parenting that seems increasingly popular. [24] If the trend towards medicating children continues, we risk eliminating the “normal” pediatric population as a result of our ever-narrowing definition of normal. Through the creation of new diagnosis, and consequential medicating of the pediatric population, abnormalities within metabolic, endocrine, neurological and psychological systems may have devastating effects not just our pediatric patients but on our entire community in the long term. Effects Of Psychotropic Drugs Psychology Essay

Financial Accounting Data and Types of Users Individual Project

Financial Accounting Data and Types of Users Individual Project.

Length: 2–3 pages, excluding title and reference pagesThe new accounting clerks are beginning to gather information to complete financial statements. The accountants will first need to understand what type of information will be needed from the source documents and how these documents tie to financial statements. Before they can do so, they must fully understand who will potentially be reviewing the company’s financials and what type of information may be included. For this task, answer the following questions:Why do the users of financial statements require information to be accurate and free from any material errors?What are some problems that might occur if users of financial statements rely on inaccurate statements?Why is it important for users of financial statements to understand the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)?Explain the purpose and objective of source documents.
Financial Accounting Data and Types of Users Individual Project

Analysis of the Apollo Hospital’s Business Environment

professional essay writers Analysis of the Apollo Hospital’s Business Environment. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introdution 2.0 Analysisof the Organizon’s Business Environment and of Industry Surival and Sucess Factors 2.1 Macro Environment Analysis 2.2 Industry Analysis 3.0 Analysis of the Organisation’s Strategy 3.1 Apollo Hospital SWOT Analysis 3.2 Value Chain 4.0 Critical Appraisal of the Strategy 4.1 Critical analysis 5.0 Conclusion 6.0 References 1.0 Introdution Apollo Hospital, established in 1983 , whose mission is: “Let everyone can accept a world-class health care services .” Is the price and quality , convenient services , is the core of the Apollo Hospital . Selection results 2013 Asian Hospital Management Awards in the Asian Management Conference HMA website : Apollo Hospitals India won several awards , is Asia ‘s only super-class Asian Hospital . Over the past 30 years, India’s Apollo Hospitals has 37 hospitals distributed around the world , according to the introduction, in the total amount of the medical services market in India , Apollo Hospitals will occupy more than 50% .they not only became one of India’s largest integrated healthcare group , but also to promote the success of the revolutionary development of private hospitals in India . In this hospital, has a license to practice medicine in the United States and Europe for more than 60% of doctors probably even have been able to operate about forty more than 3000 cases of hospital surgeon ‘s . 2.0 Analysisof the Organizon’s Business Environment and of Industry Surival and Sucess Factors 2.1 Macro Environment Analysis Political /legal factor; Every government policy , will result in a significant impact on business rules Apollo hospital , so politics is to increase the risk factor Apollo Hospital . Since India’s independence in 1947 , the government established an Indian for all public health system .The Government will not only help the public hospital , it can stabilize the operation , but also to encourage the healthy development of private hospitals . This is the public, private hospitals coexistence situation , so that the whole of India ‘s medical institutions ( including the Apollo Hospital ) , to get a good space for development. Social/Economic factor; Due to lack of funds in India , public hospitals can not meet the needs of all Indians . In order to maintain the public health system can effectively run , the Indian government increased private funding of the hospital, so that private hospitals to get more profit in the case , the use of their profits back to society, reduce the burden on public hospitals .This makes the Apollo Hospitals have more money , equipment and optimization within the hospital environment , while better reputation, in order to attract more customers. Technology factor; Apollo Hospitals not only has the world’s most advanced medical equipment , the world’s leading medical technology, and every doctor of medicine are very skilled in many medical fields have reached world-class level of treatment .With these excellent treatment conditions , can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect, while the low price makes the world come to attract patients in treatment.Especially for Western people, these good and cheap Hospital , Western countries can not be given , so for the people of the West has great appeal . Environmental policies factor; While India gives the impression that more is dirty , messy, poor conditions , but in the overall health situation is not very ideal conditions, medical standards in India compared to other developing countries is much better.Indian star standard management practice for hospital and medical care for its health care standards and hardware facilities as standard, divided Samsung, three four-star and five-star standards. Apollo hospital with its comfortable environment , clean equipment , has won the praise given to patients with various countries . Globalization factor: Forces of globalization also affects the Indian healthcare industry . Apollo Hospital active medical outsourcing , the annual revenue for the UK to provide medical services to more than $ 1 billion . This makes Britain the patient to see a doctor at the hospital queuing time is much shorter . This shows that the forces of globalization for India ‘s economy because of the rapid development of the medical industry , while the effects of globalization can be made stronger so that Apollo Hospitals greater. 2.2 Industry Analysis Market entryï¼› According to the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in the statistics: in 2004 there are about 150,000 foreigners to India cure, and this number is growing at an annual growth rate of 15% . Some people think that if you follow this trend has been the development continues, by 2012, the annual income of the Indian healthcare industry may even reach $ 2.2 billion .The growth of the market is very attractive for the freedom of consumer disposable incomes , many companies have joined the medical occupations. Existing competition Because the medical industry has a huge market potential , so many companies are added to the health care occupations. In order to be able to obtain the freedom of consumers from the distribution of funds , the level of competition also followed constantly improving .In this increasingly competitive environment, improve the efficiency of their own health care and medical services , while reducing health care prices in order to attract more consumers to patronize.On the other hand , consumers in this fierce competition , you can choose to go to a better treatment of the environment , but also cheap . Supplier Power: Supplier of force has a very important position , in order to use lower prices to attract patients come for treatment , it is necessary to control the cost of good medical care , and power suppliers will directly affect the market price of medical supplies .But as for the treatment of diseases in India more and more people , the hospital will need a lot of medical supplies and medical equipment , and so it makes a lot of demand for each vendor in order to obtain greater benefits , while lowering the price of goods . Buyer Power: The power of your customers to drive down your prices; • Competitive Rivalry: The strength of competition in the industry; The Threat of New Entry: The ease with which new competitors can enter the market if they see that you are making good profits (and then drive your prices down). By thinking through how each force affects you, and by identifying the strength and direction of each force, you can quickly assess the strength of the position and your ability to make a sustained profit in the industry; There is some threat of substitution. Ex Telemedicine or shifting to other medicine like Ayurveda or natural care unless it is difficult to find some way of changing this situation, this looks like a very tough industry to survive in. Maybe he’ll need to specialize in a sector of the market that’s protected from some of these forces, or find a related business that’s in a stronger position. 3.0 Analysis of the Organisation’s Strategy 3.1 Apollo Hospital SWOT Analysis Strength Weakness monetary assistance comprehensive span of healthcare capabilities services at every level of care Being the largest purchaser and consumer of medical consumables high loan rates depress the margins High attrition rates The rising costs Opportunities Threat new markets new products and services preferring private services Hospitals in India are running at 80-90% occupancy. India’s health care industry is expected to grow by around 15% a year for the next six years. the limited resources, and rising incomes Real estate prices have become prohibitively high existing medical equipment’s obsolete Strength; Quality; money related support gave -obstructions of business passage lessened work cost residential market high gainfulness and income high development rate. Qualities Apollo is an incorporated social insurance association with a complete compass of medicinal services capacities, empowering us to give end-to-end administrations to patients. We give consistent conveyance of administrations at each level of forethought – essential, auxiliary and tertiary. Being the biggest buyer and purchaser of medicinal consumables in the private segment Weakness; high advance rates are conceivable expense structure interests in innovative work future rivalry little specialties units. Shortcoming we have included 297 Stand-alone drug stores amid the year, since a large portion of the drug stores are in the brooding stage which can discourage the edges. High whittling down rates among the nursing workforce to Western nations and contenders because of higher compensations and advantages being offered requires higher interest in preparing to guarantee that the clinical staff is outfitted with the right abilities, capabilities and mastery required to convey quality medicinal services. The increasing expenses of health awareness conveyance makes lion’s share of the private healing facilities costly for an ordinary working class gang. Opportunities; high advance rates are conceivable expense structure interests in innovative work future rivalry little specialties units. Shortcoming we have included 297 Stand-alone drug stores amid the year, since a large portion of the drug stores are in the brooding stage which can discourage the edges. High whittling down rates among the nursing workforce to Western nations and contenders because of higher compensations and advantages being offered requires higher interest in preparing to guarantee that the clinical staff is outfitted with the right abilities, capabilities and mastery required to convey quality medicinal services. The increasing expenses of health awareness conveyance makes lion’s share of the private healing facilities costly for an ordinary working class gang. Threat: Danger; increment in the process of childbirth expenses increasing expense of crude materials Threats The expense trouble is situated to increment because of the constrained assets, and climbing wages will mean higher wages, supply and capital expenses. Land costs have gotten to be restrictively high and an obstruction to tackle new activities. This will add to higher expenses of Healthcare conveyance which must be borne by the shopper. Restorative supplies represents 40-45% of the aggregate consumption in clinics. Any change in engineering will make existing therapeutic gear’s outdated. High rate of headway in restorative innovation is prompting shorter lifespan, outdated nature of medicinal supplies, obliging therapeutic experts to overhaul their abilities on a consistent premise. 3.2 Value Chain Value chain is divided into two types of basic activities and support activities , basic activities included : production, marketing, transportation and after-sales support activities included : supplies, technology, human resources or other support basic functions of production management activities and so on. The basic activities of Apollo hospital patient admission, hospitalization , the patient was discharged , hospital marketing, health checks composition, which is Apollo Hospitals profit most important part ; and support activities are hospital infrastructure , hospital human resource management, technology development and procurement management , which can reduce the cost of Apollo hospital , in order to improve profits ; they are different from each other but they have each other activity associated with it, constitutes a dynamic process of creating value , ie the value chain Apollo hospital . From the Apollo Hospital in the value chain , we find that not every aspect can create value. The value created by Apollo , the most important is the value chain from a p0atient in hospital, so patients hospitalized in the entire value chain “strategic sectors .” But this does not mean that other aspects important in this value chain , all the links are indispensable. 4.0 Critical Appraisal of the Strategy 4.1 Critical analysis India’s large population, but the overall economy is not wealthy . India due to lack of funding , the existing public health system can not meet the medical needs of all residents . Now, more than the number of beds to population in India is 1: 1300 , about 130 million people still lack health care. However, in order to let the people when they are sick can receive the appropriate treatment can be , the government is still implementing universal free health care system .Although the company is privatized enterprises Apollo , in a high standard of private hospital treatment , of course, is higher than the cost of public hospitals , but in general compared to international standards , the price is still relatively cheap. A large number of patients in Western countries come to India for treatment, because of this reason .But in the Eastern countries , there are still many poor families have no money to see a doctor , so while maintaining high standards of quality of care , try to reduce costs and achieve the purpose of reducing health care costs , so that more people can accept cheap and high quality health care .But have to follow the government ‘s instructions and do charity medical facts , so that the hospital can have a better reputation. In India there are many medical institutions partially privatized , as is to improve the quality of medical care , but also to retain key management by governments at disease prevention and public health.Western countries believe the view that because of poverty , developing countries can not afford to build the cost of the social security system needs. But India is determined to make the vast majority of people are included in the various forms of social health insurance being . India is not only the establishment of a public health system , such as free public hospital treatment programs and universal free immunization programs to protect vulnerable groups, especially farmers can enjoy basic medical care .However, care must be taken not to deprive the patient , to avoid the total medical costs rose too fast, to avoid serious social inequality and other issues , we should always pay attention to adjust . 5.0 Conclusion Now , Apollo Hospitals has become recognized worldwide as the founder of health care . Its achievements , the most important is the management of resources from the special ability. By full swing on the use of knowledge and technology , to enable patients to get peace of mind and reliable service , which has been widely recognized throughout India and overseas .Today, Apollo , independent operators in India with more than 37 hospitals . And at the same time in China , Nepal, the United Kingdom , Kuwait , Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia , Ghana and Nigeria and other countries have their own hospital or cooperation projects. Apollo Hospitals has now turned into a comprehensive health healthcare enterprise output . 6.0 References Analysis of the Apollo Hospital’s Business Environment

Impact Of Globalization On Indian Agriculture Sector

Impact Of Globalization On Indian Agriculture Sector. The aim of the research is to critically evaluate the Recent Performance and Prospects in the Wake of Globalization on Agriculture Sector in the parts of India. The researcher of this research himself comes from the both business and agriculture background, and has similar concern and knowledge about the agriculture in India before and after globalization, and wish to gain more knowledge through this research. This research should be useful to make recommendations to the farmers, extension personnel, Agricultural Departments, Government, outside agencies and other Agricultural allied fields throughout the India. This research would help for the future research and to shape up the Indian Agriculture. As an intact, Agriculture in India is the means of livelihood of more or less two thirds of the work force in the country. It has always been INDIA’S most important and desired economic sector. The aim and objectives of the research are as follows: 2.1 AIM: The avowed aim of the research is to evaluate “Recent Performance and Prospects in the Wake of Globalization on Indian Agriculture Sector”. 2.2 OBJECTIVES: The specific objectives of the research on Globalization of Indian Agriculture are To examine how globalization of agriculture would have an effect on agricultural production, change efficiencies and influence social issues in India. To take stock of the existing trade models and assess the role of (Research and Development) RImpact Of Globalization On Indian Agriculture Sector

Example Answers for Questions on Nestle Organization Resources Management

Corporate strategy design to achieving the goals of organization in the profitable means in this case any organization has specific corporate strategy, which help the organization to fulfill its requirement. There are some corporate strategies and human resources of Nestle firm that evaluate the critical condition that is under below. (i) Corporate Strategy of Nestle firm Value and expectation Value expectation define the value of firm in the market if the value is not judge by the higher management so it will fail to complete its goals the expectation define what happen if we will implement all the corporate strategy in the market level the expectation is the result of firm. And in the Human resources strategy the value and expectation define about the employees working condition and what is the expectation when they find out the result. The worker what expect form organization in the case of incentive and other bounces The Environment Changing environment is better for organization because the environment defines the innovation product in the market the corporate strategy is already define the environment changes in its plan. The environment for the worker or employees provide the facilities like the incentive, salary, wages and other perks if the environment is better for worker and have enough facilities so the worker will willingly to work with organization. Resources Resources is blood of organization if the organization have better resource for production like low price of raw material and long term in production so the firm will be better competing other. Resources for worker like medical expenses TADA expenses and other utilities allowance provide the better idea for worker to do more work for firm Nestle firm provide the better resources and facilities to their worker. Resources planning Is the major issue in corporate strategy it is design before starting the annual plans one the resources planning structure is define it modify with the passage of time Resource planning provide the large profit to organization. Resources planning in Human Resources strategy is how to deal with employee if the other firm provide the better incentive to their worker so the organization provide large amount of facilities to their workers. Generation of options At the level of generation of option means how to find new ideas if new thing demand new ideas so the option can solve this problems. Hiring of new employee can create the problem after the time pass because the environmental changes reduce the resources for worker so the generation of option is come front the firm in which the decision make like where is the right place of worker and where they will fit. Evaluation of option Evaluation of option in corporate strategy provide the better consideration to whole firm plans this kind of evaluation give the strength to firm that all the work is done by the planning system. If the plan is not done properly so the firm locate other option after better judgment The evaluation of option in Human resources strategies how to find out the new resources for worker if the existing option is working better then the result what will. Organization option Organization option Corporate strategy is in the case of loss circumstances then the organizing will liquidation or will merge in other firm for recover of loss. Organization option in human resource in the case of loss of organization the organization will firing the employee or suspend the work for some short period. Selection of strategy Selection of strategy in corporate process after the evaluation of option when firm design any strategy so it will implement for temporary bases so after come out the better result that it will modify other strategy and then selection the right way for firm. In human Resources system the selection of strategy can define when the existing policy in not working with the time. The human resources define the better way to communicate with worker to select the strategy. All This kind of corporate strategy focus on three option that is under below Strategy implementation Strategy implementation is after the analysis of all corporate and human strategy. Implementation how to apply all the strategies with better working environment. Strategic analysis Strategic analysis is how to evaluate the strategic goals the strategies are correctly apply with the existing goals. Strategic choice Strategic choice how to choice the strategic formulation in recent goals if the choice is according to the goals and the goals are working with the prior choice so the choice will be same if there is some problem with goals the choice will be change and new idea of strategy will apply. The major object of Nestle Corporation strategic is how to make its good image in changing environment. Corporate strategic can call the main idea or central planning of firm if the strategy is less effective to implementation in organization so it will fail main maintain its worth in market so the main point is define prior for corporate strategy. (B) Evaluate whether chosen organization has success in chosen corporate strategy and human resources strategy. Nestle has different product that provide the proper customer satisfaction because it has the unique name in all over the world the corporate strategy of Nestle provide the long term planning for better profit it also provide the market strategies. This firm is successful because of its corporate strategies. There are some specific corporate strategies that make it different form other organization and compete all the level firms the corporate strategies of Nestle is under below. Raw Materials: Raw materials is basic point of any firm it consist not only at the level of one firm if the firm has thousand of sources to collect the cheaper raw material so it will gain best profit in the market because Raw material is the basic need of firm so the Nestle firm received the raw material form efficient way and provide the better product and services to their customer in the market. Manufacturing: – Manufacturing is base on the modern techniques so the imported machine and modern plant provide the best and clean product to their customer. The modern manufacturing plant gives the more quantity in minimum break down or more productivity in less time. This is the corporate strategy of Nestle firm. Distribution and sales: – Distribution and sales is major problem form any firm specially the Nestle company. Nestle has the master planning to distribution of product to their customer with low time on less cost this master corporate planning is design at the start of the product distribution if the distribution will at the right place at the right time to right customer so the sale will promote rapidly. Marketing: – Marketing define what is the worth of firm in the market level if the firm has complete or already create the market worth so it will less expenses to efforts. Nestle company Corporate strategy priory define the Marketing position how to target the market in what time. Services: – Services is more vital for all product if the company has low service but the product is well so the market will destroy and all function of corporate strategy will loss so the Nestle has unique services at time bases provide the better approach to customer. Key Employees: – Key employees are backbone of company. Key employees has innovate new way to promote the production if the key employees provide the laziness services to customers or firm so the central point of firm will discard key employees have new ideas to product promotion and productivity. Financial and Operational Strategy: – Financial and operational strategy has the blood value in Nestle firm financial activities give the better understanding how to use the finance in different ways if the financial in not insert in business at the time of nasality so it will collapse its business. Nestle firm has different sources to finance in business when it needed. The corporate strategy has define the different way in plan for collecting the financing form government and shareholders Human Resources Strategies: Human resources strategies provide the better use of resources of workers in the organization if the form or organization has no better strategies form worker so it will loss the major skillful property at the time of demand there are some human resources strategies that provide the better understanding to Nestle firm. Hiring the skillful employees Nestle firm has better hiring planning for skillful employees because this organization has more intelligent and efficient worker for better product if the worker or employees will understand working condition more it will have low chance to less productivity so the main aim in human resources in nestle firm hiring the skillful employees in the organization. Salaries Salary attracts employees very quickly if the salaries are less that the expectation form employees so they will turn over the firm and lay down the organization. So nestle human resources department provide the best salary package to their employees. Incentive Incentive pay by the firm time-to-time incentive is extra award to worker in their working this strategy allure the worker for more hardworking and over time. Bonuses Bonuses is pay at the specific time that provide by the firm this kind of allowance is on the profit organization and bonuses create the worth of workers in the firm. Firing of workers Human resources planning has another way to downsizing the staff this strategy happened when worker are in huge volume and the business in less then its boundary the firing of the worker is include loss productivity, time wasting, fun at the working time and low profit time. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is also define in the range of human resources strategies job satisfaction means the right person at the right place if the worker is assign at the wrong the work will not done by the organization quality and it will provide the less productivity to firm so the Nestle human resources strategy assign the efficient worker at the right place. Job enrichment Job enrichment means what is the job providing to worker even in the shape of incentive of learning the working environment if the job provides the better satisfaction to their worker so it will call the enrichment of job. (C) Recommend changes that the chosen organization would need to make its human resource strategy if confront by the merger, acquisition, Strategic alliance and joint venture. Human resources strategies define the better sources for merge the organization in to other organization in the case of loss selling or in new form the merger of nestle is under below. Mergers of Nestle: Mergers of Nestle in market in Cadbury chocolate. Joint venture of Nestle: Nestle and Pillsbury recently formed a joint venture named Ice Cream Partners USA Strategic Alliance of Nestle: On the other hand, a strategic alliance between General Mills and Nestle, through a firm called Cereal Partners Worldwide (CPW). Acquisition of Nestle: – Nestlé has agreed to acquire Kraft Foods’ frozen pizza business in the US and Canada for USD 3.7 billion in cash. The business includes brands such as DiGiorno, Tombstone, California Pizza Kitchen, Jack’s and Delissio. This frozen pizza business provides a new strategic pillar to Nestlé’s frozen food portfolio in the US and Canada, where the Company has already established a leadership in prepared dishes and hand-held product categories under the Stouffer’s, Lean Cuisine, Buitoni, Hot Pockets and Lean Pockets brands. The acquisition brings leadership in the frozen pizza category, where Nestlé only had a minor presence until now, and builds on Nestlé’s existing pizza know-how and operations in Europe. It is a natural fit with Nestlé’s focus on delivering convenient, premium, wholesome and nutritious frozen food for consumers around the world. The transaction is subject to US and Canadian regulatory approval and is expected to be completed in 2010 (2) Evaluate the organizational strategies for retention, recruitment, training and development Retention Recruitment Training and development (3) Critically review the purpose and benefit of performance appraisal and reward management including financial and non-financial reward. Performance appraisal Critical incidental method In Nestle firm the critical incidental method is complete image of worker through the different ideas and debates in which many incidental method use like when worker perform well in problematic situation. Weighted checklist Weighted checklist provides the weight of worker at the every task through this method many appraisal can be judged at annually basis. Graphic rating scale Graphic rating is converting form statically number it only take look at the graphic on perform level. Essay evaluation In essay evaluation the ability of worker can be judge by the written pages that is use for performance of the years. Performance rating Performance rating provide the annul, quarterly, and semi annual record this performance rating give the better idea of worker performance appraisal. Management by object MBO is other idea for performance appraisals in which the performance and management do every object take every step by object system and then define he worker performance. 360 degree performance appraisal 360 degree is scanning all the performance of employees at every level, which provide the complete image to performance appraisal. Force ranking Force ranking means how the authority workers control all the staff and how much efficient way he creates on its working environment. Behavioral observation scale Behavioral observation scale is consist at the attitude of worker in the more problem situation this kind of the appraisal can be judge at he complexities of workers. Reward management. Pay and compensation Pay and compensation means pay some finance to employees at some incident or accident in the case of medical and other even damages pay etc. Fixed level of pay Fixed level of pay in not very famous in the firm in this the chances of progress become less and the performance works to low. Reward link to performance. Reward link to performance means the better reward for efficient performance on this the reward management pay the reward in the shape of financial and non-financial system. Financial reward Wages and salaries Wages and salaries is basic reward to workers and worker work for the wages at the monthly and daily base. Fringe benefit Fringe benefit extra allowance like TADA and Car charges to their workers. Performance rate pay Performance rate pay apply the performance of worker if the worker perform the better act to more productivity so the Nestle pay the better advantages to performance like in the shape of finance. Profit sharing Profit sharing scheme is mostly in multinational company in which the profit is sharing in the form of bonus and other incentives. Share ownership Share ownership is another kind of financial reward system in which the higher management shares some profit or salaries in share ownership Nestle is multinational company and provide the facilities to their workers. Non financial reward Job enrichment Nestle human resources provide the facility to right person on right place so that can create the image in firm job enrichment. Job enlargement Job enlargement in nestle firm provide the large task and complexity to one worker its call job enlargement. Team working Team working reduces the complexity of work that may face by the individual workers. Nestle firm believe on team working because the diversification can reduce the problem of task. Empowerment Empowerments means provide the authority to one worker to hold on big task this kind of working usually involve enhancing the performance of worker.