In 1,000-1,250 words, complete the following:Describe the cultural identity of a particular cultural group and how the culture’s identity is represented symbolically in the culture’s communication patterns, values, language, architecture, pastimes, art, relational roles, societal systems, behaviors, etc. (Comp 2.1 Interpret the meaning of symbols across cultures.).Compare and contrast symbolic representations of a particular cultural group via media channels in that culture, in the U.S. media, and academic research findings.Evaluate the role of mass media channels in intercultural communication. What impact do mass media have on intercultural perceptions and interactions?Project must have a minimum of five scholarly sources.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Grand Canyon University Thai People Culture & Perception Cultural Identity Essay
Hiv Aids Media In Uk Health And Social Care Essay
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp ‘It is estimated that over 30 million people worldwide live with HIV leading to around 2 million deaths per year. In the UK HIV is one of the fastest growing illnesses and as of June 2010 there has been 26,262 new cases of AIDS diagnosis with over 19,000 HIV related deaths”. [i] Despite various health and government campaigns designed to inform the public of HIV transmission and prevention in the UK; rates of diagnosis of the disease still continue to rise. This essays aims to understand if media campaigns are effective to induce a change in both prevention and the number of individuals who are willing to undergo testing? If this is not the case then what factors contribute to its current stigma? Finally, has the media been effective enough to change the publics perception to the disease in today’s society compared to when it first hit the headlines? Through these arguments, conclusions and recommendations for future effective awareness and media techniques can be drawn. The History of AIDS in the media The media is considered to be the most influential tool having a direct ability to influence mass target audiences. This was made more powerful through the invention of the internet where information could be broadcast worldwide, allowing more people than ever to access information. Throughout the years, portrayal of HIV and AIDS through newspapers, television, radio, posters, leaflets and educational advertisements have had a direct effect on the way the disease is perceived by the general public. For example, when AIDS first hit the global headlines in the early 1980’s it was displayed by the media as being a new, unknown disease with a direct link to individuals only involved in homosexual activity. This reflected a time where same sex relationships were frowned upon and how this ‘taboo’ was seen to result in death. There were also cases of how infected blood transfusion products acted as a transmission route, this led to terms such as “killer blood” [ii] and labelling AIDS as a “gay plaque” [iii] . The early perception of the disease is shown through newspapers including influential and renounced broadsheets like The Daily Telegraph in 1983 with their main headline of “Gay Plague May Lead to Blood Ban on Homosexuals”. This was a paper which was targeted at many affluent people with a high degree of social status and education. In 1982 The Terrence Higgins Trust was formed, the first campaign of its kind. This charity group was dedicated in supporting, preventing and campaigning for greater public understanding of HIV. Through this new slant of providing a support frame work for infected individuals, charities started to focus on prevention, education and aiding the families of those affected. Through the growth of science and research more understanding was obtained about the disease and it was no longer a ‘fear of the unknown’ but more focus on how transmission of the disease can be prevented. Hence this lead to government campaigns in the new millennia, educating the general population rather than inducing fear. The perception and stigma of HIV Today there is still a wide stigma which surrounds many cultures, religious and ethic groups. “Landlords have evicted individuals with AIDS” and “the Social Security Administration is interviewing patients by phone rather than face to face.” [iv] Dr David Spencer, Commisioner of Health, New York City The question lies in whether the media has been effective enough to overcome stigmatisation within the associated groups. An eye opening story of how AIDS has been portrayed through the media and its direct influence on discrimination and prejudice was shown by the case of Ryan White, a haemophiliac who became infected in 1984. As HIV was poorly understood at the time, many parents and teachers protested against his attendance, signing petitions to exclude him from campus even though scientists at the time knew that HIV was not transmittable through any form of casual contact. He worked as a paperboy and many people along his route cancelled their subscriptions in fear that the disease was contractible through newsprint. This shows the extent of how HIV was perceived and the fear of contraction, which instigated threats of violence and legal cases towards the family. When White was allowed to return to school in 1986 he was deeply unhappy. He had few friends and school policy required him to eat with disposable utensils, have a separate bathroom and his requirement to attend gym class was dismissed. However, the most shocking event came about when a bullet was fired through the Whites’ front room window and the family decided it was time to leave. He was later enrolled into another school and was greeted by the superintendent and a handful of students who were educated about the disease and who were not afraid to shake his hand. This shows the detrimental difference that education makes towards public perception and how prejudice and discrimination can be limited. [v] Hence through the array of inaccurate information, the fear of prejudice and discrimination has lead to stigmatisation. This has had an effect on the willingness of individuals to acquire HIV testing, and be open about a positive status despite the reduced visibility of the symptoms of the disease such as skin and muscle wastage. The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 has made discrimination within the workplace illegal for people associated with HIV and AIDS. However this does not combat the prejudice and stigmatisation an individual may encounter from their colleagues. Hence subtle discrimination is more common as it is difficult to tackle in comparison to open discrimination. These are the reasons why people choose not to disclose their HIV status, as for many people living with the disease the most hurtful prejudice that they may face comes from those to who they would normally turn to for support. Close family, friends and partners have been known to turn their back on people diagnosed with HIV. In addition, the sense of belonging that being part of a community provides can quickly disappear when that community appears to discriminate against you simply because of its own prejudice against HIV, this often leads to financial and further social difficulties. The media is therefore faced with the difficult task of changing peoples’ perceptions, of which there have been a few successful outcomes. EastEnders a popular UK television soap explored the issues of HIV and AIDS with regards to antiretroviral drugs, safe sex, prejudice and the difficulties that can occur in a relationship. The producers worked closely with The Terrence Higgins Trust throughout the story and it was found that after the character’s positive diagnosis in 1991 this correlated with the highest peak in HIV testing requests [vi] . This was influential as the soap showed someone living with HIV as opposed to dying with the disease, and the storyline was so successful in raising awareness that a 1999 survey conducted by the National AIDS Trust found teenagers got most of their information about HIV from the soap. [vii] When the character died in 2004 campaigners suggested that he was killed too early as advancements in drugs were helping people live much longer and was not reflective of what was happening at the time. Lisa Power, head of policy at the Terrence Higgins Trust, stated ‘…that, one decent soap episode is worth a thousand leaflets in schools. That is why we would always go out of our way to help scriptwriters. TV and films can be very powerful.” [viii] How the media has changed the perception of HIV /AIDS Horizon produced a BBC documentary ‘Killer in the Village’ which showed the perception that the media had of HIV and AIDS back in 1983. Terms such as “killer disease” highlighted the fear of the disease by “gay men who walk in its shadow”. Even though the programme’s aim was to provide information on this ‘new cancer’ the way that the issue was dealt with showed the prejudice that even health care workers and politicians who tried to shed light on the subject held. [ix] Advertisements were steamed on TV warning viewers about contracting the disease which would lead to death. They were not based on educating the public but mostly warning of the dangers of the disease, this was perhaps due to the lack of understanding of the topic. This is clearly shown in one of the earlier T.V advertisements produced in Australia in 1987. [x] Here we see that AIDS has been given the face of the grim reaper, a metaphoric analogy showing that AIDS equals death. He is seen to throw a bowling bowl at his target the general public and they are seen to fall which is a symbol of death. Another advert produced in the US in the same year shows a vulnerable child lying in bed with the disease and with his last breathe reaches out to the public with the message ‘DONT GET IT!’. [xi] The later HIV and AIDS television campaigns have become the main source of education for the general public with information commercials showing links to help lines for more information. Marketers feel in order to sell their products to the teenage target audience they have to use sex to appeal to them, this is shown though clothing and perfume lines. Therefore it is evident to get teenagers attention about the dangers of unprotected sex, advertisements have had to be made more graphical and ‘explicit’. This is made apparent through later television campaigns as such produced by MTV in 1999 [xii] where couples are seen to engage in intercourse in a relatable fashion and then the newly infected partner is shot by the infected one. This would have seen to be too controversial back in the 1980s. However towards the end of the commercial it shows a bullet being stopped by a condom, this analogy of how death can be stopped by wearing a condom adds a powerful element in getting the message across. A recent advertisement campaign produced by the NHS in 2009 [xiii] again showed couples engaging in risky sexual behaviour. Names of STI’s such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea were shown throughout the commercial however notably there was no mention of HIV or AIDS. For what possible reason has HIV and AIDS, which a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide appear to have been forgotten in recent campaigns? Perhaps the predominance of HIV transmission in the media in previous years had overshadowed more s ‘common’ and ‘less serious’ STI’s, decreasing their awareness and allowing them to rise significantly. As a result, government and health authorities could be trying to draw greater focus to these, meanwhile dangerously oversighting the significant risk of HIV transmission in today’s young population. In more recent times, the media has tried to make HIV and AIDS more relatable to the general public by using celebrities and figure heads. Celebrities with HIV and AIDS are not shown in a bad light but more of a lesson to be learned from. They have been seen as individuals who people look up to as role models and leaders, where people form an identification with them hence they can relate to these individuals including famous people such as Rock Hudson and Freddy Mercury who lost their lives to AIDS. One significant change that aadvertising has provided is promoting the use of condoms with slogans such as “stay safe, use a condom” [xiv] , highlighting condoms as an important factor in the prevention pathway. In March 2009, during the Pope’s visit to Africa the Pope denounced the use of condoms saying that the best way to be free of the disease was through abstinence. However, in November he changed his statement saying that “the use of condoms to reduce the risk of infection is a first step on the road to a more human sexuality, rather than not to use it and risk the lives of others.” [xv] The change in the perception of both the media and the public can be seen through the introduction of HIV dating websites and international conferences held for journalists to provide them with the latest statistics and different ways of educating the public. Conclusions and Recommendations HIV is on the increase and still continues to rise regardless of media attention. A press release from NAT (a UK charity designed to change society’s view on HIV/AIDS) in November 2010 revealed that in the UK the number of HIV transmissions being diagnosed still remains high with no hint of a decline when compared to previous years. The HPA (Health Protection Agency) has revealed that although overall rates of diagnoses have shown a decline, this is largely due to fewer diagnosis been made in those infected overseas. Therefore greater intervention other than media is required to make people more aware of the disease. The stigmatisation surrounding HIV and AIDS still continues and this also acts as barrier for people to willingly undergo testing. They believe a diagnosis could have a knock on effect amongst their social, religious and cultural group if anyone found out about their positive status, therefore by not being tested traps them into a false sense of security which acts as a source of denial. Therefore in order to overcome this barrier stigmatisation needs to be removed, the only reason why this is difficult is because people see it as a punishment for immoral behaviour and still associate the disease with drug use and homosexual behaviour whereas currently it is heterosexual women who have seen the biggest rise in new infection over the last decade with 4,220 cases acquired heterosexually in 2008 in comparison to only 2,760 acquired homosexually. [xvi] In today’s society, the majority of young people see contraception’s main function as protection against pregnancy, not against diseases. Especially since the first hormonal contraceptive pill was approved by the FDA in 1960. [xvii] It is readily available and free of charge to young girls, therefore the use of condom is deemed unnecessary in some young peoples eyes. Therefore the use of a condom should be deemed as essential in sexual activity, not to prevent pregnancy, but to prevent a fatal disease. A further reason for the increased spread of HIV in the UK, is ’18-30’s holidays’. These holidays, promoted through advertisement in the media, encourage binge drinking and sex. It is seen as one of the main attraction of the holiday. However, a combination of these results in a high risk of HIV transmission. Being under the influence of alcoholic hugely affects ones perception of safety and decreases the probability of remembering, or caring, if a condom is used. This alone would increase the spread of HIV. One of the most popular countries for these types of holidays is Greece. Over the last decade, Greece has experienced an influx of migrants from countries in South Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Studies show that 12% of new infections between the years 1989 and 2003 occurred in immigrants. [xviii] “the results suggest an increasing trend of HIV-seropositive migrants in Greece during recent years.” [xix] Therefore, these alcohol -fuelled holidays can result in people from the UK becoming infected with the virus and increasing the spread once returning to the UK. Recommendations A. Research should be undertaken to map the current prevalence of HIV prejudice and types of HIV discrimination experienced in the UK, and Terrence Higgins Trust should establish a database of case studies. B. The Department of Health should ensure that their concerns about the role of stigma in HIV transmission and illness be met by, amongst other strategies suggested here, supporting projects to aid people with HIV in challenging prejudice and discrimination through positive role models, speaker and media work and support networks. C. The Government should enact agreed proposals to extend the Disability Discrimination Act to cover medical conditions from the point of diagnosis, rather than the onset of illness, in the next legislative session. D. Health promotion agencies producing information on sexual health and HIV should include, as appropriate, messages countering prejudice and discrimination both in the general population and within targeted communities. E. In addition to the Codes of Practice produced by the Disability Rights Commission offering guidance to the providers of goods and services about their legal obligations, the Government should legislate to tackle the discrimination encountered by people with HIV and other medical conditions when they access goods and services. F. HIV prevention information targeting Africans, Black people and/or asylum seekers should be produced but their messages and formats need to take into account the concerns of these communities around potential prejudice. G. HIV information providers to African people in the UK should produce materials which make clear their medical and legal rights if diagnosed with HIV In conclusion the requirement of good HIV information through TV, wind-up radios (e.g. in Africa), HIV issues in soap-operas which are most influential, accessible HIV tests, expensive counselling for those proving positive, safe-sex promotion, fewer sexual partners, decreased alcohol use to avoid risky behaviour, and good trials found circumcision helps prevent HIV transmission is necessary to continue and increase prevention campaigns thus providing further education about the disease process, its transmission and how it can be prevented. Hence the mainstay of management relies on education including promotion of safe sex, needle exchange programmes, screening of blood transfusion products and public awareness campaigns. Therefore the only real way of getting rid of any associated stigma is to find a cure for HIV. 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The success and rise of Caterpillar Inc
essay helper free Introduction The main objective of this report is to provide an insight of one of the world’s largest manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas and industrial gas turbine, Caterpillar Inc (CAT). CAT provides a product line that effectively caters the different needs of its customers and also in order to sustain in the competitive farm and construction machinery industry against other companies such Komatsu Ltd and Deere
University of Colorado Boulder Forest Fires in Amazon Rain Forest & Media Essay
University of Colorado Boulder Forest Fires in Amazon Rain Forest & Media Essay.
WILL TIP EXTREMELY WELL FOR A+ PAPERIn late august of 2019, fires in the Amazon made news headlines worldwide, after NASAconfirmed 2019 was “the most active fire year in that region since 2010.” Despite the sophisticated analysis that NASA tried to convey (summarized in our Deforestation Case Study), some of the media coverage exposed the multiple misconceptions about the Amazon. On the one hand, a general trope of “pristine nature” loomed over depictions of the Amazon as untouched primary forest, as if native peoples had not inhabited this vibrant eco-region well before the arrival of Europeans to the Americas. On the other hand, many were quick to condemn fires in the rainforest without a deeper analysis of the causes, effects, and long-term consequences of fires in the region. We were left with a shallow exchange between Hollywood icon Leonardo Dicaprio and the Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro–an unfortunate outcome for public awareness on this very important issue and a nightmare come true for geographers worldwide.In this first paper, your task is to (A) critique how mainstream media portrayed the 2019 Amazon fires and (B) choose one approach to environment and society we have studied thus far to better explain the relationship between fire and the Amazon rainforest. At the heart of your paper should be an answer to the following questions:Do media portrayals fit any of the three approaches to environment and society we have studied so far? If so, which approach and why? If not, what underlying assumptions are at play in their portrayal?What would your chosen approach outline as the best way to understand the relationship between humans, fires, and the rainforest? Are fires always bad for the rainforest? If not, under what condition and practices might they be beneficial?What potential solutions would your approach suggest to mitigate the detrimental consequences of fires in the Amazon?I. CRITIQUE THE MEDIAYour first step is to conduct online research on the 2019 fires in the Amazon. Select an in-depth news article that reports on the issue. You can choose your favorite media source, but make sure it is an in-depth piece (meaning it is at least 1,000 words). You can also select weekly or monthly journals such as The Economist, National Geographic, Scientific American or Nature. After you choose the article, read it carefully and take note of its central argument and the supporting evidence. Analyze how well the evidence fits the portrayal and make a list of assumptions that are unjustified. Then go back to your notes from readings and lectures and answer the first question. Do not spend time explaining what the article says. Spend this portion of your paper focusing on the assumptions the journalists made and how they relate to what we have studied in this course.II. CHOOSE THE APPROACHSelect an approach we studied in our first three units and outline how you would explain the relationship between humans and the environment using the example of fires and forests in the Amazon. Here are some clues: Population and ScarcityClarify whether the fires are affecting primary or secondary forest and make a statement about whether this should be a concern for human beings or not.Use the knowledge we gained by looking at trees as “objects of concern” and specify if and why it matters whether primary forest is being replaced by pasture or plantations.Explain how a population and scarcity perspective would suggest the rainforest should be preserved. Find some evidence about the effects of conservation areas or indigenous reserves for forest preservation and make a strong case about how industrialization and urbanization drive deforestation. Markets and CommoditiesIdentify whether deforestation is associated with the production of beef, soy or gold and frame the issue using the market response model.Clarify why it make sense to burn down forest in the production of the commodity you choose and use economic reasoning to suggest alternative solutions.Use the knowledge we gained by looking at trees as “objects of concern” to specify how market-based solutions already exist to address the incentives to burn down forests (for example, sustainable cattle-ranching programs, timber harvesting certification systems, or the soy moratorium). Explain if you believe this is enough to preserve the rainforest or not. Institutions and “The Commons”Clarify how deforestation is related to global climate change and how preserving rainforests is crucial to attain the goal of reducing global carbon emissions.Discuss how a 1.5 degree Celsius temperature increase in global temperature may keep the Amazon as a carbon sink vs. turning it into a carbon source with a 2 degree Celsius increase in global temperature.Use the knowledge we gained about the Paris Climate Agreement to make a statement about the likelihood of wildfires in the future. Use IPCC reports to get the appropriate data and make your case for global collective action to preserve the Amazon.III. WRITE YOUR PAPERAfter doing the research and outlining the arguments according to your chosen approach, write an essay of 1,500-2,000 words. Try your best to make a strong argument. Stylistically, make sure your paper has the following:An introductory paragraph that explains you will critique the media and use an approach in environment-society geography to explain the relationship between humans and fires in the Amazon.A thesis statement at the end of your first paragraph that summarizes your main point (or points) and briefly outlines how you will prove this statement.At least three body paragraphs in which the first sentence explicitly tells the reader how the evidence in each paragraph will support the thesis statement (this is your topic sentence).A concluding paragraph that reviews what you have argued throughout the essay and lays out how you have demonstrated your points.IV. FINAL CONSIDERATIONSTips:If you read the Deforestation Case Study you will be better equipped to write this paper. In other words, if you want to get an A: read and carefully deploy the information in that page.However, you are not required to find data in the suggested tools.Please avoid colloquial expressions and caricatures such as “the lungs of the earth” (learn why this is incorrect here), “pristine nature,” and “untouched forest.” Instead, deploy technical language we have reviewed, such as carbon sink, primary forest, and secondary succession. Look at the rubric in advance. Do not be surprised if points are deducted due to word choice.Paper Sources:As you make your case, please make sure all your evidence is supported by credible studies (you can use the CU libraries browser) or journalistic sources (seek out major newspapers such as The Guardian, The Atlantic or The New York Times, investigative journals such as The Economist, or scientific sources such as Nature or Science). The material must be up to date – materials published over the past 2-3 years. Make sure you cite all sources used in the paper. There is no significant penalty for excessive citation: there is a huge penalty for plagiarism. Here are some tips to avoid academic dishonesty and getting into trouble.GradingPlease pay attention to format, spelling, syntax, referencing, etc. The paper accounts for 10% of the course grade. Late papers will be penalized 10% per day late. Papers will be marked on a 1-20-point scale (check the Paper Grading Rubric below).I strongly encourage you to get acquainted and make an appointment with CU’s Online Composition Hub and get support for your academic writing. Papers with external support do significantly better in this class than papers without it. Utilizing university resources already included in your tuition costs is also a great opportunity for you to hone your writing skills–a critical asset for your entire professional life. SubmissionPlease submit your essay as a WORD or PDF document. Uploads are restricted to .docx, .doc and .pdf files. Check your Turnitin score after your submission. I strongly recommend that you submit an edited version if the score is higher than 20%. I will review papers with a score higher than 15% carefully for indications of plagiarism. Please avoid any issues of academic integrity that may jeopardize your grade.
University of Colorado Boulder Forest Fires in Amazon Rain Forest & Media Essay
Natural Sciences: Insects Essay
Natural Sciences: Insects Essay. Insects are known to be the most widely spread and numerous of all species of animals living on our planet. The number of insects in the world exceeds the number of all the other species taken together. Insects live in all kinds of terrestrial environments and can be found in almost any climate zone. This way, the impacts insects make on human life are immense and very important. Kellert mentions that the influence insects have on the life of people and other animals can be evaluated from a variety of perspectives such as scientific, aesthetic, naturalistic, negativistic and moralistic (par. 9). This paper is focused on exploring the influences created by the insects from the ecologic point of view. Insects perform several natural functions that enable important ecological processes. Among these functions are scavenging, decomposing, consumption, predation and parasitism, and pollination. When the insects consume and decompose their food, they become a crucial link in the biochemical cycle of nutrients (A Class of Distinction 2). Living in the soil and building homes for their colonies insects help to distribute air to the soil, which provides better conditions for the development of plants as the burrowing around the root zones delivers nutrients there. Besides, insects such as dung beetles increase the speed of decomposition of the manure of large animals such as cattle. Decomposing the manure the insects help to spread the nutrients it contains into the ground and fertilize it. Many cattle breeders all around the world intentionally populate their pasturelands with dung beetles because large herds of cattle leave a lot of manure, which makes these areas unsuitable for the livestock over time. The pollinating function of insects is one of the most well known. Flowering plants are the supporters of a variety of large ecosystems, although these plants’ capacity to reproduce directly depends on the pollination done by the insects. Pollen produced by the male plants is carried by the insects and distributed to the female plants fertilizing them. Not many know that the odors and bright colors of the flowers are the features that evolved fulfilling the need of flowering plants to attract insects. Some flowers have developed their appearances specifically to attract only certain types of insects. This way, the reduction of the number of pollinating insects will lead to the decline of productivity of flowering plants, which support thousands of other species of insects, animals, and birds. Parasitism and predation are often viewed as counterproductive functions, although this opinion is incorrect. Parasitism and predation provide a balance between the species and prevent overpopulation and the exhaustion of natural resources (A Class of Distinction 2). Therefore, some of the species of insects play the role of biological control agents fighting pests and weeds. Evidence shows that human influences that ruin ecosystems serve as one of the most frequent causes of pest outbreaks (A Class of Distinction 2). Humans also are responsible for the transportation of pests from one geographical area to another. Such transportations happen accidentally, yet they may carry dangerous outcomes because in their native lands the pests are subdued by their population regulators, whereas in the new areas they may undergo a population explosion and become lethal for other species. When the influences produced by the insects are viewed from the ecologists perspective, butterfly effect seems like a perfect description. Driving one species towards total extinction, we never know what kind of consequences may follow. Works Cited A Class of Distinction. Cals.ncu.edu. 21 Jan. 2007. Web. 9 Jan. 2015. Kellert, Steve. Values and Perceptions. 2011. Web. 9 Jan. 2015. Natural Sciences: Insects Essay
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