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International Political Economy easy essay help Religion and Theology assignment help

The Rebirth of Political Economy Economics had replaced the term ‘political economy during the marginal revolution During the independence of many states during the 1950s and 1960s, Economics did not explain the emergence of newly developed economies The Free Market only applied to industrialized markets When industries were “too efficient,” needed government intervention and a return to politics Income distribution, infrastructure, etc. The Development of International Political Economy The 1970’s and the Post-War Period The development of “soft-powers”

Militaries without monetary/economic power The growth of International Relations and its relationship to economics, not Just political empires Began on the left with Marxism and Feminism, but skewed to the right to Conservatism Economics focuses on becoming more efficient, politics focuses on becoming more powerful Money The Role of Central Banks An institution that manages a state’s currency, money supply and interest rates Example: United States Federal Reserve, European Central Bank (ECB) Manages a state’s money supply through managing interest rates or implementing monetary olicies Manages interest rates through buying and selling government bonds Acts as a lender of last resort for financial crisis and bank insolvency (inability of debtor to pay debt) Example: Canada’s deposit is 3% of the amount of the loan Definition: “Run on the Bank” Rapid cash withdrawal by customers of a financial institution after customers worry the bank might become insolvent Demand cash or transfer funds to government bonds or other secure institutions Central Bank will attempt to prevent bank runs Central banks set the reserve requirement Shadow Banking System

Institutions and markets that carry out traditional banking functions outside of traditional purview Example: Investment Banks, Mortgage Companies Carrying out traditional banking, Just not in a bank Doesn’t report to central bank Money Supply and Liquidity Definition: “Liquidity’ Availability/ability to buy and sell a commodity without strongly affecting the price Excess Liquidity: too much money (inflation) Too little Liquidity: Constrained buying and selling (recession, possible deflation) Illiquid market: price increases with more consumers (increase in demand) The entral bank controls the money supply of a state Typically includes currency in circulation and demand deposits Inflation The declining value of money/an increase in the general price level of goods and services Discourages depositing money in the bank Demand pull: excess demand leads to inflation Supply push: Supply of Money > Demand for Money (inflation increases) Disinflation Slowing rate of inflation Deflation Falling prices/a decrease in the general price level Slows the rate of the economy The Price of Money Money is a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value Its key is the aith of individuals that it can be used in financial transactions without losing its value It is regulated by the government, but created by private agents Interest Rates As inflation increases, interest rates increase Higher interest rates make it more expensive to borrow money, thus encouraging saving so inflation rates decrease as less money is supplied Interest rates go up to deter spending, paradox of thrift People are saving too much, causing demand to go down during time of economic recession Even though people are saving more, it hurts the economy Everyone tries to save more

Aggregate demand: total demand (Keynes) Foreign Exchange Currencies Refers to money in any form when actually in circulation as a medium of exchange A country that uses another countrys currency is a colony A state that transacts its own business with its own currencies, but accepts other currencies, is working within an economic space essentially controlled by another player (impact on sovereignty) Definition “Legal Tender” The currency that a country says a court settlement can be settled with Definition “Key Currency’ The currency that nonresident private and public actors most often hold, used lobally for cross-border transactions and for purchase in the form of bonds Currently, the U. S. Dollar, prior to the Great Depression, the British Pound Likely to keep its Key Currency status as decentralization and fragmentation in the Eurozone, as well as Britain not converting to the Euro leaves the Eurozone at a relative disadvantage to more unified US financial structures The Euro’s inability to recover after the 2008 financial crisis depicts its instability as an alternative Exchange Rates The value of a currency on external markets Appreciation/Depreciation

A market driven increase or decrease in a currency’s price Revaluation/Devaluation When a state raises/lowers its currency’s official price Revaluation can reduce the cost of imports and reduce inflation and devaluation can increase exports (China) Done through the buying and selling of their own currency Definition: “Exchange Value” What a currency can buy of/with other currencies The ‘Classical Gold Standard” 1870s to 1914 A regime based on fixed exchange rates where specific currencies had fixed their exchange rates in relation to gold and countries held their official international eserves in gold Stabilized currency values and facilitated trade Regime was backed by British Hegemony Provided public goods, loans and an open market for exports Based on the orthodox liberal objective of maintaining monetary openness and stability by maintaining stable exchange rates The ‘Interwar Period’ 1918 to 1944 Floating exchange rates post-war caused volatile currency values The Gold Exchange Standard Regime was implemented where central banks held their reserves in major currencies

Emergency Response Action Plan

Emergency Response Action Plan.

Description Review the SAMHSA guidelines for a community response action plan located in the topic materials section. Create a 750-1,250-word emergency response action plan for a behavior health agency located in an urban, rural, or coastal community. Be sure to include the following in your action plan: Description of the location Model to be used Specific role of the counselor Follow-up and feedback plan A minimum of three scholarly sources

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