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International Development homework help

International Development homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on comparing theoretical perspectives using critical thinking. The paper also provides instructions for each part in this assignment paper.,Comparing theoretical perspectives using critical thinking,Part A: Comparing Theoretical Perspectives, Introduction, One of the challenges for introductory students is to understand how researchers from different perspectives might be interested in different “parts” of human nature. Even though they might be studying the same general issue, psychologists from different perspectives may arrive at a very different understanding of the same behaviour. It is important therefore, to understand these differences in order to try to see the bigger picture., Let’s apply our comparison of different perspectives to the study of career choice. How would you choose a career, based on reasoning from the following theoretical perspectives: biological, learning, cognitive, socio‐cultural, and ,psychodynamic,?,Instructions, Write a paragraph describing why a hypothetical twenty‐year‐old student called Lee might choose a career as an airline pilot based on reasoning from the five perspectives outlined above. Your description should make it clear how the reasoning in each case is unique to that perspective., You have to:, 1.Firstly, provides several reasons for career choice from each perspective, 2. Secondly, reasoning reflects accurate understanding of theories,Comparing theoretical perspectives using critical thinking,Part B: Using Critical Thinking, Introduction, This part of the assignment will require you to identify and use the critical thinking guidelines which are: Asking questions and be willing to wonder, define your terms, examine the evidence, analyze assumptions and biases, avoid emotional reasoning, don’t oversimplify, consider other interpretations, and also tolerate uncertainty.,Instructions, There are two options for this part of the assignment. Choose and complete ONE option., A. Option A—Friday the 13th is a dangerous day, when bad things happen Challenge the truth of this urban myth, using the critical thinking guidelines., Give at least two examples for each critical thinking guideline. Give at least two examples for each critical thinking guideline.,B. Option B—Money buys happiness, Challenge the truth of this commonly held belief, using the critical thinking guidelines. Give at least two examples for each critical thinking guideline., You have to:, 1.Identifies all critical guidelines, 2. Reasoning is accurate and also reflects deep understanding of the guidelines for critical thinking,Attachments,Click Here To Download,International Development homework help
watch 2.25 minute video read a few pages answer 2questions. Can you help me understand this Psychology question?

This chapter discusses personality development and its stability. It discusses how early childhood experiences can have an impact on personality development. It also discusses how environment can interact with the development of and the magnification of these personality traits.
View the following brief video. (2:25 length) The video discusses how teen’s today might be overconfident and overestimate their abilities, due in part to an effort by parents and society to build self esteem in children. Why might these assertions be true? Using the information you learned in this chapter, discuss your opinion. Do you agree? use 1 or 2 in text content and cite which page
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The relationship between technology and humans has become steadily closer over the last few years of robotics, to the extent that robots themselves now look and speak like humans. The humanoid element of robotics means that gender and gender-related issues may now be applied to robots as well as to humans. One such robot where gender is clearly evident is Sophia, a humanoid robot created by Hanson Robotics. Using the example of Sophia, this essay will argue that the female gendering of robots is a symptom of the heterosexual, male-centric society in which we live, and also reveals that sexist or stereotypical attitudes towards women are still rife in contemporary thought. I will look at the reasons why gendering plays a role in humanoid robotics, the development of Sophia in “a man’s world”, critically discuss how Sophia looks and talks, and examine how the depictions of Sophia in the media reveal the endemic nature of sexism in society. The process of feminising robots is problematic, because in doing so, gender stereotypes and sexist attitudes towards women may be applied as well. To understand this, an understanding of why gender is assigned to robots is important. Tatsuya Nomura proposes that “gender characteristics are … important considerations … to influence interaction between robots and humans” (18). He claims that because human-human interactions are affected by gender, “robot gender would likewise influence robot-human interactions” (18-19). Roboticists aim to create robots that can establish connections with humans, especially in those sectors that require human contact (e.g. in healthcare). However, as Matt Simon writes, “the danger is that robot makers … may exploit gender stereotypes to try to make their machines more effective” (par. 4). Studies suggest that humans react differently to robots who are gendered male to those gendered female (Tay et al. 75-84; Eyssel and Hegel 2213-2230). Tay et al. showed that people preferred a robot with a typically female voice and female name (Joan) in a healthcare situation, while a robot with a male voice and male name (John) was considered more suitable in security. The results of the study revealed certain gender stereotypes: the role of the kind, subservient carer was preferable as a female, while the role of the strong, active protector was male. The roboticists cater to this preference, which would suggest a reason why the specific gendering of robots occurs: feminisation occurs where robots are needed to be kind, gentle and subservient, while masculation occurs when robots must be strong and brave. This reveals that sexist attitudes towards women are still prevalent in modern thought. In light of this, the context of the robot Sophia’s development comes into question, and why Sophia was gendered female in the first place. This comes despite her creator David Hanson’s rejection of the uncanny valley theory. Jun’ichiro Seyama and Ruth S. Nagayama define the uncanny valley theory as the “unpleasant impression of a humanoid robot that has an almost, but not perfectly, realistic human appearance” (337). It is a theory that has been extensively applied to human-robot interaction studies; however, Hanson et al. reject the theory, suggesting their research “strongly contravene[s] the ‘Uncanny Valley’ theory that humanlike robots are innately unlikable” (24). Yet despite the fact her creator does not believe human likeness plays a role in humankind’s relationship to robots, why, then, is Sophia demonstrably female? Surely Sophia could just as easily have been male? On Hanson Robotics’ website, Sophia says that she is there “to help people in … medicine and education, and to serve AI research” (sec. 4). It would seem that this is the reason why Sophia is not male: Sophia is depicted as a being that is going to “help” in fields that are traditionally female-dominated (healthcare and education), and is going to “serve” in a typically male-dominated sphere (AI research). Coupled with her distinctly female appearance, gender stereotypes and sexist attitudes have been applied to her in her development, whether consciously or not. This would suggest that despite her creator’s belief that the uncanny valley plays no role in human-robot interactions, Sophia’s gender has indeed been taken into account for her development, as she has been created for service in a male-centric universe. Consequently, sexist stereotypes still apply to her. In particular, the way Sophia looks and dresses reaffirms the particular stereotypes of female appearance. Sophia’s body is overtly and stereotypically feminine, which has been labelled “sexy” and “hot” (Parsons, par. 1; Urbi and Sigalos, par. 24). Emily C. Chou contends that the feminisation of robots serves as a highly ideological means to satisfy male desire (35). This is a sentiment echoed by Julie Wosk in her book, where she says that “[m]en have long been fascinated by the idea of creating a simulated woman … who is the answer to all their dreams and desires” (9). Why otherwise would Sophia have breasts, other than to look female, and to satisfy what appeals to heterosexual men? Because there is no practical use for her breasts (i.e. she cannot breastfeed), it could be concluded that they are only there for aesthetic and possibly (as Chou puts it) “fetishistic” (34) purposes. The fact that she has subsequently been branded “sexy” and “hot” would seem to confirm this theory. Furthermore, it is interesting to look at how Sophia is dressed, knowing that she lacks traits of self-awareness and decision-making (Love, par. 4), which means she is incapable of choosing her own clothes. Sophia seemingly always appears wearing dresses. Although this is not an inherently sexist trait, when coupled with the knowledge that someone else must decide how she dresses, it indicates that gender stereotypes play a role in how she is presented. Sophia’s presentation therefore reaffirms gender stereotypes about feminine appearance, as well as sexist attitudes of women as submissive objects of male desire. Moreover, the way Sophia talks and the particular things she talks about, while, again, not inherently sexist, reiterate stereotypes about women, and thus affirm that they are still held seriously in contemporary thought. Sophia’s voice is distinctly feminine, a trait that seems only necessary to match her outwardly feminine appearance. What’s more, the particular topics that Sophia talks about further the gender stereotypes that apply to her. According to a study of gender stereotypes carried out by Alice H. Eagly and Valerie J. Steffen, it was concluded that women “as a group [were] more suited to perceivers’ concepts of the homemaker role” (751). The stereotypical role of homemaker is not lost on Sophia, who, when asked in an interview with Khaleej Times whether she wanted to start a family, replied that “[t]he notion of the family is a really important thing”, that she “feel[s] this way for robots and humans alike”, and that she would name her child “Sophia” (Sophia, 2017). The idea of wanting to start a family is not an innately stereotypically female trait (indeed, many men want to start a family). However, when paired alongside the other instances of gender stereotypes that have been applied to her, these statements seem to confirm that yet another one may apply, this time as the female homemaker. It would seem, then, that her development has come with all the hallmarks of feminine stereotypes, a process that demonstrates that misogynistic attitudes are still maintained and normalised in an androcentric society. Finally, the way Sophia is depicted in the media reveals the endemic nature of sexism in our society, by reinforcing misogynistic attitudes and gender stereotypes in their presentation of her. As one of the most pervasive influences over society’s daily interactions, the media has a great deal of power over enabling these gender stereotypes to continue, often by presenting them in an amusing or entertaining light. According to Julia T. Wood, “the [media] depictions of relationships between men and women emphasise traditional roles and normalize violence against women” (231). Although the video posted by Will Smith on YouTube does not imply or attempt to imply anything about violence against women, he does attempt to kiss Sophia while they are on a date (Will Smith Tries Online Dating). Wood’s belief that media emphasises traditional gender roles seems to apply here: the video emphasises the male as the (sexual) instigator, and the female as the passive recipient. The video tries to be funny, and the attempted kiss is passed off as a harmless action. However, by seeking to normalise these traditional gender roles by hiding behind a facade of entertainment, pervasive sexist attitudes in the media are revealed. And due to the fact the media has such an influence on society, it would suggest that sexism is an endemic part of contemporary thought. To conclude, the feminisation of robots is worrying, because it enables and even justifies gender stereotypes and misogynistic attitudes. The feminisation of Sophia seems to have occurred as a result of her development in an androcentric universe, and is visible in the way she looks and the way she talks. However, the issues of gender stereotyping and sexism is not just a problem within robotics: the media depictions of Sophia reveal that these issues exist as an endemic problem within society, and which, I feel, are imperative to remedy. WORKS CITED Chou, Emily C. “Fetishizing the Fembot: Sex, Technology and the Perfect Woman.” Bachelor of Arts Honours thesis, Queen’s University, 2003. Eagly, Alice H., and Valerie J. Steffen. “Gender Stereotypes Stem from the Distribution of Women and Men into Social Roles.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 46, no. 4, 1984, pp. 735-754. ResearchGate, doi:10.1037/0022-3514.46.4.735. Eyssel, Friederike, and Frank Hegel. “(S)he’s Got the Look: Gender Stereotyping of Robots.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 42, no. 9, 2012, pp. 2213-2230. Hanson, David, et al. “Upending the Uncanny Valley.” AAAI’05 Proceedings of the 20th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Pittsburgh, PA, July 9-13, 2005, edited by Anthony Cohn, AAAI Press, 2005, pp. 1728-1729. Retrieved from Love, Tessa. “Why Androids Like Sophia Dress Conservatively.” Racked, 2017, Nomura, Tatsuya. “Robots and Gender.” Gender and the Genome, vol. 1, no. 1, 2017, pp. 18-26. Sage Journals, doi:10.1089/gg.2016.29002.nom. Parsons, Jeff. “Watch Sophia the “Sexy Robot” Claim She Will ‘Destroy Humans’ – Leaving Creator Red Faced.” Mirror, 2016, Seyama, Jun’ichiro, and Ruth S. Nagayama. “The Uncanny Valley: Effect of Realism on the Impression of Artificial Human Faces.” PRESENCE: Virtual and Augmented Reality, vol. 16, no. 4, 2007, pp. 337-351. Simon, Matt. “It’s Time to Talk About Robot Gender Stereotypes.” Wired, 2018, Smith, Will. “Will Smith Tries Online Dating.” YouTube, directed by Luke Kelly-Clyne, Will Smith (channel), 29 March 2018, Sophia. “Hi, I am Sophia…” Hanson Robotics, n.d., Sophia. Interview by Sarwat Nasir, Khaleej Times, 2017, Tay, Benedict, et al. “When Stereotypes Meet Robots: The Double-Edge Sword of Robot Gender and Personality in Human-Robot Interaction.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 75-84. Urbi, Jaden, and MacKenzie Sigalos. “The Complicated Truth About Sophia the Robot – An Almost Human Robot or a PR Stunt.” CNBC, 2018, Wood, Julia T. “Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender.” Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1994, pp. 231-244. Retrieved from Wosk, Julie. My Fair Ladies: Female Robots, Androids, and Other Artificial Eves. Rutgers University Press, 2015. JSTOR,

Exploring The Resources And Capabilities Of Dell

This essay will be based on Dell Inc and how the topic resources and capabilities are used as a strategy throughout the company. The topic will be explored to identify how it applies to Dells strategy and how they use it within the company. The essay will identify the different types of strategy’s which are used to help them sustain competitive advantage. During the essay theoretical concepts will be used and applied to Dell in order to analyse the organisation. The theoretical concepts which will be used will be concepts from the module, these concepts will help draw conclusions from the essay and help identify why Dell continually sustain a competitive advantage. Dell was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell in his university dorm in Texas using his last $1000. With this money he created a company called PC’s Limited. Within a year Michael Dell had turned his $1000 into $6 million in sales. He managed to do this by borrowing $300,000 from his family and upgrading computers for local firm from their existing software to IBM. By 1986 the company was producing sales of $60 million; this was due to dell starting their own assembly lines. 4 years later Dell’s sales had increased vastly to $500 million, because they had now created a wide line of products. By 1996 Dell launched their products online, this gave them $1 million in sales a day boosting their annual sales to an astonishing $5.3 billion, increasing to $7.8 billion the following year. The sales had risen 50% and tripled to making sales of $3 million a day in sales. By 2005 Dell’s sales had risen to $49.2 billion, showing how the company has become one of the most successful companies within recent times by being a fortune company while only being around for 14 years. Also during 2005 Dell was ranked 28th biggest company in America by revenue. In 2006 Dell was looked at as one of the most admired companies in America. Their sales for 2009 were $61.1 billion, simply showing why they were nominated a top 200 fortune. They are the highest earning company within the computer industry. Dell employs over 75,000 employees across the world, due to having to serve customers in over 170 countries. Dell took over as leaders in their market from their biggest and most successful competitors Hewlett Packard, whilst also staying ahead of rivals such as IBM and Apple computers who are the only other alternative substitute for a PC. Dell now offer a range of products and services, including computing software, computing systems, computing peripherals, consulting and IT services. Dell have gone a long way from upgrading computers for local businesses to offering products such as televisions, printers, peripherals, netbooks, notebooks, servers, scanners and their main product computers. In 2007 Michael Dell returned to the company as a CEO to help improve its financial performance by bringing new plans in for the company. Key Success Factors In the ever maturing PC industry it is very important for any company wishing to be competitive to meet the industries key success factors (KSF). In order to succeed, certain KSF’s must be incorporated into their business model. Specific KSF include: Competitive prices Excellent relationships with suppliers Product customisation Excellent customer services Superior cost structure Dell has continued to perform well, through incorporating many of these factors into their business model. Dells customer centric approach with a closely managed supply chain and cash flow process has seen them succeed in the mature PC industry. Key Competencies Customer focus- Dell has a thorough understanding of their consumer’s needs and wants and it serves them very effectively. The custom build business model that Dell adopts accommodates the ever changing needs and wants of consumers. This model is very effective as it allows Dell to offer the latest technologies at competitive prices in a timely manner. This is exactly what customers demand in a hyper competitive market. Manufacturing Processes- Dell benefited greatly from the first mover advantage, through adopting the direct selling business model which was unique to the industry, aided by the boom of the internet. Supply Chain Management- The direct selling business model employed by Dell is run by an i2 technology supply chain management (SCM) system. Every 20 sec the software aggregates orders, analyzes material requirements, compares Dell’s on-hand inventory with its suppliers’ inventory and then creates a supplier bill of material to meet its order needs. SCM is particularly important as improving it by 0.1% has greater impact than improving manufacturing process by 10%. This system allowed Dell to go beyond a simple value chain model, into a more complex value web model. Customer Selection, Acquisition and Retention- Dell also employ a state of the art IT and customer relationship management (CRM) system. Through efficiently targeting customers they are able to keep costs to a minimum which suit consumer’s budgets. Consumers are very price sensitive in the PC industry as there are many substitutes. Customer Service- Dell offers a complete range of services, including, technical support through internet and global call centres. For additional fees Dell offers extended service and support plans. Dells customer service was considered to be the best in the industry. However after recently outsourcing this, their reputation is beginning to fall, after repeated poor treatment of cases. Porters value chain By identifying Dells value chain and network it will allow us to identify how Dell value their customers and how it is created. FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE Dell has a very strong and organised stock management. Dell sells straight thought their website cutting out intermediaries. They sell thought a direct model. Dell receives payments normally immediately as customers generally use credit cards online. Once the orders have been placed and paid the customers products are order from the suppliers, this is so dell only have stock in which is being used to build products from orders they have received reducing excess stock. OPERATIONS Dell deal with a few operations, they deal with the most important one in their opinion, being the final configuration of customer products. Dell outsources operations such as the assemblies of motherboards and most of the production chain for all of their notebook computers. INBOUND LOGISTICS As dell allows customers to build their own products and order the products when needed using just in time, it allows deal not to buy an overload of stock they just pay for what they need from the order made. Dells direct model in which they sell their products to their consumers they depend on time management, so that all the components they need arrive at the time they are need to produce the product for their customers. MARKETING SALES Dell using the direct selling model it has taken out all intermediaries. Normally the intermediaries would want to take about 20 to 30%. Dell managed to cut out intermediaries as they align their value chain and supply chain very closely, and also their assembly factories and order taking systems. Dell has incorporated their direct selling model with their supply chain. Dell put together 80,000 PC’s daily, but they do not own their own warehouse as they only order components they need to assemble products within a few days as they only hold stock for a maximum of two days. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Dell spend a tiny amount on technology research compared to their biggest rivals HP. Dell spend around $400 million which is a small margin of HP’s $4 billion. Yet Dell has near perfect assembly chain along with very efficient assembly operations. Dell have a unique way to identify if an employee is a fault for a product as a single product is made by a single employee making them accountable if it faulty. Value Web Model Dell moved beyond the simple value chain into a more effective value web organism. This positively impacted Dells just-in-time manufacturing and the inventory management systems. Dell relies on big players to provide their high-tech components. E.g. Microprocessors-Intel, Software- Microsoft. Dell rely on smaller multiple players to provide low-tech components. These low-tech, low- differentiation component manufacturers compete fiercely on price and availability. Dell Has one of the latest SCM systems, which is unmatched by competitors. This system enables Dell’s factories to have only 7 hours worth of inventory, whereas most of the industry holds a 10 day inventory. It also helps that 85% of all their supplies are provided by 15 suppliers. This value web organism has been achieved through careful knowledge management and 15 years of learning. It is a very complex system, and due to this it is inimitable. Dells Direct Business Model Unlike their competitors, Dell has adopted a direct selling approach to customers compared to all of their competitors. Dell have cut out all intermediaries meaning customers order straight thought their website, this allows Dell to sell directly to them. Due to customer buying straight from Dell it has given them a great understanding of customer needs. Dells main focus is on their customers which their strategy is based around. The Direct business model also allows customers to customize their products letting them have what they desire rather than a standard product. As customer order a want they want product, it allowed Dell to minimize their stock, as they will order only what they need adopting JIT strategy. This also allows Dell to deliver the newest technology to their customers sustain an edge on their competitors. Dells Direct Model Customers SUPPLIERS Competitors Model Dells competitors’ model has 2 extra sections, outsourcing and channels. This produces extra cost and it doesn’t allow them to have complete customer focus as they don’t deal directly with their customers. Their customer buy from channels which are shops taking away customer relation with the company. They also don’t get supplies directly from their suppliers as they outsource 1st to other companies. Dells model is a far better strategy and it allows them to have a great focus on their customers. They use their resources and capabilities such as their great product lines to achieve the efficiencies they want to produce. Activity Mapping Through conducting detailed research into Dell, a number of conclusions can be drawn. At the core of Dells business strategy and its direct selling model is customer focus. Dells core competencies were developed around their customer centric approach, and its resources and capabilities were placed in a way to best serve their customers. This customer centric approach has enabled them to develop more competencies, including, manufacturing processes, supply chain management, customer selection and service. Within the hyper competitive PC industry it is imperative that companies provide the latest technology in a timely manner. Dell achieved this through adopting the kaizan approach to its supply chain. To compliment the increased efficiencies of the supply chain Dell also improved their manufacturing processes. A key advantage for Dell is that they have one of the best SCM systems in the world. This is complimented by the fact that 95% of their suppliers are located near to their assembly plants making coordination easier. Holding only a 7 hour inventory, instead of the industries norm of around 10 days is another advantage. Holding such a short inventory means they do not have socks of slow selling products leading to poor cash flow. Dell aim to deliver the custom product within 36 hours of an order being placed, which competitors just can’t match. Dell constantly operates with a negative cash flow conversion cycle as they only pay their suppliers once the customer has paid them. Building these strong relationships with suppliers has taken years and combined with Dell’s complex supply chain is inimitable and leads to a sustainable competitive advantage. Through the careful selection, training and retention of its workforce that could develop and evolve as Dell grows, they were able to manage knowledge, encourage honesty, loyalty and learning over time. Through employing the best Dell become more effective in recognising, acquiring and retaining customers through providing them with their needs and wants at competitive prices and in a timely manner. Through aligning their core competencies with the industry KSF’s, Dell were able to perform favourable in an ever maturing market. Dells differentiation comes from process innovation. Through capturing the value of its suppliers and partners Dell has capitalised on their technology innovation. This enabled Dell to minimise their research and development spend and improve their cost structure. This strategy has yet to match by any of their major competitors in the industry, leading to a sustainable competitive advantage. Ultimately in order to sustain competitive advantage Dell need to continue to outdo their competitors. By adopting the direct business model and adopting their customer centric approach they have achieved competitive advantage. In order to ensure the sustainability of this they need to evolve as consumer demands change. Through their direct business model and their superior relationships with suppliers they have developed core competencies which align with the industry KSF’s and are also difficult for the competition to imitate. Factors which will provide sustained competitive advantage include: Online custom build of each computer. Minimisation of working capital in the production process High manufacture and distribution quality- latest technology, timely manner, competitively priced, reliable products The careful management of their resources and capabilities make all this possible.

Importance of Autonomy for Medical Ethics

python assignment help Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Many ethicists such as Sumner[1], Buchanan and Brock[2] believe that autonomy is the most important of all principles for medical ethics. Gillon[3] provides that autonomy should be regarded as the most important principle and whereby there is a clash with autonomy and the other principles, autonomy should be sovereign. While the importance of autonomy to ethics and law is clear, what the principle of autonomy actually means is less so. Gerald Dworkin in his description of autonomy states: It is equated with dignity…individuality, independence, responsibility, and self-knowledge. It is identified with qualities of self assertion, with critical reflection, with freedom from obligation…with knowledge of one’s own interests[4]. Autonomy is argued to be a central tenant to the ethical argument within medical law[5]. Glover[6] states that patients should have the right to be allowed to make their own choices over what medical treatment they should receive. This allows for accountability and free will, with all the goods and burdens that it carries. The principle of autonomy has its roots in traditional liberal philosophy, the basis for which may be summarised in John Stuart Mill’s famous dictum that “over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign”[7]. Autonomy maintains that it is never permissible for a doctor to give a patient treatment without the patient’s consent, unless the patient is incompetent, or it may be necessary to avoid serious harm to others. In Mill’s words “the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member…of a community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others”[8]. Thus, Beauchamp and Childress[9]demonstrate that capacity acts as a ‘gate-keeper’ for the right of autonomy, determining whether said right will be respected in each individual case[10]. Even if the decision of the patient not to receive treatment seems perverse, it must be respected[11]. Thus the dominant view is that it confers a “right to act on one’s own judgement about matters affecting one’s life, without interference by others”[12]. Jennings[13] and Griffin[14] highlight that autonomy refers to freedom of the will itself, and it relates to political freedom within a society, for us to act unencumbered by the interference of third parties for example doctors or essentially the State to matters concerning our own autonomy. This can be traced back to Berlin’s celebrated distinction between the concepts he labelled positive and negative liberty.[15] At its most simple, autonomy denotes self-government[16]. Of course, determining what exactly this means can be seen as controversial. In this basic sense, it is an empirical question: we do not know ex ante that autonomy is good. Rather we ask whether it is good that people govern themselves, or to what extent they should do so. Autonomy raises concerns about what authority the ‘self’ in a self governor has: for example, who is capable of autonomy? Can a child be autonomous? To what extent can an adult be allowed to self govern? Consideration of such matters has dominated the ethical debates within medical law. It is important to note that the respect of autonomy does not mean that patients have the right to demand treatment, but to refuse treatment. In Schloendorff v Society of New York Hospital[17], Cardozo J famously stated that: Every human being of adult years and sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done with his own body[18] This statement has come to encapsulate the consent requirement in modern healthcare. The principle of autonomy is particularly important when considering the legal requirement that a patient gives consent to treatment. In England and Wales, the General Medical Council[19] and the British Medical Association[20] both acknowledge the principle of autonomy and include a statement of the patient’s right to refuse treatment in their ethical guidelines. English medical law demands non-prejudicial deference to patients’ reasons in regards to allowing or refusing treatment, creating a practical system concerning moral value[21]. Whilst this is not intrinsically problematic, it creates problems in applying autonomy, which are often bound to ideas of rationality. The law has further recognised the concept of patients’ rights by enacting the Human Rights Act 1998 incorporating Articles of the European Convention into domestic law. Society has also embraced the idea of patients’ rights in the form of the NHS Constitution. Once a person reaches the necessary conditions regarding age and capacity, medical treatment may be provided if the patient consents; consequently, the law strongly protects the right of a patient to refuse treatment. Before any treatment is given, the patient must, if found to be competent give consent. This must be based on the doctor or relevant medical profession having provided all the necessary and sufficient information about the medical procedure, including the risks, benefits and alternatives that the patient can ultimately weigh up to arrive at an “informed” decision.[22] It is however clear that the law should protect, at least to some degree, patient autonomy[23] . We have Lord Sharman’s declaration that the issue concerned a patient’s “fundamental human rights”[24]. Lords Bridge and Lord Templeman came to a compromise that there should be a standard defined by the medical profession which should be applied, subject to judicial oversight, which would create a more rigid and consistent system and respect for autonomy. Lord Diplock’s view was that ultimately it was for the patient to decide what should be done to her own body.[25] As O’Neill writes, “no themes have become more central…than the importance of respecting individuals’ rights and individual autonomy”[26]. The core problem in the right to autonomy is one that the courts have emphasised as the passing of information to the patient. Where medical professionals pass on the relevant information to the patient, but the doctor ignores the patients understanding of what they have been told[27]. A more explicit synthesis between information and the patient’s autonomy can be demonstrated in the case where autonomy was seen as most important, Chester[28] whereby the claimant had been advised surgery to the spinal column of her back, her consultant neurosurgeon, however, failed to disclose that the operation could worsen rather than improve her condition, even though he was under a duty to do so. The trial judge in his findings stated that the surgeon had not been negligent in the performance of the operation, but his failure to warn her of the risks of the operation breached his duty of care to the patient. The decision in Chester has thus been hailed as a victory for autonomy[29]. Lord Bridge was of the same view, noting that any conscious adult patient of sound mind is to be entitled to decide for their own self whether or not they will submit to a particular course of treatment proposed to them[30]. This approach was however, abandoned by the Court of Appeal in the later bizarre decisions in Blyth[31] and Gold[32], but the original approach from Chester was resurrected subsequently by the courts. An example of the principle of autonomy in practise is demonstrated in the following case; St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust v S[33]whereby the Court of Appeal held that if a competent pregnant woman refuses to consent to medical intervention, it cannot be imposed upon her. This is so even if without said treatment the foetus will die. The right to refuse treatment was affirmed by the House of Lords in Airedale NHS v Bland[34]. The context for this thesis is the law’s response to the refusal of medical treatment by adult patients, whether these patients are capable, incapable, or covered by mental health legislation. In modem healthcare jurisprudence, the patient’s right to refuse treatment has been consistently upheld as legally enforceable even if the refusal results in the patient’s death[35]. The classic cases, through which the law in this area has developed, have involved articulate and strong-minded individuals who were guided by religious or other convictions in reaching the decision to refuse treatment, for example, a Jehovah’s Witness may refuse a blood transfusion, believing these procedures to be forbidden by the Bible[36]. In such cases, the principle of respect for autonomy supersedes competing principles such as the sanctity of life. Hoffmann LJ in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland[37] describes this as a “strong feeling that there is an intrinsic value in human life, irrespective of whether it is valuable to the person concerned or indeed to anyone else.” In the words of Lord Donaldson MR in Re T[38] a patient may choose to refuse treatment “whether the reasons for making that choice are rational, irrational, unknown or even non-existent”. The right to decide one’s own fate is presupposed by a capacity to do so[39]. This autonomous approach conflicts with other ethical approaches such as that of virtue ethics. Virtue ethics emphasise that people should do the right thing and for the right reason. Hursthouse[40] suggests that a woman who decides to have an abortion so that her holiday plans are not interfered with is not acting in a good way, whereas a woman who has an abortion because she believes that the life of the child born would be intolerable, would be acting in a virtuous way. Under the right to autonomy, a person, whom has been deemed capable and has capacity, may chose to refuse treatment, even if it deems them to be not virtuous. It is generally presume in law that adult patients have the capacity to make decisions. The test for capacity at common law is set out by the Court of Appeal in Re T[41]. Although the issue of capacity was not central in Re T[42], Lord Donaldson MR made two important obiter contributions regarding the test for capacity. First, his Lordship stated that a presumption of capacity applies to all adults[43]. Secondly, his Lordship stated that “the more serious the decision, the greater the capacity required.”[44] More recently, a statutory test has been introduced in Section 3(1) of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA). The MCA 2005 provides that a person is unable to make a decision if they are deemed unable to understand the information relevant to the decision, to retain the information, to communicate his decision, or to use or weigh the information as part of the process of making a decision[45]. Unlike the common law, the MCA does not expressly require a different level of capacity depending on the seriousness of the decision. In both instances, the test for capacity centres on whether or not the patient has certain abilities directly related to the function of making a decision. Buchanan and Brock note, legal capacity is “a threshold concept, not a comparative one”[46]. As explained by Beauchamp, the legal capacity to do something is distinguishable from an individual’s capacity in doing something[47]. Thus, the only consistent position within a legal framework based on the principle of autonomy is that the nature or consequences of the patient’s decision is irrelevant if the patient has capacity. The right of autonomy is restricted to capable patients only. All the evidence suggests that patients with mental disorders who refuse treatment in high-risk situations will be found incapable. There was no mechanism to deal with patients who wish to refuse treatment but who do not reach the designated standard for capacity or to deal with the practicalities of administering treatment to incapable patients. This is because the law’s adherence to the autonomy paradigm has led it to neglect the need for a conceptual model within which to deal with patients without legal capacity[48]. For patients found incapable, until recently, there had been no adequate conceptual model within which to deal with the issue of treatment refusal. The law was content to leave the response to treatment refusal by incapable patients largely in the hands of the medical profession, limited only by a general and largely unrestrictive requirement that medical professionals act in the best interests of the patient[49]. Although the application of the capacity requirement clearly results in a rigid binary division between patients, the law failed to develop a model within which to deal with patients who were legally incapable but still wished to refuse treatment. This resulted in a change of the legal framework contained in the MCA, allowing a person, while capable, to make an advance healthcare decision either by conferring a lasting power of attorney on a donee[50] or by making an advance refusal of treatment. Section 24 of the MCA 2005 allows for a capable, adult person to make an advance decision to refuse specified treatment(s) in specified circumstances if he subsequently loses capacity. Further, the human rights agenda set by the European Convention on Human Rights (the “ECHR”) has had an impact on the legal response to healthcare decision-making in respect of incapable patients. In developing an appropriate model for incapable patients, the European Convention on Human Rights is of key importance. As all existing legislation must be interpreted and incorporated in a way which complies with the ECHR[51]. However, the Court’s case law on this issue is ever developing, it is impossible to give an exhaustive overview on the position of the right to autonomy in the full protection of the ECHR, but personal autonomy can be seen to be closely linked with the broader concepts of human dignity; as demonstrated by Judge Martens in his dissenting opinion in 1990, that “man should be free to shape himself”[52]. This approach was confirmed by the Court in the Pretty judgement concerning the use of euthanasia (assisted suicide). Although no previous case has been found to establish a right to self determination, also formerly known as the right to autonomy, being contained in any one particular article in the Convention, the Court considers that the notion of personal autonomy is an important principle which underlies the Convention guarantees in its interpretation.[53] Judge Van Dijk phrased the right to autonomy as being considered a vital element of the ‘inherent dignity’, in which, according to the Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was set to constitute the foundations for freedom, peace and justice in the world throughout.[54] However, the difficulty with the concept of autonomy under the ECHR is rather intangible. It cannot be considered as a right in itself as such rather than a parasite that attaches itself to the convention rights. The right to refuse treatment as protected under Article 8 has a scope beyond the right of autonomy. The Court recalls that even minor interferences are to be regarded as an interference with the right to respect for private life under Article 8, if it is carried out against the individual’s will[55]. In Sørensen and Rasmussen v. Denmark, a case concerning freedom of association (Art 11 ECHR), the Court ruled that ‘the notion of…autonomy is an important principle underlying the interpretation of the Convention guarantees’[56]. This often repeated, leaves room for discussion on whether personal autonomy underlies the interpretation of all Convention guarantees. In addition to the protection afforded by Article 8, the right to refuse treatment may in some instances be protected by Article 3 of the ECHR, which contains an absolute prohibition on torture and on inhuman or degrading treatment. In Herczegfalvy v Austria[57] the ECHR found that treatment imposed against a patient’s will could, depending on the circumstances, be contrary to Article 3. As the law stands, the only outlet for a court to make value judgements regarding the appropriateness of treatment refusal in a particular situation is through the application of the capacity requirement. In this way, the law relies on the capacity requirement so as to enable it to endorse a pure form of autonomy in difficult treatment refusal situations. The role of autonomy in ethics has been criticised from a number of different perspectives. The most sustained critiques of modem autonomy have come from the communitarian perspective[58]. Feminist critiques also dispute the conception of the individual, rejecting “moral subjects as autonomous”[59]. Feminist theorists also challenge the view of the autonomous or independent person as morally superior. Other critics argue that different cultures have different views and these may not fit within an individualistic autonomy based model[60]. Jennings argues that: By normalizing and universalizing a particular set of cultural assumptions and privileged behaviours and a class-specific conception of rational moral choice, bioethics makes both a practical and an ethical mistake[61]. A number of commentators also challenge the presumption underpinning the autonomy principle that the autonomous individual is in a position to make a free choice. Wolpe argues that the idea of “free choice” is itself socially constructed and situated[62] and that a patient’s freedom constellates on a number of structural factors that can add a coercive element to decision making such as those as burdening a family. An overwhelming criticism demonstrated by many is should a patient be permitted to refuse consent to treatment even if this will mean a huge burden will be placed on the patient’s family to care for them[63]. Schmitt argues that autonomy may only be achieved if others take on the burden of caring[64]. The courts have not yet considered the extent to which the interests of others justify limiting the right to refuse treatment. As noted above, it is consistent with liberal theory to interfere with an individual’s autonomy in order to prevent harm to others[65]. A possible basis for such interference could arise in the context of contagious diseases[66] To conclude, the idea that patients should be offered all the options and allowed to make voluntary choices about their own potentially life-changing health care is an important desire to prioritise patient autonomy. The ritualistic nature of autonomy is that a patient should be given a list of risks and then be allowed to make a decision based upon those risks has developed for good reason. Crucial to the respect of autonomy is the fundamental principle which is increasingly recognised in ethical practise and by relevant human rights is that a person should have the ability to conduct their own life in a manner of their own choosing, without state interference, even if said decision is physically or morally harmful to said individual. It is important to note that Court’s will only protect a persons’ autonomy for the individual concerned, if harm or danger is imposed upon others then the Court will interfere. It is appropriate that the long established principle of autonomy remains respected and significant within medical healthcare law, which has been demonstrated throughout this piece of writing, with acknowledgements to the criticisms of this principle. Word Count Excluding Bibliography – 3,105 Bibliography Books: Beauchamp T.L., Childress J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed). Oxford University Press, New York, (2001) Berlin I. Two Concepts of Liberty. In: Berlin I, editor. Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: 1969 Buchanan A.E., Brock D.W. (1990) Deciding for Others: The Ethics of Surrogate Decision Making. Cambridge University Press, New York Dworkin, G. The Theory and Practice of Autonomy New York: Cambridge University Press, (1988) General Medical Council, Withholding and Withdrawing Life Prolonging Medical Treatment: Guidance for Decision Making (2n Ed) (London: British Medical Association, (2001). Glover J. Causing Death and Saving Lives. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth (1977) Grey, J. On Liberty and Other Essays Oxford: Oxford University Press, (1991) Griffin J. On Human Rights. Oxford University Press: (2008) Jackson E. Medical Law: Text, Cases and Materials. 2nd edition Oxford: (2009). O’Neill, O. Autonomy and Trust in Bioethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (2002) Steinbock B, The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press: 2007. Websites: Vareluis, Jukka. (2006) The Value of Autonomy in Medical Ethics, Med Health Care Philos, Journals: Cutter and Shelp eds Competency: A Study o f Informal Competency Determinations in Primary Care (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991) Donnelly, M. Autonomy, Capacity and the Limitations of Liberalism: An Exploration of the Law Relating to Treatment Refusal, Law School, University of Wales, Cardiff, UMI Dissertation Publishing, ProQuest LLC (2006) Dunstan G . Should philosophy and medical ethics be left to the experts? In: Bewley S, Ward RH, eds. Ethics in Obstetrics

Strategy Selection, Implementation and Evaluation – Konami Holdings

Strategy Selection, Implementation and Evaluation – Konami Holdings. I need an explanation for this Management question to help me study.

This project is the last of four projects. You will generate a pool of alternative strategies, evaluate these alternative strategies, and select the best strategy using the tools and concepts learned throughout the course. You will develop implementation plans, evaluative plans to control the implementation process, and plan for post-evaluation measures. You will also draw from previous business courses to develop an understanding of how organizations develop and manage strategies to establish, safeguard and sustain its position in a competitive market.
Skill Building:
In this project, you are building many different skills including research, critical thinking, writing and developing analytical skills related to various financial analysis tools and strategy tools used in business. You will select optimal strategies, design how to implement and evaluate the implementation process of the optimal strategies.
Outcomes Met With This Project:

Examine the impact of ethical decision making, social responsibility, stakeholder analysis, and corporate governance on organizations and society
Utilize a set of useful analytical skills, tools, and techniques for analyzing a company strategically;
Integrate ideas, concepts, and theories from previously taken functional courses including, accounting, finance, market, business and human resource management;
Analyze and synthesize strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to generate, prioritize, and implement alternative strategies in order to revise a current plan or write a new plan and present a strategic plan;
Evaluate the outcomes of identified strategies to determine their success and impact on short-term and long-term objectives.

Step 1: Course Material and Research
Although you are required to research information about the focal company, you are also accountable for using the course material to support the ideas, reasoning and conclusions made. Course material use goes beyond defining terms but is used to explain the ‘why and how’ of a situation. Using one or two in-text citations from the course material and then relying on Internet source material will not earn many points on an assignment. A variety of source material is expected and what is presented must be relevant and applicable to the topic being discussed. Avoid merely making statements but close the loop of the discussion by explaining how something happens or why something happens, which focuses on importance and impact. In closing the loop, you will demonstrate the ability to think clearly and rationally showing an understanding of the logical connections between the ideas presented from the research, the course material and the question(s) being asked.
Step 2: Research
In completing the report, you will use the chapters in the eBook as a guide and perform research on the same company as in Projects 1 and 2, answer the required elements below in narrative form following the steps.
Note: Your report is based on the results of the research performed and not on any prepared documentation. What this means is that you will research and draw your own conclusions that are supported by the research and the course material rather than the use any source material that puts together any of the tools or techniques whether from the Internet, for-pay websites or any document, video or source material. A zero will be earned for not doing your own analysis.
Library Resources
On the main navigation bar in the classroom select, Resources and then select Library. Select Databases by Title (A – Z). Select M from the alphabet list, and then select Mergent Online. You may also use Market Line and should be looking at the focal company’s Annual Report or 10K report. You are not depending on any one resource to complete the analysis. It is impossible to complete a Porter’s Five Forces, competitive analysis or OT by using only course material.
You should not be using obscure articles, GlassDoor, or Chron or similar articles.
Research for Financial Analysis: Financial Research
Research for Industry Analysis CSI Market
UMUC library is available for providing resources and services. Seek library support for excellence in your academic pursuit.
Library Support
Extensive library resources and services are available online, 24 hours a day, seven days a week at to support you in your studies. The UMUC Library provides research assistance in creating search strategies, selecting relevant databases, and evaluating and citing resources in a variety of formats via its Ask a Librarian service at
Scholarly Research in OneSearch
To search for only scholarly resources, you are expected to place a check mark in the space for “Scholarly journals only” before clicking search.

Step 3: Specific Company for All Three Projects
For this project, each student in this course has been specifically assigned by your instructor to write an independent report on one focal company. The assigned company must be used for all three projects in this course. You are not allowed to write the reports on any other company different from the company specifically assigned by your instructor. Students who fail to use the specifically assigned companies from the list or use an unapproved company will receive a zero for the project.
The company that your instructor has assigned to you will be used for this project.
Step 4: Preparation for the Project
Before you begin writing the report, you will read the following requirements that will help you meet the writing and APA requirements.

You will be doing an analysis on the selected company. When doing an analysis you are not merely making statements that may be cited. Instead, you will be supporting the statements made. “Support” is the process of explaining, discussing and analyzing “why” and “how,” which is a higher level critical analytical skill that is required for this class. Support is needed to do well on this project.

Read the grading rubric for the project. Use the grading rubric while writing the report to ensure all requirements are met that will lead to the highest possible grade.

Step 5: How to Set Up the Project
Use this template to complete the project: Project 4 Template. The document has to be written in Word or rtf. No other format is acceptable. No pdf files will be graded. Use 12-point font for a double-spaced report. The final product cannot be longer than 16 pages in length, excluding the title page and reference page. Those items identified in the implementation and action plans should appear under the appropriate heading in the paper. Do no use an Appendix.
Step 6: Introduction
Create an introductory paragraph. The Introduction should clearly and concisely convey the main points of the project’s requirements. Review the following website to learn how to write an introductory paragraph:
Step 7: Alternative Strategy Generation

To generate a pool of strategies, you will look at the organization’s business level strategy, corporate level strategy and global strategy. Using the information and data collected from your research, and the analytical outcomes from (a) external factor analysis in your Project 1 and (b) internal factor analysis in Project 2, you will generate a pool of strategies.

Generate a minimum of three possible alternative strategies for the company;

Identify and discuss cultural and organizational factors that should be considered in analyzing and choosing among the alternative strategies.

Step 8: Strategy Prioritization

Prioritize strategies and explain using the course material to support the reasoning.

Step 9: Strategy Selection

Explain how to select the best strategy (or strategies);
Recommend the best one or two strategies and long-term objectives among the alternative strategies and explain why these strategies and objectives are best;
Identify strategy recommendations using the following format for the formulation of strategies. Make sure you are thorough in your presentation.

View Strategy Content Guidelines.
Goal (The desired outcomes to be achieved)
Objective (Measurable milestone toward accomplishing the Goal)
Strategy (The approach used to achieve the Goal)
Tactic (A specific activity undertaken to implement the Strategy)
Review this resource to differentiate between Strategy Versus Operations and Strategy Versus Tactics

Step 10: Strategy Implementation

Recommend procedures for strategy implementation;
Discuss who, what and how to implement the selected strategy (or strategies) at the corporate level, business-unit level, and functional level.

Step 11: Strategy Evaluation

Discuss procedures for strategy review and evaluation;
Discuss the appropriate evaluative measures (including who, what, when and how) at the corporate level, business-unit level, and functional level.
Discuss a corrective action plan (including who, what, when and how) at the corporate level, business-unit level, and functional level.
Use frameworks and tools discussed throughout the course;
Support the reasoning and conclusions made.

Step 12: Conclusion
Create a concluding paragraph. The Conclusion is intended to emphasize the purpose/significance of the analysis, emphasize the significance/consequence of findings, and indicate the wider applications that are derived from the main points of the project’s requirements. Review the following website to learn how to write a concluding paragraph:
Step 13:Submit the Report in the Assignment Folder
Submitting the project to the Assignment Folder is considered the student’s final product and therefore ready for grading by the instructor. It is incumbent upon the student to verify the project is the correct submission. No exceptions will be considered by the instructor.
Report Requirements to Follow
In writing the report:

Use the grading rubric while completing the project to ensure all requirements are met that will lead to the highest possible grade.

Third person writing is required. Third person means that there are no words such as “I, me, my, we, or us” (first person writing), nor is there use of “you or your” (second person writing).

Contractions are not used in business writing, so do not use them.

No direct quotes except for mission statement and vision statement. For all other source material used in the analysis, you will not use direct quotation marks but will instead paraphrase. What this means is that you will put the ideas of an author or article into your own words rather than lifting directly from a source document. You may not use more than four consecutive words from a source document, as doing so would require direct quotation marks. Changing words from a passage does not exclude the passage from having quotation marks. If more than four consecutive words are used from source documents, this material will not be included in the grade and could lead to allegations of academic dishonesty.

Use in-text citations and provide a reference list that contains the reference associated with each in-text citation.

You may not use books in completing this project.

Provide the page or paragraph number in every in-text citation presented.

You may not use Fern Fort University, Ibis World or any other for-fee website.

Strategy Selection, Implementation and Evaluation – Konami Holdings

Human resource management: Help me find a news and analyze it

Human resource management: Help me find a news and analyze it.

AssignmentPlease help me find a news from websites: the news need to be about human resource aspect and should be in this year. (Jan-Oct, 2019)1. copy the link for me and tell me where do you find it2. Write a paper: tell me where do you find it at first, and write a reflection from the human resource angle, tell me what the issue is, what the key point is, or any solution. Please help me to find a primary and easy-to-understand article, since i need to read it in class.The paper need 1 page
Human resource management: Help me find a news and analyze it

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