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Internal Sorting And External Sorting English Language Essay

Sorting is a technique through which we arrange the data in such a manner so that the searching of the data becomes easy. A lot of sorting techniques has been implemented till now to cope up the faster execution of the result and to manage the data comfortably . Sorting and Searching are fundamental operations in computer science. Sorting refers to the operation of arranging data in some given order. Searching refers to the operation of searching the particular record from the existing information. Normally, the information retrieval involves searching, sorting and merging. In this chapter we will discuss the searching and sorting techniques in detail.Sorting is very important in every computer application. Sorting refers to arranging of data elements in some given order. Many Sorting algorithms are available to sort the given set of elements. Let get to know about two sorting techniques and analyze their performance. The two techniques are: Internal Sorting External Sorting Internal Sorting takes place in the main memory of a computer. The internal sorting methods are applied to small collection of data. It means that, the entire collection of data to be sorted in small enough that the sorting can take place within main memory. We will study the following methods of internal sorting 1. Insertion sort 2. Selection sort 3. Merge Sort 4. Radix Sort 5. Quick Sort 6. Heap Sort 7. Bubble Sort Also a lot of algorithms are involved in sorting . Hence we should understand first that what is an algorithm . Informally, an algorithm is any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and produces some value, or set of values, as output. An algorithm is thus a sequence of computational steps that transform the input into the output. We can also view an algorithm as a tool for solving a well-specified computational problem. The statement of the problem specifies in general terms the desired input/output relationship. The algorithm describes a specific computational procedure for achieving that input/output relationship. For example, one might need to sort a sequence of numbers into non decreasing order. This problem arises frequently in practice and provides fertile ground for introducing many standard design techniques and analysis tools. Here is how we formally define the sorting problem. Insertion Sort This is a naturally occurring sorting method exemplified by a card player arranging the cards dealt to him. He picks up the cards as they are dealt and inserts them into the required position. Thus at every step, we insert an item into its proper place in an already ordered list. We will illustrate insertion sort with an example (refer to Figure 10.1) before presenting the formal algorithm. Sort the following list using the insertion sort method: Thus to find the correct position search the list till an item just greater than the target is found. Shift all the items from this point one down the list. Insert the target in the vacated slot. Repeat this process for all the elements in the list. This results in sorted list. Bubble Sort In this sorting algorithm, multiple swappings take place in one pass. Smaller elements move or ‘bubble’ up to the top of the list, hence the name given to the algorithm. In this method, adjacent members of the list to be sorted are compared.If the item on top is greater than the item immediately below it, then they are swapped. This process is carried on till the list is sorted. The detailed algorithm follows: Algorithm: BUBBLE SORT 6 1. Begin 2. Read the n elements 3. for i=1 to n for j=n downto i 1 if a[j] <= a[j-1] swap(a[j],a[j-1]) 4. End // of Bubble Sort Total number of comparisons in Bubble sort : = (N-1) (N-2) . . . 2 1 = (N-1)*N / 2 =O(N2) This inefficiency is due to the fact that an item moves only to the next position in each pass. Quick Sort This is the most widely used internal sorting algorithm. In its basic form, it was invented by C.A.R. Hoare in 1960. Its popularity lies in the ease of implementation, moderate use of resources and acceptable behaviour for a variety of sorting cases. The basis of quick sort is the divide and conquer strategy i.e. Divide the problem [list to be sorted] into sub-problems [sub-lists], until solved sub problems [sorted sub-lists] are found. This is implemented as follows: Choose one item A[I] from the list A[ ]. Rearrange the list so that this item is in the proper position, i.e., all preceding items have a lesser value and all succeeding items have a greater value than this item. 1. Place A[0], A[1] .. A[I-1] in sublist 1 2. A[I] 3. Place A[I 1], A[I 2] … A[N] in sublist 2 Repeat steps 1
Types of Misconduct.

In a 2-3 page, APA style paper, describe the types of misconduct by community corrections professionals and provide some of the explanations for this misconduct.Examples include:Accepting gratuities for special consideration during legitimate activities and for the protection of illicit activities.Mistreatment/harassment or extortion of inmates.Misc. abusesArbitrary use of powerAbusing authority for personal gain (possible reasons for misconduct: hiring people that shouldn’t work in corrections, officers being stressed and burned out, failure of leadership and lack of discipline, lack of training and lack of organizational support.)Please include 2-3 references. Only one reference may be from an internet source (not Wikipedia) the other references must be located in the University Online Library. Only the body of the paper will count toward the page requirement. Include a title sheet.
Types of Misconduct

Using what you have learned about goal setting in Module 13, create and present your 3-year career plan. As part of your 3 year career plan, you can explore (but are not limited to) the following topics to help generate your plan: Professional goals you would like to achieve in the next 3 years Timelines for graduation and how that affects your career goals Training, certifications, and any other education needed beyond a Bachelor’s to achieve your plan The job search process Improving professional skill sets Internships The presentation MUST be narrated. This means your voice must be heard during the presentation. We want to hear that you can talk about your goals- not just write them down. If you do not know how to create a narrated presentation, please see below for a list of options that you may choose from. PowerPoint: Here are YouTube instructions (Links to an external site.) showing you how to create voice-over narration. Spark Video: This is a way to create professional looking video presentations in the cloud. Instructions on how to do this can be found in this tutorial (Links to an external site.). Zoom: You can utilize this tool to record a screen share of your presentation and utilize audio to narrate your presentation (Links to an external site.) Keep your presentation to no more than 5 slides. Please note: Do not copy and paste your SMART goal worksheet for this presentation. This presentation can include the SMART goals you created however, needs to be filled with more information on how you plan to accomplish these goals.

Animal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs

Animal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs. Animal intelligence and the ability of animals to solve problems has been a topic of much interest in the field of research for a long time. When considering intelligence, it is often claimed that humans are the most intelligent species. However, various animal studies have revealed that skills such as abstract reasoning, problem-solving and language, all of which were once believed to be unique to humans, are quite common in a lot of animals (Roth, 2011). Animal intelligence refers to the mental capabilities of animals and includes all the ways in which animals process, retain and decide how to act upon information produced through the senses (Shettleworth, 2001). Animal intelligence also plays a key role in problem solving. In the wild, animals are constantly faced with problems that they must overcome in order to not only survive but prosper as well. To solve these problems, animals must use their cognitive skills to analyse the environment and use the information gained from this analysis to benefit themselves. For example, animals may need to develop or use their already existing navigational, tool-making or social skills, as a method of obtaining food (MeehanAnimal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs

Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory and Baumrind Parenting Style Th…

online assignment help Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory and Baumrind Parenting Style Th…. Zafi is the eldest child and he has two younger siblings. He was an average student in primary school with no discipline problems. When he was 11 years old, his father passed away. After the death of his father, his mother holds two jobs to make ends meet. His mother relies on him to take care of his two younger siblings as she is always not at home. Currently in secondary two, his academic result is very poor. In class, he would keep to himself and would shy away from classroom activities. He would sometimes cheat in tests and exams. The reasons he gave for cheating are, not having the ability to do it and he does not want his classmates to think that he is stupid. His form teacher tried many times to meet his mother to discuss about his cheating behaviour and poor academic performance but she is always busy with her work. After school, Zafi would meet up with his neighbourhood friends. Most of them are drop outs. They constantly told him to quit school and to enjoy life just like them. Zafi enjoys spending time with them as he thought they understand him best. They would also smoke and drink alcohol. He would only return home very late at night or not at all. Zafi’s father had passed away and his mother is too busy working to support the family. There is almost no interaction between Zafi and his mother and there is no other important adult to supervise him at home. In short, the parental involvement is almost non-existent. Using Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory and Baumrind Parenting Style Theory, I would relate how Zafi’s parental interactions and parenting style affects his context of development. Bronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory According to Bronfenbrenner, the lack of parental interaction is the most destructive force to a child’s development. [1] Urie Bronfenbrenner says that “there are two environmental conditions that are necessary for human development. The first is that one or more adults must love the child unconditionally; the second is that the adults must encourage the child and spend time doing joint activities with the child in and out of the home environment”. [2] Zafi’s mother loves him unconditionally but she is too busy to show it and she is also unable to spend time with any of her children. Therefore, the two important conditions are not met. Bronfenbrenner also developed a Bioecological Theory to explain how the child’s environments can significantly influence his cognitive development and his growth. The theory consists of 4 systems nested around each other with the child being in the innermost. The 4 systems developed by Bronfenbrenner are: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. [3] The microsystem is where a child has direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers and others. In Zafi’s case, he has very little interaction with his mother and he spends most of his time with his neighbourhood friends. Too little interactions with his mother causes a break down in his microsystem and the bad influence he is getting from his neighbourhood friends is not helping in his positive growth and development. The second level is the mesosystem. Mesosystem are linkages between microsystems such as between a child’s teacher and his parents, and relationships between students and peers. His teacher tried many times to create a linkage with his mother but failed due to her busy work schedule. This contributes to a break down in his mesosystem. The third level is the exosystem. Exosystem are external experiences in which a child does not have an active role but still influence the child’s developments. In this case, his mother’s busy work schedule is the exosystem. Her two jobs require her to work long hours and irregular shifts. This resulted in her having very little face time with her children. The last level is the macrosystem. Macrosystem consists of things that influence and sometimes support the child such as cultures, norms, and laws. The break down in his microsystem will affect the other systems as it disabled him to explore other parts of his environment. Without the presence of proper supervision or love, Zafi will try looking for attention in inappropriate places. These behaviours will give rise to problems such as little self discipline and no self direction. Neglectful Parenting According to Diana Baumrind, parenting styles come in three main forms; authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting, and indulgent parenting. Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin expanded Baumrind’s research and added another parenting style, Neglectful or Uninvolved Parenting (MaccobyBronfenbrenner Bioecological Theory and Baumrind Parenting Style Th…

Humanities Art project

Humanities Art project.

humanities art project All details are included in the file below. Assignment Description: Now that you’ve developed an understanding of how various media work, it is time for you to employ media forms to express something for yourself. For this assignment, choose one of the media we’ve studied (or ancillary media like still photography or sculpture) and use it to say something about the world or to express something (a feeling, an intuition, a point-of-view). The art work can be or look like anything, really (although I ask that depictions of illegal activity or potentially obscene materials be discussed with your instructor beforehand). Before beginning, though, give yourself time to think about the medium you’re working in and take a look at works where others have done similar work. Think about the strengths of your medium and what you can make it do and think about how those strengths play with and against your subject matter. Think about the small details of presentation that color the audience’s perception and understanding. From there, it’s a matter of making craft meet intention, to take the medium you’ve chosen and playing on its strengths to present a strong, clear, aesthetic art project based on a predetermined, informed goal. In addition to creating a work, you will also write a short art project write-up, which will be graded separately from the art project itself. In the write-up, you will write short responses on the following topics: Explain, in general terms, your intentions with the work (what youthink it means/represents, how you went about making/doing thework) Pick one work that either influenced you in making your art projector pick a work that’s comparable in its goals or execution. Compareand contrast that work to yours, explaining the similarities anddifferences between the projects. Explain which specific aspects of your medium your work takesadvantage of. Why is it one medium and not another? It might behoove you to consider these aspects of your artwork before actually making it. Assignment Guidelines: For the art project itself: The art project will be assessed by two criteria, one technical, the other thematic. To the technical end, grading will largely concern the project’s cohesion and complexity. That is to say, the project’s technical qualities will be assessed in how they either aid or detract from the piece’s overall meaning and aesthetic quality. The other criterion, thematic, regards the piece’s depth, or the quality and clarity of its ideas. While works might be cryptic or unclear, they should have some order or evident goal in them. And while I will be generous and open-minded here, works here should have some inroads toward a determinable idea/point. You should use your write-up in order to clearly state these ideas and tie them to the visual/aural qualities of your artwork. For the art project write-up: The write-up must be between 900 and 1,200 words. It should utilize headers to distinguish between the three areas identified above and should feature well-written and polished prose. The rubric for the write-up is as follows: Components (50%)Does the paper include all the necessary sections? Do the sections themselves contain everything they need to? Clarity(40%)Are the responses clear and organized, with graceful and clear movement between ideas?Style(10%)Is the prose continuing to work on the issues identified in prior graded assignments?
Humanities Art project

You are skimming through your favorite newspaper editorial page, when you encounter a letter to the editor complaining about Essay

You are skimming through your favorite newspaper editorial page, when you encounter a letter to the editor complaining about Essay. You are skimming through your favorite newspaper editorial page, when you encounter a letter to the editor complaining about the bureaucratic inconvenience of medical reporting requirements for illnesses and certain types of drugs. (That’s all you need to know about this hypothetical letter.) As a medical professional, you decide to write a 1-2 page letter to the editor in response, either agreeing, disagreeing, or some combination thereof. Should there be reporting requirements? Note: Identify yourself and your occupation (EMT, Nursing student, etc.), and maintain your professional composure throughout your letter. In your letter: -Name the reportable diseases -Explain the reasoning behind the reporting requirements — AND — indicate whether you AGREE with the requirements, or do NOT agree -Discuss the Controlled Substances Act -List the five schedules of controlled substances, and -Explain the reasoning behind reporting. As always, REVIEW THE INSTRUCTIONS one last time before hitting submit. Always do that on the job, so you don’t skip anything.You are skimming through your favorite newspaper editorial page, when you encounter a letter to the editor complaining about Essay

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