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# Internal Sorting And External Sorting English Language Essay

Sorting is a technique through which we arrange the data in such a manner so that the searching of the data becomes easy. A lot of sorting techniques has been implemented till now to cope up the faster execution of the result and to manage the data comfortably . Sorting and Searching are fundamental operations in computer science. Sorting refers to the operation of arranging data in some given order. Searching refers to the operation of searching the particular record from the existing information. Normally, the information retrieval involves searching, sorting and merging. In this chapter we will discuss the searching and sorting techniques in detail.Sorting is very important in every computer application. Sorting refers to arranging of data elements in some given order. Many Sorting algorithms are available to sort the given set of elements. Let get to know about two sorting techniques and analyze their performance. The two techniques are: Internal Sorting External Sorting Internal Sorting takes place in the main memory of a computer. The internal sorting methods are applied to small collection of data. It means that, the entire collection of data to be sorted in small enough that the sorting can take place within main memory. We will study the following methods of internal sorting 1. Insertion sort 2. Selection sort 3. Merge Sort 4. Radix Sort 5. Quick Sort 6. Heap Sort 7. Bubble Sort Also a lot of algorithms are involved in sorting . Hence we should understand first that what is an algorithm . Informally, an algorithm is any well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and produces some value, or set of values, as output. An algorithm is thus a sequence of computational steps that transform the input into the output. We can also view an algorithm as a tool for solving a well-specified computational problem. The statement of the problem specifies in general terms the desired input/output relationship. The algorithm describes a specific computational procedure for achieving that input/output relationship. For example, one might need to sort a sequence of numbers into non decreasing order. This problem arises frequently in practice and provides fertile ground for introducing many standard design techniques and analysis tools. Here is how we formally define the sorting problem. Insertion Sort This is a naturally occurring sorting method exemplified by a card player arranging the cards dealt to him. He picks up the cards as they are dealt and inserts them into the required position. Thus at every step, we insert an item into its proper place in an already ordered list. We will illustrate insertion sort with an example (refer to Figure 10.1) before presenting the formal algorithm. Sort the following list using the insertion sort method: Thus to find the correct position search the list till an item just greater than the target is found. Shift all the items from this point one down the list. Insert the target in the vacated slot. Repeat this process for all the elements in the list. This results in sorted list. Bubble Sort In this sorting algorithm, multiple swappings take place in one pass. Smaller elements move or ‘bubble’ up to the top of the list, hence the name given to the algorithm. In this method, adjacent members of the list to be sorted are compared.If the item on top is greater than the item immediately below it, then they are swapped. This process is carried on till the list is sorted. The detailed algorithm follows: Algorithm: BUBBLE SORT 6 1. Begin 2. Read the n elements 3. for i=1 to n for j=n downto i 1 if a[j] <= a[j-1] swap(a[j],a[j-1]) 4. End // of Bubble Sort Total number of comparisons in Bubble sort : = (N-1) (N-2) . . . 2 1 = (N-1)*N / 2 =O(N2) This inefficiency is due to the fact that an item moves only to the next position in each pass. Quick Sort This is the most widely used internal sorting algorithm. In its basic form, it was invented by C.A.R. Hoare in 1960. Its popularity lies in the ease of implementation, moderate use of resources and acceptable behaviour for a variety of sorting cases. The basis of quick sort is the divide and conquer strategy i.e. Divide the problem [list to be sorted] into sub-problems [sub-lists], until solved sub problems [sorted sub-lists] are found. This is implemented as follows: Choose one item A[I] from the list A[ ]. Rearrange the list so that this item is in the proper position, i.e., all preceding items have a lesser value and all succeeding items have a greater value than this item. 1. Place A[0], A[1] .. A[I-1] in sublist 1 2. A[I] 3. Place A[I 1], A[I 2] … A[N] in sublist 2 Repeat steps 1
Types of Misconduct.

In a 2-3 page, APA style paper, describe the types of misconduct by community corrections professionals and provide some of the explanations for this misconduct.Examples include:Accepting gratuities for special consideration during legitimate activities and for the protection of illicit activities.Mistreatment/harassment or extortion of inmates.Misc. abusesArbitrary use of powerAbusing authority for personal gain (possible reasons for misconduct: hiring people that shouldn’t work in corrections, officers being stressed and burned out, failure of leadership and lack of discipline, lack of training and lack of organizational support.)Please include 2-3 references. Only one reference may be from an internet source (not Wikipedia) the other references must be located in the University Online Library. Only the body of the paper will count toward the page requirement. Include a title sheet.
Types of Misconduct

## Animal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs

Animal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs. Animal intelligence and the ability of animals to solve problems has been a topic of much interest in the field of research for a long time. When considering intelligence, it is often claimed that humans are the most intelligent species. However, various animal studies have revealed that skills such as abstract reasoning, problem-solving and language, all of which were once believed to be unique to humans, are quite common in a lot of animals (Roth, 2011). Animal intelligence refers to the mental capabilities of animals and includes all the ways in which animals process, retain and decide how to act upon information produced through the senses (Shettleworth, 2001). Animal intelligence also plays a key role in problem solving. In the wild, animals are constantly faced with problems that they must overcome in order to not only survive but prosper as well. To solve these problems, animals must use their cognitive skills to analyse the environment and use the information gained from this analysis to benefit themselves. For example, animals may need to develop or use their already existing navigational, tool-making or social skills, as a method of obtaining food (MeehanAnimal Minds and Problem Solving: Chimpanzees, Crows, and Dogs

## Humanities Art project

Humanities Art project.

Humanities Art project

## You are skimming through your favorite newspaper editorial page, when you encounter a letter to the editor complaining about Essay

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