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Interference and remembering words in short term memory

Interference and remembering words in short term memory. The study of memory is based on cognitive psychology, which is basically a branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn. Studies by Godden and Baddeley aimed to test out whether we need cues to help us recall information and could support the idea that we do lose some information in the short-term memory. In their experiment they used total number of 18 participants including 13 male and 5 female from a diving club where they were asked to recall 36 different and unrelated words. They were then split into 4 different conditions as shown below: Encoding condition Retrieval condition dry wet wet dry wet wet In which the “dry – dry” means, encoding or learning the words on dry land and retrieval or recalling the words on dry land, “wet – dry” is encoding under water and retrieval on dry land and vice-versa. Afterwards the results showed recall was higher on those within same cues at encoding and retrieval (dry – dry and wet – wet). Due to this, it was concluded that participants with mismatched cues at encoding and retrieval are more likely to forget words listed. Another study of displacement by Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) which aimed to test out whether short-term memory has a limited capacity could be used to highlight this study. A total number of 46 participants (men) were shown words projected on a screen every 3 seconds. After all 15 words were shown to the men; the experimenters asked them to recall as many words as possible. Then the men (participants) were asked to count for 10 seconds and afterwards were asked for the second time to recall as many words as possible. The men were again asked to count for 30 seconds, and then allowed for the third time to recall as many words as possible. Afterwards the result clearly shows that the participants’ long-term memory was not affected as they were able to recall the first words from the list, while on the other hand differences occurred when recalling the words at the end of the list. Therefore it was concluded that the results clearly supported the idea of short-term memory having limited capacity. Both studies above clearly show some evidence that the short-term memory has limited capacity; however my study aimed to repeat that of Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) study into displacement HYPOTHESIS Participants will recall more words after uninterrupted rehearsal than after interference of the words with some sort of distraction during rehearsal. This is a one tailed hypothesis as previous studies justify the prediction (study of displacement by Glanzer and Cunitz 1966). There is evidence that shows that participants’ level of recall will drop as interference continues. THE METHOD Design A Laboratory experiment was conducted in a setting where the researchers could manipulate the independent variable. In addition the researchers were able to control the situation and observe how people react to the manipulations. Our choice of laboratory experiment is basically the most appropriate experiment for our studies. Variables The independent variable is whether the participants’ short-term memory will be interrupted with levels of distractions or not interrupted at all. The dependent variable is how many words participants will recall after interference and this is operationalised by counting the number of words they will recall in each condition. Material (apparatus) We used list of 24 unrelated words (see appendix 1) as our material for research and the reason for choosing unrelated words is basically to make our findings or dependent variable valid and reliable. We also used ‘number count’ to interrupt the list of words participants have in their short-term memory. A timer was used in order to control the length of time participants were allowed to recall words. Participants A total number of 24 participants were used in the study including 10 males and 14 females. Participants included both students and relatives. An opportunity sample was used for this study, whereby family and friends were asked if they could voluntarily participate in the study. Colleagues that I am jointly working with also used the technique of asking teachers if they could conduct a study in their lesson using students available as participants. Ethics Verbal consent was obtained from all participants used for this research where by similar hard-copies were given to each participant to read what the research was about and what was expected from them (see appendix 2). As a group we tried as much as we could to be aware of the ethical issues surrounding this study and tried to adhere to the main British Psychological Society ethical guidelines. Even though we obtained consent from our participants we also made it clear that they had the right to withdraw from the study at anytime. Moreover, we fully explained to the participants the details of the study as well as the research whilst respecting and maintaining confidentiality issues. Procedure We approached and gained verbal consent from our participants in college while some group members used family and friends as I did. After I gained their consent, a brief was read to them (see appendix 2). The actual experiment took place in a living area of a friend’s house. Before I started the procedure with the participants, I read to them our standardized instructions (see appendix 2). I started the procedure by reading out to them word list 1, gave them 60 seconds to recall as many words as possible. Subsequently I read out to them word list 2, asked them to count backwards from 100 for about 30 seconds, and thereafter asked them to recall again. At the end I collected the results. Finally, I debriefed all participants by explaining to them the details of the experiment, what I would be using their data for and what I would be hoping to achieve (see appendix 2). Afterwards, participants were offered the opportunity to ask any question related to the study. Before I completed the whole experiment I once again thanked all participants for their time. THE RESULTS Table of our raw scores is in appendix (see appendix 3) The raw data and graph of our result (see appendix 3 and 4) clearly show the level of recall in condition 1 is higher than the level of recall in condition 2 but the difference was surprisingly not to a great extent. With these findings I fully support and agree with my hypothesis (Participants will recall more words after uninterrupted rehearsal than after interference of the words with some sort of distraction during rehearsal). The reason for this decision is mainly based on the result we got from the studies. SUMMARY TABLE (The average scores of recall) Conditions Mean Median Mode Condition1 (no interference) 8.7 17 17 Condition 2 (interference) 7.5 15 14 The above summary table of our average result clearly shows the difference or the impact interference can have on ones memory. This goes back into depicting and repeating Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) study into displacement. The table also shows in all three averages the level of recall is higher in condition 1 where there is no interference compare to condition 2 where there is interference. A clear graph of the average results below; THE DISCUSSION We found that when participants’ short term memory was not interrupted, they were able to recall more words than when they were interrupted. As a result of this I continue to accept my hypothesis. Considering what was discussed earlier in my introduction about the study conducted by Godden and Baddeley which showed that we need cues to help us recall information, our studies showed something different as one needs attention and no interference to recall information. Godden and Baddeley made further observation that recalling within same cues at encoding and retrieval (dry – dry and wet – wet) will be higher and recalling with mismatch cues (dry – wet and wet – dry) at encoding and retrieval are more likely to forget. In comparison to our findings, despite having different aims, there is evidence of displacement within some specific conditions in our studies (no interference and interference) and evidence of displacement in different conditions in Godden and Baddeley studies (same cues and mismatch cues). The relationship between these two studies is limited. The study that has similarities with our study is the study of displacement by Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) which I have also mentioned earlier in my introduction. Our study appears to repeat that of Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) study of displacement. It also supports the findings of Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) study. The reason why I think both studies had similar findings is because we used the same method of interruption used by these psychologists on our participants while conducting our studies. Evaluation One of the strengths of our study is based on our method of research which is laboratory experiment; this has allowed us to control many variables, in which we were able to manipulate the independent variable. However some may argue it lacks ecological validity because it does not represent real life situation (whether peoples’ memory can be affected by some kind of interruption in a natural setting). We were also able to operationalise our dependent variable by using the accurate measurement (counting the number of recall made by each participant in every condition). Despite being able to control variables, there were extraneous variables like whether some participants may have had alcohol, medication or even anxiety that could have had an influence or effect on their memory before the experiment. For the results of this study to be reliable and then generalized, the whole study will have to yield similar results when repeated. Having said that, this study can be improved by using more representative sample. Through out the experiment, we made sure participants were comfortable with what they were doing; debrief them after the experiment whilst respecting their confidentially. Majority of the Participants we used for our study were college students where they had the highest level of recall in both conditions. However this could be argued by others as to whether these participants’ memories were fresh and the fact that they were students could be one of the reasons why they were able to recall much of the words. Unlike the participants used within family and friends, here the number of recall dropped compare to the students’ (college participants) results. Due to this reason, I was unable to conclude the results achieved here can be generalized to the wider community as peoples’ memory status may be different depending on their situation at the time of the experiment. BIBLIOGRAGHY Glanzer, Cunitz (1966) Study of Displacement, p175, Diana D, Craig R (2007) PSYCHOLOGY FOR GCSE LEVEL, East Sussex. Godden, Baddeley, A Study into Cue Dependency, p173, Diana D, Craig R (2007) PSYCHOLOGY FOR GCSE LEVEL, East Sussex. Diana D, Craig R (2007), Coursework, p254 – p261, PSYCHOLOGY FOR GCSE LEVEL, East Sussex. APPENDIX ONE (1) Word list one (1) Chair Bread Lorry Lion Windows Basket Shoes Flower Play Apple Pencil Carpet Word list two (2) Table Butter Tree Plane Coat Book Door Girl Sky Paper Boat Scarf APPENDIX TWO (2) INSTRUCTIONS I am doing research as part of my psychology coursework, will you please take part? You are free to stop doing this experiment at any time. I will give each of you a piece of paper with a list of words on it and a piece of writing paper and a pen. It is not a spelling experiment it doesn’t matter how you spell the words as long as you know what it says. You have 45 seconds to read this list. When I ask you, stop reading please. Pause for 45 seconds. Please stop reading and place your list face down on the floor, now you can write as many words from the list you can remember. I will give you a second list to read, again for 45 seconds. When I ask you, please stop reading. Pause for 45 seconds. Please stop reading and place your list face down on the floor as before, this time I would like you to count backwards from 100 out loud. Pause for 30 seconds for counting. Now write down as many words from the list that you can remember. Thank you for taking part; this was a brief experiment on short-term Memory and our ability to recall. If you would like a copy of the results please let me have your contact details and I will let you know when they are complete. This experiment remains confidential and no one is being identified as a person in anyway. Thank you once again for corporation. Interference and remembering words in short term memory
The Economic Effects of Climate Change Root Cause & Greenhouse Gases Discussion.

The Tol (2009) article has never been updated. It is a unique piece in the way that it picks apart the varied effects of climate change by geography and in other ways. But much has happened since 2009! If the author were to re-write the article today, based upon what we know about climate change, identify at least one prediction in the article that you think would change. Explain why and be specific.Responses should be 1-2 pages, neatly formatted with double spacing, 12 point font, and 1” margins.Do not use outside sources, just write everything in your own language.
The Economic Effects of Climate Change Root Cause & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

CUNY Queensborough College A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner Story Discussion.

I’m working on a english question and need a reference to help me understand better.

Stories: “The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner “The Story for an Hour” by Kate ChopinAnswer the following questions on separate sheet of paper.“The Necklace”1.Why does Mathilde believe that that she deserves much more than what she has? What about her life makes her suffer?2.What is her attitude toward her husband? What is her husband’s attitude toward her?3.What special efforts does her husband make to make her feel happy? How does she react to his efforts?4.Does she reciprocate thankfully to her husband’s efforts? Why?5.How does the party go?6.How does the couple react to the loss of the necklace? What did they have to do to pay for the cost of the Necklace?7.What makes the ending of the story ironic?8.What is the tone of the story? What kind of mood does it create?“A Rose for Emily”1.What is the setting of the story? What makes the setting crucial?2.Characterize Emily. What events in her life make her the person she becomes?3.Who is Homer? Why do the townspeople object to her relationship with him?4.Why do Emily and Homer break up? How does she still keep him faithful?5.Is the title of the story appropriate? Analyze your answer.“The Story of an Hour”1. What bad news is disclosed to Louise Mallard at the beginning of the story? Why was the news broken to her very gently? What was her initial reaction?2.What does the open window in Louise’s room symbolize? What is ironic about her feelings once she reaches her room?3.What literary technique is used when the scene outside her window is described?4.What literary technique do the words “monstrous joy” exemplify?5.What do the last words of the story, “of the joy that kills” mean in the context to what the story is about?
CUNY Queensborough College A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner Story Discussion

San Diego State University The Concept of Intersectionality Discussion.

Complete the following reading: Dubrofsky and Wood, “Gender, Race, and Authenticity: Celebrity Women Tweeting for the GazeActions”Watch (Links to an external site.) my explanation of this reading, along with an exploration of some “break the internet” images of Kim Kardashian.If your last name begins with M-R, complete class prep #1.Keyword: intersectionalityWatch Kimberlé Crenshaw’s Ted talk about “The Urgency of Intersectionality (Links to an external site.)” to further understand the keyword intersectionalityThe goal of class preps is to prepare you for class by training you to read for big ideas, identify the key concepts and the main argument, and identify provocative passages relevant to the main argument. Class preps are meant to measure your understanding of the main ideas in a text; therefore, there should be no personal opinion in preps. They should be approximately half a page (double spaced) and no more than 1 page in length. Submit them to the corresponding learning module in Blackboard in which your reading appears. Though your class prep will not be visible to the rest of the class, we reserve the right to ask you to share from them in class, so please be prepared to talk about them. Please include:keywords – look at the keyword listed for the day of class corresponding to your reading; explain its meaning according to the course readings (you may need to draw from the other reading listed for the same day)main argument – give a short synopsis (2-3 sentences at most) of the main argument (or main ideas) of the readingpassage/quote – retype a short quote (be selective!) from the reading that is particularly interesting, provocative, or indicative of the main argument. Explain why you chose it.class prep rubric.pdf
San Diego State University The Concept of Intersectionality Discussion

Miami University Middle Childhood Song Observation and Analysis

Miami University Middle Childhood Song Observation and Analysis.

website: Instructions1.Listen to or obtain copies of the lyrics for your selected song in both the original popular version and the Kidz Bop version2.Make note of word and phrase changes between the 2 versions3.As applicable, make note of any other differences aside from the words in the recording of the songsSubmission DetailsSubmit your assignment with the following structure:1.Proof of observationoInclude the website links for where you listened to both songs or provide a selfie or screenshot from a music streaming service2.Description of observation experienceoDescribe what it was like to listen to and take note of these songsoFor example: How is this different from your normal listening experience? Would you otherwise ever listen to Kidz Bop?3.Analysis of observationoWhat did you notice about the types of modifications done to the songs?§Be detailed in your analysis and incorporate course concepts as you examine your notesoHow does the cultural environment shape what kinds of differences there are between the songs? Address this in more depth.oCompare what you observed to topics covered by the course so far, both from a child development perspective and as if you were a parent controlling your child’s access to media4.General ReflectionoProvide overall opinion of the facilities/locations of observations/activities (as appropriate).oProvide your assessment of the observation/activity process and experience (what you learned, what you wished you would have learned, what you would do differently).5.Conclusion – Wrap it all up!oWhat did you learn?oWhat are key takeaways from this observation experience?oIs there a need for any sort of action or advocacy?
Miami University Middle Childhood Song Observation and Analysis

Brookhaven College Computational Thinking Infographic Questions

essay helper free Brookhaven College Computational Thinking Infographic Questions.

I’m working on a computer science discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Use the Internet to search for a Computational Thinking Infographic that reflects your understanding of Computational Thinking’s main concepts, applied to your major field of study. If you find an infographic on Computer Science or Math, your will lost the points for this assignment.Not quite sure on the term Infographic? Look here for definitions and examples.Tasks:Create a 1 post on Computational Thinking Infographic. In your post,1). Include a copy of the Computational Thinking infographic (use the Embed Image tool in the HTML Editor to include the picture) and the URL of the infographic. (5 points)2). Explain in details how this infographic reflects your understanding of the computational thinking concept and how it can be applied to your major field of study.. (20 points)3). Respond to TWO other students’ posts who used a different case study. (5 points)No credit is awarded for responding to students who use the same infographic as yours.Your response should be in a meaningful way which continues the discussion to support or introduce new ideas. Comments such as “I agree with you” or “I like your answer” does not count as meaningful response and will not receive the corresponding credit.
Brookhaven College Computational Thinking Infographic Questions

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessing Patient Centred Care Nursing Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp This project is based on the nursing care provided to a patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), with specific focus on holistic assessment and identification of patient care needs. A patient profile will be provided, along with a description of COPD, including epidemiological data on incidence and prevalence and information on the causes and prognosis of the condition. Two key issues, as identified by the patient, will be analysed and a patient-centred approach to helping the patient with these issues will be demonstrated. Patient Profile The patient will be referred to as ‘George’ within this project, but his real identity will remain anonymous in line with the Nursing and Midwifery Code of Conduct on patient confidentiality (NMC, 2008). George is a 66-year old gentleman who was diagnosed with COPD approximately 1-year previously. His wife recently passed away and George is now living on his own. Adjusting to this change has been difficult for him and he has found his health deteriorating rapidly. On enquiring about George’s lifestyle, it is established that he is a heavy smoker, sometimes having over a packet of cigarettes in one day. He also mainly consumes a diet of convenience food, sharing that his wife always used to do the cooking. At 5ft 5inches and weighing 17 stones (238 pounds), George is clinically obese; his body mass index (BMI) is 39.6. Along with the smoking, his excess weight is exacerbating the COPD and reducing his mobility. He is easily out of breath and sounds wheezy. This is his fourth self-initiated medical visit in the last month, all of which have been due to, in George’s own words, “phlegm at the back of my mouth.” Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is a long-term, progressive respiratory disease affecting approximately 900,000 people in England and Wales (NICE, 2004). It is the umbrella term to describe both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, both of which are characterised by “chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible” (WHO, 2008, p. 1). COPD is the fifth most common cause of death in the UK, taking over 30,000 lives each year (National Statistics, 2006). By 2020, it is predicted to be the third most common cause of death worldwide (Lopez et al., 2006). The primary cause of COPD is smoking (NICE, 2004), however, other risk factors include family history, airway hyper-responsiveness, and living in a polluted environment (Holt, 2004). The symptoms of COPD include (O’Donnell et al., 2006): shortness of breath chest tightness wheezing chronic coughing excessive sputum fatigue loss of appetite and weight Weight loss has not been a problem for George due to his unhealthy lifestyle. However, he reports all other symptoms, which are likely get worse as the disease progresses. Furthermore, if left unmanaged, COPD can lead to pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Holistic Assessment ‘Holism’ in healthcare is “the belief that in the treatment of medical conditions, all of one’s physical, mental, emotional and social conditions – not just physical symptoms – should be taken into account” (American Holistic Nursing Association, 2010, p.1). Holistic nursing is defined as “all nursing that has healing the whole person as its goal” (American Holistic Nursing Association, 1998). Florence Nightingale is believed to be one of the first nurses to practice holism, focusing care on the person as a whole including consideration of their relationships and environment. Holistic nursing is patient-centred and utilises nursing knowledge, theory, and evidence to build a therapeutic relationship with patents. Indeed, in many ways holistic nursing supports current government efforts to place the patient at the centre of their own health care, recognising the unique and subjective experience of each patient. In turn, holism also supports the increasing emphasis on self-management of long-term chronic conditions since it includes the integration of self-care and self-responsibility (Department of Health, 2008). In many ways, holistic nursing is not merely about the practice of providing nursing care, but also about attitude, philosophy and a way of ‘being’ (Thornton, 2008). Traditionally, before a recent call for a holistic approach to COPD assessment (NICE, 2010), the care of people with COPD adhered primarily to the medical model of health and well-being. Assessment focused on spirometry readings, which are a measure of airflow and lung volume. The severity of COPD is based on the patients’ forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); this is the volume of air that can be exhaled in the first second of a forced expiratory manoeuvre. FEV1 readings indicate the following levels of disease severity: FEV1 80 – 100%: Normal FEV1 60 – 79%: Mild FEV1 40 – 59%: Moderate FEV1 35 – 40%: Severe FEV1 <35%: Very Severe George’s spirometry reading was 40%, thus moderate to severe. Recognising that the assessment should not merely focus on George’s physical condition if an appropriate care plan is to be devised (Shapiro et al., 2007), Roper, Logan and Tierney’s Activities of Living Model (Roper et al, 2000) was utilised (appendix 1). This is a holistic model based on the 12 activities of living (ALs) perceived to be essential components of health and well-being in humans. The model comprises five components, all of which guided George’s assessment (Box 1): 1) A patients’ level of independence in each of the 12 ALs is assessed. 2) The level of nursing intervention required relates to the patient’s level of dependence or independence the patient has on the nurse regarding these ALs. 3) The patient’s position on a lifespan continuum from birth to death will have a bearing on the level of independence. 4) A range of factors influence ALs: biological, psychological, sociocultural, environmental and politico-economic. 5) The nursing needs to be individualised according to these ALs, level of dependence or independence in regard to ALs, age, and the influencing factors of ALs. Box 1: Patient Assessment using the Roper, Logan and Tierney’s Activities of Living Model (Roper et al, 2000) PATIENT ASSESSMENT Date: 03/01/2012 Patient ID: 14573 Patients Name: George Deakins Height: 5ft 5in FEV1: 40% Age: 62-years old Weight: 17st (238lbs) Blood Pressure: 116/79 Activities of Living (D=dependent; I=independent): – Maintaining a safe environment D I – Communication D I – Breathing D I – Eating and drinking D I – Elimination D I – Personal grooming D I – Controlling body temperature D I – Mobilising D I – Working and playing D I – Expressing sexuality D I – Sleeping D I – Dying D I Comments: George indicates areas of dependency in terms of four ALs: breathing; eating and drinking; mobilizing; and working and playing. Influencing Factors Biological: George is clinically obese. George smokes excessively (often one packet of cigarettes per day). He has been a smoker most of his life, but this has increased over the last 3-4 months. Diagnosed with COPD approximately 1-year ago. Increased sputum and coughing over the last month. George is 65-years of age. Reduced mobility due to worsening COPD symptoms. Psychological: George’s wife passed away very recently (approx. 3-months ago). He is finding it difficult to adapt to ALs without her. They were married for over 30-years. Socio-cultural: George’s wife cooked his meals for him. George does not know how to cook and is currently consuming an unhealthy diet of convenience foods. Environmental: George says that his house is very untidy without his wife; she usually did the housework. He washes dishes and cutlery as he needs them, leaving dirty plates, etc. in the sink for days at a time. Politico-economic: No current issues relating to ALs. The model is particularly relevant to the problems and needs expressed by George, who was currently experiencing difficulties with breathing, eating, mobilising, and actively pursuing enjoyable social activities. Aware that an important issue within the management of George’s COPD symptoms would be smoking cessation, a motivational interviewing approach was utilised within the assessment process. Motivational interviewing is a patient-centered style of counselling designed to help people explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change, such as smoking cessation (Miller and Rollnick, 2009). The technique has been found to facilitate smoking cessation, smoking reduction, and reduce rates of passive smoking (Karatay et al., 2010). Ensuring that George remained in control of identifying his own healthcare support needs, he was asked if he had any ideas as to changes he could make that might reduce his symptoms. This open-ended questioning approach underlies motivational interviewing and has been found to be effective in motivating behaviour change (Miller and Rollnick, 2009). This was the case with George, as described next. Issue 1: Smoking Cessation The motivational interviewing approach adopted within the holistic assessment of George highlighted an issue for which George required support. When asked about any changes he could make to reduce his symptoms, his response was, “Smoking . . . I need to stop smoking. I have known this for a long time, but . . . it is very hard . . . there isn’t much else to do without my Jean [1] around.” According to the stages of change model, there are five stages to lifestyle-related behaviour change (Prochaska, DiClemente, and Norcross 1992; Figure 1): 1) the pre-contemplation stage, where the individual is unaware of a problem and does not intend to change their behaviour in the near future; 2) the contemplation stage, when the individual is aware of the health risks of smoking and is considering change; 3) the preparation stage, when the individual is displaying serious resolve towards behavioural change; 4) the action stage, which is the first few weeks and months of actively taking positive steps towards smoking cessation; and, 5) the maintenance stage, which is typically about 6-months to 5-years after initiation of the smoking cessation decision, when the individual is aware of the danger of relapse and takes action to avoid it. Description: Figure 1: Spiral Model of Stages of Change (Prochaska, DiClemente, and Norcross 1992) George was clearly at the contemplation stage. He was aware of the problem (i.e. smoking exacerbating his COPD symptoms) and the solution (i.e. smoking cessation), but was finding it difficult to overcome some challenging barriers (i.e. the loss of his wife, loneliness, etc.). These concerns were recognised and dealt with in a constructive manner in order to remove any perceived barriers and help George move towards the action stage (Nicol et al., 2004). On being asked what might help him to overcome these barriers, George expressed that, “I need to occupy my time . . . keep my hands busy.” Through discussion and collaborative decision-making, George was provided with information about his local NHS Stop Smoking programme. There is evidence that NHS intensive smoking cessation interventions are effective in both the short-term and long-term, with 13-23% of short-term quitters remaining abstinent at 52-weeks (NICE, 2007). Group interventions are reported to be particularly effective for smoking cessation (Stead and Lancaster, 2005), and thus focus was placed on the option of group behaviour therapy via scheduled meetings. In addition, since the literature suggests that implementation intentions (i.e. the development of a plan to engage in behaviour change) facilitate the achievement of behavioural change goals (Gollwitzer and Sheeran, 2006), George was asked to specify cues in the environment that might tempt him to smoke. These were then linked to distracting behaviours that would assist him if he encountered such cues. As found within research on the concept of implementation intentions, George appeared to find this a motivating activity (van Osch et al., 2010). Issue 2: Activities of Daily Living A second issue identified by George when asked what he perceived to be his greatest support need was, “The cooking . . . I need to learn to cook or something . . . I am not too worried about my weight at the moment, but don’t want to get any bigger.” This issue was confronted by more barriers than the smoking cessation, since the latter is currently well supported within the NHS. The possibility of ‘meals on wheels’ was discussed, but this was not George’s preferred course of action, as indicated by his comment that, “Meals on wheels would make me feel old. No, no . . . I’m not at that stage yet.” After spending some time with George, looking over patient information and investigating local resources, the possibility of cooking lessons was introduced by George. He felt that it would help with the smoking cessation because it would keep him busy and give him something else to do (i.e. experiment in the kitchen). Information on a local resource that George could utilise for such purposes was provided to him (see Resource Profile for more details). George raised some concerns about grocery shopping when preparing to cook meals. He had only entered the supermarket once since his wife passed away, and found it “overwhelming” and “confusing.” On being asked if he had a computer and could do online shopping over the internet, George confirmed that he did have a computer, but found it difficult to use. He was, however, interested in the idea of ordering his groceries to be delivered to his home. Computer training was thus added to George’s care plan, offering another route of social integration and opportunities for George to occupy himself whilst trying to quit smoking. In turn, being more active and learning cooking skills would likely help with weight management. Resource Profile Fortunately, Norfolk offers a range of services to assist George in his efforts towards better self-management of COPD, smoking cessation, social integration, and activities of daily living. As one example, the national campaign ‘Right Tools for the Job’, advertises that people who are serious about quitting smoking can get information and advice by ordering a free ‘Quit Kit’ from the NHS (NHS, 2010). There is also ‘Smokefree Norfolk,’ which provides free, confidential advice and support to people trying to quit smoking. George is also made aware that his GP surgery offers advice and might be a useful resource if he wishes to discuss the possibility of nicotine patches. Many practices also have Stop Smoking Advisors, as do many of the pharmacies in Norfolk. Advisors can offer one-to-one advice and support at a convenient time. Access to a Personal Health Plan, as provided by NHS Norfolk Patient Advice and Liaison, would enable George to have more control over his health and health care. It would also provide support in being able learn self-management skills. Anyone can have a plan; however, it is currently being offered to patients with COPD or heart failure. There is a local COPD service at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kings Lynn (from Monday to Friday 9am – 4pm), which delivers specialist care to people in the community with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD. The service aims to avoid hospital admissions and provide general advice, among other things. The service is accessible to all patients with a Norfolk GP and is accessed via telephone or face-to-face. In terms of learning how to cook, ‘The Joy of Food’ provides a place for George to learn some easy recipes, whilst also being taught about nutrition and how to read food labels. Combined with access to internet training, as offered by Age Concern in Norfolk, George will have access to resources productive of independent living. In addition to the resources available for George’s condition and the two issues he identified, George was also supplied with the Age Concern (2008) information leaflet on ‘Bereavement: Coping with a death,’ which comprises useful information not only on dealing with the psychological implications of grief but also how to deal with practical concerns. Phone numbers for support are also provided. Overall, all of the required resources to help George maintain his health and well-being are available within the local geographical area and no forthcoming removal of these services is evident. George even has access to wider geographical resources, such as Great Yarmouth and Waveny Community Services, who provide support in the community. If, in the future, George’s condition was to worsen, which is likely due to the progressive nature of COPD, he might be able to secure the help of a district nurse who could visit him in his home. Indeed, the Community Services have published a 5-year strategy covering 2009-2014, which outlines plans to improve the services available for people with COPD (Lippa, 2010). For example, efforts will be made to reduce the number of emergency admissions arising from patients with COPD by giving some the opportunity to self‐manage their condition via a telehealth pilot. This is a self‐management initiative which enables people with COPD to monitor their own vital signs (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen levels, and weight), with support and interaction being undertaken by a remote clinical team. This team provide advice on lifestyle, self-management skills, and risk assessment, as well as ensuring appropriate referrals to the GP or hospital. Conclusion As part of this patient-centred project, insight has been gained into the experience of living with COPD, from the patient perspective. In particular, a greater understanding of the holistic implications of the disease has been gained, providing knowledge of assessment procedures and the utilisation of such procedures in care planning. A vast array of resources have been identified to assist older people like George, who are struggling with a long-term condition as well as age-related factors such as loss of loved ones and difficulties with activities of living. The process has been challenging, but has also demonstrated the huge beneficial impact nurses can have on a patient’s health and quality of life if they take a patient-centred, holistic approach to care. The process has also contributed to continued professional development and it is anticipated that the knowledge and skills acquired during this project will enhance future patient-centred practice. Appendix 1: The Roper, Logan and Tierney Nursing Model (Roper et al., 2000) Level of dependence (D) or independence (I) on 12 Activities of Living (ALs): – Maintaining a safe environment D I – Communication D I – Breathing D I – Eating and drinking D I – Elimination D I – Personal grooming D I – Controlling body temperature D I – Mobilising D I – Working and playing D I – Expressing sexuality D I – Sleeping D I – Dying D I The patient’s position on a lifespan continuum from birth to death: Birth Death Influencing Factors: Biological (e.g. overall health, current illness or injury, anatomy and physiology, age) Psychological (e.g. emotion, cognition, spiritual belief, ability to understand) Sociocultural (e.g. societal and cultural experience, expectations, values) Environmental (e.g. damp in the home, air pollution) Politico-economic (e.g. government, politics, economy) Individualised care according to these ALs, level of dependence or independence in regard to ALs, position on the life continuum, and the influencing factors of ALs. 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Ethical Conflicts in International Business

2. Background: Some of authors have been said about Cross Cultural intelligence and Ethical Conflicts. E.g. David C. Thomas and Kerr Inkson defined “cultural intelligence: People work for the Global Work place” is a representative sample of publications concerning Cultural Intelligence. Scholl hammer (1977) discussed the need for international codes of conduct to govern cross-cultural activities. When expatriate managers return before the official completion of there overseas assignments the stress and low job satisfaction resulting from culture shock is often blamed (Newman et al., 1978). Due to drastic growth of globalisation expatriates managers commonly are seen in many of the multinational organisations. The vital aspect in the segment should be focused on cultural adjustments between different nationality managers. This can be supported by saying that different nations have different cultural aspects. The diverse cultural aspects are the main causes for the confronting situations. The business organisations are in action across different borders of the world. The international organisations consider whether a particular issue is right or wrong due to the bridging gap between the different countries. Cultural relativity is a very waste theory in different countries perceptions. What may be considered right in one culture turned out to be unethical in another. Some argue that the country in which the business is that culture is the one to be followed. All the countries vary in many different aspects like economical, environmental, cultural, ethical values, linguistical and so on. Thus all these barriers which are mentioned make the cultural conflicts. The right business manager is the one who balances between the barriers and the flawless business operations. This entirely depends upon the managerial capabilities. These can be successed by different alternative strategies though one cannot particularly describe a single strategy which is suitable for everyone. One of the valid and required method is to make greater in the cross cultural solutions to international business is communication and interaction with in company and between companies, between organisations and clients and between co-workers. Now days cross cultural consultancies have been participating to solve the conflicts and risks in the cultural organisations. Cross cultural consultancies therefore concentrate their efforts on interpersonal communication. “Diversity of cultures and cultural backgrounds between a highly various staff base leads with it difficulties and risks. Cross cultural differences reveal general areas such as in behaviour, etiquette, norms, values, expressions, group mechanics and non-verbal communication. These cross cultural differences then follow on through to high level areas such as management styles, corporate culture, marketing, HR and PR”. (

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