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Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) Research Paper

Alfred Adler differed with Fred Jung’s intra-psychic theory and adopted the inter-psychic theory to explain human behavior. In his conception of personality, he chose to use the term “individual psychology” to refer to his studies on the uniqueness of individual persons. In collaboration with Harry Stack Sullivan, their studies maintained that a particular individual was indivisible and studies on individuals must be done as a whole and not in isolation. He identified social interests as a person’s greatest motivation and concluded that a person’s primary problems are often social in nature. Hence, the leading concept in his individual psychology theory is the effects of society and human culture in defining a person’s behavior. He identifies natural needs similar to those of animals, like the need to reproduce and impulses that maintain life, as societal needs that motivate individual behavior. In his theory, social interest is identified as the need for individuals to adapt to their social environment as it is expressed subjectively in an individual’s consciousness, hence, the need to be part of society by having something in common with the rest of the society. Sometimes, individuals reject their natural instincts so that they can fit into the set standards of the society or align themselves towards societal dictates. In his literature, he explained that the actions of all living things are motivated by goals because individuals cannot feel, act or think if they do not perceive the possibility of the fulfillment of a specific goal. Therefore, goals drive human beings to act in a specific manner. Adler defined the term ‘Goal of Superiority’ as the ultimate fictional finalism that motivates all individuals, and he says that it is known to give rationality and unity to the individual’s personality. Adler further explains that psyche has as its most important intention, the purpose of superiority. This involves the desire to be efficient and proficient in anything that a person strives to do. Adler frequently expressed superiority using the term ‘perfection’ which originally meant ‘to be whole’ or ‘to be completed’ in Latin. According to Adler, life motivated by the need for superiority in one’s society, where an individual’s desires to move from below others to above others in order to gain a sense of superiority over others. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adler explained that feelings of inferiority are not out of the ordinary, but are the basis on which individuals improve their lives and are also the motivation for all types of human accomplishments. He identified the source of these feelings of inferiority as the experiences that individuals have in their interaction with the environment as infants. When practicing general medicine, Adler came across many patients who complained of specific body organs’ inferiority and he later expanded the concept of organ inferiority to incorporate actual or imagined inferiority feelings. Adler realized that an individual’s inferiority was mainly due to his or her cultural assignments and not his or her biological nature as he had earlier identified in his earlier writings, where he had referred to the compensation of an individual’s inferiorities as being as a result of his or her masculine protest. He specifically evidenced this in his research on the inferiority of women. He thus prove that people feels inferior due to the cultural interpretation they make of a specific organ as their culture may lay an overvalued importance of such an organ. Constellation of the good/bad mother archetype in the treatment of early disturbances Giera-Krapp’s, (1989), article puts forward a hypothesis that the transformation of the negative mother complex is usually affected in the treatment of conditions that are presumed to be as a result of pre-verbal disturbances. This is when the patient is accompanied into the sphere of death and also working through the collection of the good or bad mother as well as the counter transference or transference where he or she projects the same to the psychiatrist. In relation to this journal article, Adler had expressed the fact that an individual’s inferiority was mainly due to his or her cultural assignments and in this case, is the good or bad experience he or she had with his or her mother during the process of upbringing. According to Alder, these patients were still projecting the experiences they passed through at their mother’s hands to the society. The societal needs of these particular individuals are dictated by the experiences he or she had as an infant and the perception of society or in this case the individual’s immediate peers in his or her adolescent circles. The individuals may be seen as rebellious to their parents and to the society in general though this is a projection of their need to change their circumstances to what they think is more appropriate for them and which will make them better suited to fit into the society. We will write a custom Research Paper on Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author who is a psychiatrist gives a detailed report on 22 patients who were diagnosed with pre-verbal disturbances. Among these, five were male and the other seventeen were females. Ten of these patients were seen as out-patients while the other twelve were seen as in-patients. They were diagnosed as being paranoid psychoses cases that had hallucinatory phenomenon for seven patients, narcissistic cases for seven other patients, borderline syndrome cases for another 6 patients, and lastly, acute psychoses for the remaining two patients. The paper is a report compiled over a period of eight years and each of the patients was treated for a period ranging from six months to three years. Each patient had sessions ranging from once a week to four times a week (Giera-Krapp, 1989). The body and archetypal rebirth in adolescence This journal article is a summary of a series of fascinating dreams of a specific boy who has just entered puberty and who has been deeply entangled by the Oedipus, Electra complex. The author, Denise Lyard, explains the specific importance of an individual’s body in her analysis of adolescence. The dreams mentioned in this journal article had previously been presented as a long series in 1987 to the Children’s Section of Analytical Psychology and the ones selected for this article are meant for theoretical considerations. The author explains that puberty and specifically adolescence is comparable to the first year of a person’s life in the number of natural changes that take place in the individual’s body (Lyard, 1989). Adler explained that inferiority feelings are not out of the ordinary, but are the basis on which individuals improve their lives and in relation to this journal article, these adolescents express the need to improve his status in society from that of a child to that of an adult. Adler also identified these feelings of inferiority as the motivation for all types of human accomplishment. He identified the source of these feelings of inferiority as the experiences that individuals have in their interaction with the environment as infants. Lyard explains that at birth, an individual is in an amoral state of mind. The second time is when the individual gets to adolescence or puberty, and this is through a series of archetypal processes that are set in motion by the biological effects on sexuality and maturity thereof. As she explains, this gives an individual the opportunity to separate himself or herself from his or her mother’s body at least on a symbolic level. Adolescent states of mind found in patients of different ages seen in analysis. In this article, Astor, (1989), illustrates his thesis that, ‘adolescence is as much a state of mind as a description of a particular age group’. He does this by presenting analytical material gathered from four patients with ages ranging from fifteen years to forty years. Each of the clinical examples given is followed by an explanation where each of the main characteristics of adolescence are identified and emphasized. In writing this article, Astor follows the analytical traditional way of thinking in reference to the term adolescence as a state of mind, as a reference point to not only a specific social structure like the adolescent world, but also to a social structure in the individual’s mind, and in that sense he explains that the term is both meta-psychological and technical (Astor, 1988). This is in line with Adler’s principle that an individual has to be studied as a whole since an individual is indivisible. Not sure if you can write a paper on Inter-psychic Theories Adlerian Theory (in adolescence) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Adler explained that contrary to popular opinion, social interest doesn’t emerge automatically or find constructive expression, but rather, it must have to be natured and cultivated. According to Astor, the social forces of relation are so strong that at times, human beings suppress their instincts in order to conform to societal needs. This is especially evidenced in the case of adolescents where individual actions are as a result of the in-group that is their peers and their immediate society. His idea in the journal article is the main characterization that leads us into identifying the adolescent states of mind, is mainly the prevailing sense of fluidity which often accompanies the young individual’s experimentation with his or her identity, which he says is mostly managed within the adolescents immediate social group. He identifies the differing states of mind in a given individual and focuses on the projection and splitting processes, which prevents their contact with one another. He first identifies a case where in a session with a teenage boy, the boy expresses emotions of confusion, unreality and rage because he was excluded from his parents’ marriage and was raised in an environment where hypocrisy is not distinguishable from the truth, and he describes the session as a bitter attack on the analyst. According to Alder, individuals often come up with their own interpretations of the events that take place in the world. Since the person is not able to completely conjure out these world events he or she often structures or constructs his or her own idea of reality. Adler describes this as fictional finalism and he says that it is neither good nor bad since its goals may vary in usefulness to a person’s life. References Astor, J. (1988). Adolescent states of mind found in patients of different ages seen in analysis. Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 14 (A). Pp. 67-80. Giera-Krapp, M. (1989). Constellation of the good/bad mother archetype in the treatment of early disturbances. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 34. Pp291-292 Lyard, D. (1989). The body and archetypal rebirth in adolescence. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 34: Pp. 292-293.
Overall family structure. Abstract: This paper introduces Helen, Julie, and Garry a family subset from the movie, The Parenthood and provides a description of their overall family structure also seen in the form of a genogram. The paper also includes a literature review of both Behavioral Family Therapy (BFT), and Solution-Focused Family Therapy (SFT) with the author settling on SFT as the preferred method for eliciting change from a systems perspective; which also includes a treatment plan complete with practical interventions using SFT and a GARF analysis from the BFT approach. In addition to noting how Helen and her children relate to the larger family system the learner offers a look into her personal world based on the effects of treating this family. The Family Subset The family subset to be discussed, from the movie The Parenthood, is comprised of a divorced mother of two children, one of which is engaging in teenage premarital sex, and the other is masturbating while watching pornographic films. This core group has expanded to include a husband for the teenage daughter who comes to live in the home of his new in-laws, a love interest for the mother, Helen, who eventually becomes a husband and the needed father figure for the pubescent son, and an extremely disinterested father who is preoccupied with his new life which includes a new set of children in addition to a new wife. Helen is the second child of four born to her parents Mr. and Mrs. Frank Buckman. One of the more noticeable things about the family is the relationship that does not exist between the family patriarch and his older three children. It is especially painful to witness how hard Gil, the eldest son, tries to be such a good father by being so actively involved in the lives of his own children as a way to escape falling into the same pattern of his father’s parenting style. In addition, to the father’s distant relationship with his children is the very passive attitude of the mother. Her every attempt to assert herself into conversation and even the lives of her children are thwarted and ultimately overshadowed by the final say of her authoritative and detached husband. Each of the four children Gil, Helen, Susan, and Larry’s parenting style and success in their sexual/marital relationships can be attributed to the way they interpret their own upbringing. As mentioned earlier, Gil’s desire to have a better relationship with his children has caused him to be extremely high strung which is possibly because of the self imposed pressure to succeed. Also, his oldest son, who he tries the hardest to bond with has been diagnosed with something akin to high-functioning autism to which he blames himself. However, his marital relationship appears to be pretty solid; thus, he has succeeded in not being like his father in the respect that he shows to his wife. Susan, the youngest daughter has chosen a man who was able to tame her wild antics. She found his control to be quite sexually attractive. Susan’s response to her husband is a two-fold result of her bearing witness to her mother being controlled by her father as a child and wanting to rebel against that control while secretly desiring it. Nathan, Susan’s husband, is unlike her father in that he is very involved with their only daughter, Patty. The problem is that Nathan is overly occupied with everything that relates to Patty’s educational capabilities and has included her in every aspect of their lives leaving very little time for intimacy for a still newly married couple. Thus, causing distance in their relationship which forces her to not be like her mother at all, and initiates a separation from him for a while. The youngest son, Larry, has seemingly benefited the most from the paternal relationship because the father saw a lot of himself in this son is not as successful as the other children whose relationships with their dad were not as close. Larry is extremely irresponsible and has only held on to the life lessons taught by his father that enable him to continue on his quest for getting rich quick. Larry does not have a stable companion, has never been married, does not hold a steady job, and has brought home a son whose mother is a Las Vegas showgirl at best. While Larry’s life seems to be the most exciting, he lives rather dangerously and his life is at risk as a result of his out of control gambling which is a part of his quick money schemes. Helen’s children’s behavior is a reflection of the timing of her divorce rather than a reflection of her parenting style. Along with the end of a marital relationship between a husband and a wife during and after the divorce come feelings of failure, blame, and denial. The problem is that those emotions and thoughts are not exclusive to the couple involved but, often are things experienced by a child who is a product of divorce. When the parent who has the children, in this case the mother-Helen, has not adequately dealt with their own feelings concerning the divorce it makes it extremely difficult for them to address the needs, wants, and concerns of their offspring. Helen’s children’s actions are in relation to an unsmooth transition due to being a product of a “bad” divorce (CarterOverall family structure
Review the video interview ( – password subsistence). In approximately 100 words, write a reflection on what you learned about Business For Good from the speaker. In approximately 100 words, discuss what you learned from the speaker that is directly applicable to your project. my project is about the Eritrea water crisis and how to help with water supply and the water crisis
Art History question.

1) How did Protestant views of art affect artistic production in the Netherlands?2) Visit the Google Art Project: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. View of Toledo by El Greco is on view at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Examine the work with an eye toward the artist’s use of white. Follow the bridge and wall and town, and then the sky. How has El Greco used white for expressive purposes?3) Compare and contrast the religious messages posited in both the altarpiece and in the Fall of Man.What similar debts to the aesthetic values of the Renaissance and to classicism do both these works share? (I uploaded the pictures)4) You have been asked to select paintings that illustrate economic conditions in Spain and Northern Europe in the 16 th century. Identify the three paintings you will include and explain your selections.5) Visit the Metropolitan Museum of Art and read the description of Pieter Brueghel the Elder’s printSloth ( Sloth- Desidia (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. . Explain how this print represents Northern European iconography during the Reformation. How does it relate to the images by the artist in your text?If you are unable to find this print on their website- pick a diferent work by the artist that is not in the book and perform a similar analysis. Make sure you list the title and date of the work you are referencing in your response.6) Select three examples of art and architecture that illustrate the relationship of art and politics in 16th -century Northern Europe and Spain. Explain your choices and how they relate to each other as well as differentiate different concepts of art and politics.
Art History question

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Write a two-page (double spaced) summary of that topic. I’m studying for my Psychology class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Purpose and Structure
The goal for this assignment is for you to learn about one area of
psychology that we have covered more in depth. This should also help you to practice your writing skills and formatting.
These writing and formatting skills will be super important throughout your university career,
and especially if you continue on in psychology.
Pick a topic that interests you from the chapters in your book. Write a two page (double spaced)
summary of that topic IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Do not just copy what the textbook says this
is a relatively short assignment so all content (aside from definitions…) should be entirely in
your own words. You should focus on defining the
area (e.g., what is personality psychology?), mentioning

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Classifications of Snakes and Reptiles

online assignment help Classifications of Snakes and Reptiles. Reptiles are some of the oldest living creatures on the planet and made their first appearance some 300 million years ago. It is believed that the first species of snakes contained limbs which became more and more reduced through great periods of time, this phenomenon can be seen as a clear indicator just how evolution took place within a group of organisms. Today vestigial structures occur in certain serpent families such as Pythonidae and Boidae, and are remnants of structures they once possessed. Spurs which occur in the posterior position opposite the cloacae in Boas and Pythons is a clear example of vestigial structures that formed through time. Snakes are carnivorous reptiles that belong to the order Squamata (Lepidosuaria), which is regarded the most important assemblage, as far as snakes are concerned. Squamates is a very diverse group of ectothermic (organisms that rely on their external environment to obtain the energy needed to facilitate metabolic and other processes crucial for life), amniote vertebrates which contain the distinct characteristic of being elongated and covered in overlapping scales. Squamata is subdivided into three distinct suborders: Ophidia or Serpentes, containing snakes, Sauria containing lizards and Amphisbaenia containing worm- lizards. The suborder Ophidia contains 15 families which are subdivided into 456 genera that consist of more than 2900 species. Snakes have one of the widest distributional ranges in the animal kingdom, covering the whole planet except Antarctica (Figure 1.1). In South Africa alone there occurs 166 species and subspecies of snakes, 101 of these species have enlarged fangs to deliver venom of which only 15 are regarded as very dangerous and potentially fatal to man. This means that of all our snake species only 8.5% are classified as dangerous, where administration of antivenin is deemed necessary. The remainder of venomous species is of no medical importance to man, in fact in some species the toxicity of their venom is less than that found in bees and wasps. There are a few morphological characteristics of Ophidia which distinguishes them from the other two suborders e.g. the lack of eyelids, external ears, the lack of limbs and the occurrence of a single row of ventral scales, whereas lizards and amphisbaenas differ in the sense that they have various patterns of scales that do not occur in specific rows. Amphisbaenians scale formation is atypical in the sense that scales are arranged in rows around the body of the animal thus supposedly mimicking the resemblance of an earthworm. The skulls of Serpents are very unique in the sense that their upper jaw bones aren’t united/interconnected at snout of the animal, this enables the two jaw bones to act separate form one another and enables the snake to swallow large prey items. In contrary to popular belief snakes can however not dislocate or unhinge their jaws to swallow large prey items, the two upper jaws are simply connected to each other through connective tissue which is highly elastic and serves as the binding factor between the jaws. Snakes fulfill a crucial role/function in nature and can be seen as an integral aspect of our environment both as key predators and as prey. They assist in regulating rodent numbers and are good indicators of the natural balance of the environment (bio-indicators). In addition to this, research and development is being done on the properties of venom in the medical field. Research is being conducted on the applications of venom in fields such as high blood pressure, mental disorders and diseases of the central nervous system to mention but a few. Such is the complexity of venom that further studies, beneficial to man, are essential. It is there for imperative that we conserve our snakes not only for the preservation of our environment, but also for the wellbeing of mankind. Evolution that took place within the Class Reptilia Reptiles evolved from prehistoric amphibians called Labrynthodonts (Flank, 1997), and according to paleontologists made their first appearance in the Pennsylvanian era some 300 million years ago. They were also the first vertebrates to escape dependency on water. The earliest forms of reptiles suggested a mixture of both amphibian and reptilian characteristics, and diversified greatly over the next 200 million years. Reptiles were the dominant animal group on earth during the Mesozoic period, and were represented by 15 major groups. Only 4 of these orders survive today. Extinct are the fishlike Ichtyosaurus, sail-backed Pelycosaurs, flying Pterosaurs, Mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, well-known dinosaurs like Brachiosaurs and many others. The dinosaurs included the largest animals ever to walk on earth-the Sauropods, some of them reaching lengths of nearly 27 meters long. Many of the less familiar dinosaurs were no longer than chickens. (Carr,1963) Several basic advances made possible the rise and wide distribution of reptiles on land. Most important was the amniote egg, with its tough outer covering and protective membranes, and a cornified skin that protected the animals from drying out. The positioning of the limbs also made it possible for reptiles to move more easily on land, and an improved circulatory system ensured that oxygen rich blood reached the animals. In their Mesozoic heyday, Reptiles dominated the land, seas and air, and the reason for their dramatic decline during this period is still not clear, although there are some speculation by biologists that the decline was probably caused by a meteor shower which altered a dramatic change in climate and giving rise to the so called Ice Age. Warm blooded vertebrates (Birds and Mammals) began to expand by the end of the Mesozoic period. By the time the Cenozoic period arose only 4 orders of reptiles still existed, and these same four have persisted to this day. The order Rhynchocephalia is represented by only one species, the lizzardlike, granular scaled Tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) confined to New Zealand where its survival is now threatened. The remaining 3 orders have representatives throughout the world. The order Testudines (turtles) is the most ancient, appearing about 250 million years ago and remaining virtually unchanged for the past 200 million years. The order Crocodylia (crocodilians) is slightly less ancient and is traceable to the Permian thecodonts. The order Squamata refers to scaled reptiles that include lizards, amphisbaenids and snakes. This is the most recent order and was not common until the late Cretaceous times about 65 million years ago. In order to classify snakes or other organisms it is necessary to understand the origin and evolution of the species and place them into specific genera and families (Figure 1.2) Scientists believe that modern day snakes evolved from the family Varanidae, a group of lizards that belong to the genus Veranus. The fossils of Lapparentophis defrennei (Figure 1.3) was found in North Africa as we know it today, and it represents the earliest member of the suborder Ophidia. This species however shows no direct link between earlier snake like reptiles, and its origin continues to boggle biologists. Lapparentophis defrennei appeared on the earth around 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and were around for about 35 million years, were after it got extinct by the end of the Cretaceous period. Boidae was one of the seven families of snakes that arose after the Cretaceous period and was at its peak of speciation during this time. Colubridae in modern day times is the family that contains the largest amount of different snake species, and first emerged some 36 million years ago during the late Eocene, and the beginning of the Oligocene period. During this time Colubrids started to diversify at an immense rate and eventually gave rise to more new species during the Miocene period. This diversification led to the disappearance of some of the more primitive lineages of snakes because they could no longer compete with the better adapted species that was starting to evolve. Viperidae (vipers, rattle snakes and adders) and Elapidae (front fixed fang snakes generally cobras and mambas and their relatives) originated during the Miocene period and belongs to the infraorder Alethinophidia. The family Viperidae is by far the most advanced evolved species of snake in the world and contains highly specialized structures that enable them to be a very successful hunters e.g. heat- sensitive pits that developed on the upper labial and a brightly colored tail tip that occur in Agkistrodon sp. This is just one example of how specialized this family of serpents is to survive. Distinguising features of the suborder Ophidia All snakes are elongated, lack eyelids, external ears and osteoderms. Snakes poses a forked tongue which can be retracted into a sheath (Figure 2.1) All have along backbone. (Some have in excess of 400 vertebrae), with many articulated ribs used predominantly for locomotion and maintaining body shape. The lower jaw is not fused, which allows the snake to engulf large items. They do however not dislocate their jaw. Prey is subdued either by constriction or by the injection of venom. In the case of venomous snakes small prey items are bitten and held in the mouth until paralysis or death occurs, whereas large prey items are bitten and released to ensure that damage do not occur to the snake. The majority of species have only the right lung but more primitive species such as Pythonidae and Boidae also contains a rudimentary left lung. Unlike lizards the tail cannot be regenerated. All snakes shed their skin. All snakes hatch from eggs, some are Oviparous (eggs hatch outside the females body), and some are ovoviviparous (eggs hatch inside the mothers body thus giving birth to live young). Classification of snakes Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Squamata Suborder: Ophidia (Serpentes) Infraorders: -Alethinophidia -Scolecophidia The classification of snakes are based on different morphological structures The general morphology of snakes is a crucial factor used in their Taxonomy. Factors such as the arrangement of bones in the skull and other parts of the skeleton, especially the presence or absence of a pelvic girdle are used to distinguish between separate and subspecies of snakes. The hypapohyses (vertebrae with downward pointing spike like projections), the coronoid bone (a small bone that occur in the lower jaw), structures of the hemipenes (Figure 2.2, Jadin, 2000) and microscopic and biochemical material such as chromosome arrangement and protein analyses are also used in classification of snakes. The presence or absence hypapohyses, especially in the lumbar region of the spine, is used as one of many diagnostic characters when classifying snakes. The hypapohyses is very prominent in the genus Dasypeltis which use them too saw trough egg shells. There occurs much variation in the shape and size of the coronoid bone. It is particularly large in primitive snakes such as Typhlopidae, Leptotyphlopidae and Anomalepididae. The coronoid bone is very small or absent altogether in advanced snake species. A hemipenis is the sex organ of male Squamates. Male snakes has two hemipenes probably for the reason that when one is damaged or injured, it still left with a spare one which can remain to work and carry out its normal function during copulation. This ensures that the male’s genes don’t get lost and can still be carried over through copulation with females. Hemipenes, under normal conditions are used in an alternating fashion when copulation occurs with female individuals. Sperm is carried through the sulcus spermaticus (which is the line running through the middle of a male’s hmipenis) to the female during copulation. By examining the tail of an individual we are able to distinguish its sex. Males usually have a long tail which contains prominent bulges of where the hemipenes are situated and females usually have very short tails without the occurrence of any prominent bulges. The shapes of hemipenes differ greatly from species to species and contain different cranial structures thus forming a very important method for taxonomists to classify snakes into different species and subspecies. Relationships that occur between different species of Squamates as a result of evolution is best explained through the examination hemipenal characteristics of the different species. The function of the spines and ridges that occurs on hemipenes of different species of male snakes, serves as an adaption to ensure that copulation lasts long enough for egg fertilization to occur. Biology Hearing and Vision Snakes cannot hear airborne sounds due to the fact that they do not posses external ears. Snakes do however have an auditory nerve enabling them to hear sounds travelling through a dense medium. They are extremely sensitive to vibrations and can thus detect someone or something approaching them. For this reason people seldom see snakes whilst walking in the bush, the snake senses the vibrations created by footsteps and beats a hasty retreat for cover. There is however snakes that do not retreat when approached and this is a direct result of the morphological attributes they contain. Bitis arietans, Bitis atropos and, Bitis gabonica, are species of snakes that rather rely on their camouflage to conceal them from potential predators and dangers than to move away, and it is not surprising to find out that Bitis arietans is responsible for 60% of all snake bites in Southern Africa. Contrary to popular believe snakes do have good vision. How else would they safely navigate through the bush except of course via smell? Their vision however is used mainly for detecting movement. Most snakes have monocular vision (unable to distinguish depth of field) whilst some snakes have binocular vision (able to distinguish depth of field) e.g. Thelotornis capensis and Dispholidus typus. Snakes do not have movable eyelids, instead they possess a fixed transparent shield which covers the eye and is shed during sloughing. Sense of smell For this function the snake uses its tongue. The tongue is flickered; picking up minute airborne particles which when retracted back into the mouth is deposited onto organs situated in the roof of the mouth. These organs are known as the organs of Jacobson. Studies have shown that snakes enjoys a similar sense of smell as we do, the epithelium of the organs of Jacobson works in exactly the same way as the olfactory epithelium we as humans possess. The tongue is forked so that the snake can detect the differences in strength of smell and thus enabling it to locate its prey very accurately. Snakes diet consists of quite a few prey items such as: rats, mice, small mammals, birds, frogs, toads, insects, lizards, fish, small antelope, eggs and other snakes, which is swallowed whole usually head first. Shedding Shedding of skin depends primarily on the growth rate. Juveniles for example shed their skin more often than adults for the simple reason that they are growing faster. Juveniles may shed their skin as often as twelve times a year whereas an adult may only shed its skin three to four times a year. During this process the entire skin is shed from the tip of the snout through to the tail including the eye shields. During this time the snakes eyes become opaque, restricting the snake’s vision and therefore making the snake not only more vulnerable, but also more aggressive. A snake may often go into hiding during this period. You may also find snakes basking for longer periods prior to shedding, the reason being higher temperature speeds up the development of new skin, thus reducing the vulnerability period. Cold Blooded – (Ectothermic) and Hibernation All members of the order Squamata are so called cold blooded (exothermic) organisms. This simply means that unlike mammals and birds which generate heat internally (endothermic), reptiles obtain their heat externally, usually from the sun. All reptiles will bask in the sun absorbing heat from their environment until their bodies reach the correct optimal temperature (± 30°C) which allows them to function at their maximum potential. The advantage of ectothermy is that it is fuel efficient. Mammals on the other hand convert 90% of what they eat into heat in order to maintain biochemical and muscle efficiency which allows mammals the opportunity to function at colder temperatures. This method demands a constant intake of food. Reptiles however become temporarily dormant at colder temperatures and thus waste no energy. A snake can survive and grow on ten to fifteen meals a year. Reptiles will go into hibernation when their optimal body temperature cannot be achieved from the environment. In areas where there is a significant fluctuation in temperature snakes will go into hibernation. The correct term used is topor. Areas such as the lowveld where there is no significant temperature variations will see reptiles not going into true hibernation but rather into a state of burmation. During hibernation snakes live off the body fat accumulated during the warm periods of the summer, and will exhibit very little signs of activity, thus becoming sluggish. A snake will use anything that will offer it protection against the elements and predation. Sites which are used by Squamates during the winter or cold times of the year for hibernation include deserted termite mounds, hollow logs and rock crevices. Reproduction Sexually active males will approach any snake they come across. The reaction of the approached snake will determine how the encounter develops. If the approached snake is a male and reacts aggressively it may give rise to a battle between the two parties. Battles vary according to species, Vipers and Elapids generally engage in a form of ritualistic wrestling, but refrain themselves from biting each other. Colubrids however react violently and bite each other severely. In some species of snakes several males group together amicably and follow a receptive female. Should there be no reaction from the approached snake the sexually active male uses its Vermonasal organ to chemically determine the species and sex of the snake it has approached. It does so with the use of its tongue interpreting the pheromones emitting from the other snake. Should it be of a different species, the male then seeks out a new mate. All reptiles have internal fertilization. The male places his head on the back of the female and winds his tail around the females and attempts to join their cloacas together. This is seldom achieved at the first attempt. It sometimes takes hours, even days, for successful copulation to take place. The sexual organs of the male consist of two penises, referred to as the hemipenes. Each hemipene is equipped with flexible spines which inflate once penetration has occurred making it difficult for the male and female snakes to become dislodged. Sperm is transferred to the female via a single penis in Crocodilians and Chelonians, and paired penises in lizards and snakes (although only one penis is used at a time). Once mating has taken place the male will often stay with the female for a few days to mate again. Fertilization of the ovule and spermatozoid takes place high in the oviduct, then the egg gradually moves down into the oviduct where the uterine glands secrete a substance which surrounds the egg. The length of the embryonic development depends on the species and also within the species depending on climate (temperature), and ranges from 2-5 months. As stated before all snakes hatch from eggs. The method of incubation however does differ between some species. The majority of snakes lay eggs andleave them to be incubated externally (oviviparous) with no parental care whatsoever. Species such as Python natalensis coils around their eggs throughout incubation. This not only protects the eggs but also regulates the temperature to help assist with incubation. In other species such as Hemachatus haemachatus the female retains the eggs inside her body to produce fully developed live young (viviparous). Between four to eight weeks after mating the female selects a suitable site to deposit her eggs. The site chosen is usually a suitably protected place in the form of rotting vegetation, hollow tree trunks or any other suitable location. The number of eggs deposited depends on a variety of circumstances for example, species, size of the female, habitat (availability of food), age and climate. Eggs laid vary between one and two to as many as 60, sometimes more, depending on factors mentioned above. Eggs usually have soft leathery shells which require a specific amount of heat and humidity in order to ensure that hatch. Once the eggs have been laid there is often no parental care with the exception of a few species. In South Africa the young of Python natalensis may stay with the female for several days after hatching, leaving the burrow by day and returning to the female at night. In most reptiles the sex of hatchlings is determined by temperature, for example outer eggs (cooler) will be female while the inner eggs (warmer) within the nest will be male. The eggs usually hatch between one to three months after the female has deposited them. In the case of some species of chameleons eggs might take up to a year to hatch. The young are equipped with an egg tooth consisting of a sharp ridge on the tip of the snout which allows the young to slit open the eggshell thus freeing itself. The young that emerges are exact replicas of the adults, and the hatchlings of venomous snakes are equipped with fully functional venom glands and fangs, and are thus venomous directly from birth. Egg mortality is quite high. Reasons for egg mortality range from predation to unsuitable nest sites chosen. Giving birth to live young may be an evolutionary process to assure the success of a species, reducing the risk of egg mortality in particularly cold areas where the temperatures won’t be adequate enough for incubation. Movement (LocomotionClassifications of Snakes and Reptiles

MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions

MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions.

No Plagiarism , No Matching will be acceptable .clear and presented using APA Style Reference .All answers must be typed using Times New Roman ( Size12 , Double-space)font .No pictures containing text will be acceptable and will be considered plagiarism.proper examples and explanations for each questions.- No short answer as it’s not acceptable for this assignment the answer should be sufficient .References are very important to put them under the solution.Book name : Noe, R. and Hollenbeck J., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. ( 2019) Human Resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage (11th ed.).
MGT 211 Saudi Electronic University Human Resource Management Questions

Miami Dade College Nursing Leadership and Management Questions

Miami Dade College Nursing Leadership and Management Questions.

Please read the questions below and answer them in order.Read Chapters 2 & 3 and answer the questions below. Attached PDF book.First Set of Questions1.Discuss the differences between a leader and a manager.2. Which is more important, working for an effective leader or an effective manager? Explain your answer.3. Observe the nurse manager in a unit to which students have been assigned. What management style is displayed? How does the staff respond to this style4. What qualities do you think are most important to be a good nurse manager?Second Set of Questions1. Interview the nurse manager on your assignment unit. What interpersonal, decisional, and informational activities does he or she complete on a daily basis?2. You are the nurse manager on your unit. One of the most experienced staffers has been out on sick leave, and another just had a baby. The rest of the staff are working very hard to pick up the slack to avoid using agency personnel. What tangible and intangible rewards might you use to thank the staff?3. PART 1: Begin by writing a 50-word description of the ideal nurse manger, someone you would like to work for. Describe a real-life nurse manager whom you have encountered in one of your clinical rotations. What qualities of this person meet your ideal? In what ways does this individual not meet your ideal? (Reminder: nobody’s perfect.)PART 2: Think about becoming an ideal manager yourself. What qualities of an ideal manager do you already possess? What qualities do you still need to develop? How will you accomplish this?Third Set of Questions1. Find your own state’s requirements for informed consent. Do elective procedures and emergency situations use the same standard?2. Obtain a copy of your state’s Nurse Practice Act. Does the act give adequate guidance for nurses to know if an action is within the scope of nursing practice?Fourth Set of Questions1. Explain how the Nurse Practice Act in your state provides for consumer protection and for professional nursing progress.2. What are your thoughts on multistate licensure? How does it strengthen and weaken professional nursing?3. As a new nurse, how can you ensure confidentiality in clinical settings?4. How can nurses safeguard the confidentiality of medical information when sending it by fax or e-mail?5. Explain the role of the nurse in obtaining informed consent. Do you believe that this is within the scope of nursing practice? Explain your answer.6. Should nurses carry malpractice insurance? Explain your answer.7. Should all patients have advance directives? Explain your answer.8. Should employers be permitted to require nurses to work overtime if there is a shortage of registered nursing staff on a unit? Support your answer with evidence from the literature.Please let me know if you have any questions.Thank you
Miami Dade College Nursing Leadership and Management Questions