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Integrated Project Evaluation and Selection Using Multiple-Attribute Decision Making Technique Research Paper

Introduction Investments are always very costly ventures that every individual would take a lot of precaution to ensure that it is done in the right way. For any project to be made a success, several issues must be put into consideration in order to ensure that it works as predetermined. For a long period, many business corporations had not given project evaluation the right attention. This was probably due to less technological advancement and less competition by then. However, things are very different today. The world is changing due to changes being brought about by emerging technologies. According to Davidson (2003), many businesses were found unawares by these changes in technology. This scholar says that these changes have redefined the business world. Some of the giant firms were brought to their knees because they were not able to implement the right projects when the environmental conditions demanded for the same. Hamilton (2004) says that the world market has gotten increasingly competitive. On one end, suppliers are getting more autonomous hence more dictatorial when dealing with business units. They therefore have to be paid more for their products. On the other hand, customers have gotten increasingly demanding. The world is now opened up to free communication. Customers have access to the information as it freely flows to the advancement in communication techniques with the help of the phones, mass media, and social media. As such, they know what they want and know that they can always ask for more satisfaction and get it at a lower price. Business firms are also lacking in creativity. As such, they are coming up with projects that are similar to those of competing firms. This duplication of projects has created market that has products that are similar, creating a saturation hence reducing the bargaining power of such business units. Above are some of the challenges that a business unit has to contend with in the current market. It may not be easy to make it through. It is common to see firms fall because of lack of the ability to get hold of the market. In Harvey (2005) words, a firm in the current world market has to be very specific with its strategies, keen to monitor the market changes and smart to implement the best practice in the market, failure of which, there would be no alternative but to bow out of this highly competitive race. Project Evaluation Project evaluation is therefore one of the most important tasks that a firm must ensure that it does well and in time in order to avoid a possible fallout. Projects are always a creation of a creative mind. One would sit and come up with a brilliant idea of how to give a specific market a new approach. It is always through such ideas that firms always find it easy to manage a competitive market. Through these projects, a firm is able to design new ways in the market that would help it stay a step ahead of the competition in the market. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As stated above, given that projects are creations of the mind, there are possibilities that some projects may fail to be up to the standards of the market. This can be due to a number of reasons. The first reason can be that the project can be too ambitious to be realized. Some projects look so good and attractive in paper. However, taken to the field they would barely pass the test of reality. Such projects would require toning down to realistic sizes that a firm could successfully employ to give desirable results. On the other hand, a project can be too weak to be effective in the given market. Some people would base their ideas of the past events that may not be holding truth in the current market to develop a given project. Such project would only consume time and other resources of a firm but when it comes to the implementation, it would take the firm several miles back, a step that can be suicidal given the current competitive business world. In some instances, a project may be perfect, with the ability to give desirable results to the firm but its cost may be prohibitive. These projects may need evaluation and revaluation to ensure that they can be implemented within the financial constrains of the firm. Given the above facts, it goes without saying that project evaluation and selection is very important to a firm because it would help the firm manage the competitive market. Some factors have to be considered when evaluating a project. Any given project would be multifaceted. There are various factors to be considered in a given project before it can be selected in a number of projects as the best. This ranges from financial, to environmental (both internal and external environments) and the timelines. This has resulted in what is popularly referred to as integrated project evaluation and selection. In it integrated because it involves looking at various facets of a project simultaneously in order to ascertain its viability. Before a firm can settle on the project, all these factors have to be considered. To help in this process, social scientists have developed scientific methods that involves multiple decision making techniques that makes it easier and more effective for firms to determine how appropriate a project is. We will write a custom Research Paper on Integrated Project Evaluation and Selection Using Multiple-Attribute Decision Making Technique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This study seeks to investigate how a firm can successfully determine affectivity of a project through integrated project evaluation and selection using multiple-attribute decision-making technique. Objectives The objective of this study is to determine how a firm can effectively scan and evaluate projects through integrated project evaluation and selection using multiple-attribute decision-making technique. The Staff members at Wynn Inc were called upon to help in this process. The decision to use the employees other than the management staff was reached upon the realization that they always develop most of the decisions. Unlike the management staff that always spends most of their time in the office, employees are always in the field, interacting with the world on a daily basis. As such, they have first hand that was considered very helpful in this research. Methodology Research Method This chapter focuses on various aspects of research development. It includes methods of data collection, analysis, and presentation. Every research project applies a certain research method to achieve its objectives depending on its goals. The methods used to conduct research in this project would compare closely with the methods proposed in the project proposal (Anderson, 2004) In research, design deals primarily with aims, uses, purposes, intentions, and plans within the practical constraints of time, location, money, and availability of staff (Hakim, 2000). In this study, respondents were briefed in advance. The officials of various organizations were given relevant notice before the onset of the research. The study population would be informed amicably to get it prepared for the study. Briefing was important because it could enhance reliability of the study. It is also ethical to inform people before researching on them. The findings were also made public to the researched as one way of ensuring morality in the study. Furthermore, ethics was observed in the research by keeping away from criticism. The response rate was high because the participants were clearly informed that the study was purely academic. This encouraged many employees at Wynn to fill in their questionnaires. Research Model This research utilized quantitative research methods in conducting the study and collecting data. Quantitative research was used because it aims at summarizing data mathematically. In this regard, the research took the form of a survey, whereby some individuals were identified, and the questionnaires posted to them. Not sure if you can write a paper on Integrated Project Evaluation and Selection Using Multiple-Attribute Decision Making Technique by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The sampled population was selected randomly in order to eliminate biases. Follow-ups were made by conducting respondents on phone. Interviewing is another method of data collection that was used in this research. More information was extracted from respondents by calling them. Questionnaire Design There were two key methods used to gather information in this report. The first one was through a questionnaire, which was administered online to the heads of various projects in fifteen organizations. The questionnaire sought to capture various attitudes of heads of projects regarding the effectiveness of multiple-attribute decision-making technique. The second source of information used for the research was literature on various aspects motivation. The focus of the literature review was to find information on the application of multiple-attribute decision-making techniques and to determine the current state of research in the use of the technique. The questionnaire had four parts. The first part sought to capture the bio-data information of respondents. The second part dealt with the demography and gender of the respondents. This was to ascertain the prevalence of views in various categories in order to ensure that if any differences came about, then they would be captured in their demographic space. The third part dealt with academic credentials and work experience. The motivation for this section came from the understanding that different sections of population respond differently to management techniques, based on age and academic credentials. The fourth part delved into the specific issues relating to multiple-attribute decision-making technique, starting from the understanding of the concept to the possible effects it would have on projects. The questionnaire also employed a mix of open ended and closed ended questions to capture different aspects of issues studied. Open-ended questions were used because they give respondents more time to figure out their opinions, which would make them volunteer more information related to feelings, outlooks, and comprehension of the subject. This would enhance understanding of the position of respondents as regards to feelings. Open-ended questions minimize some errors that could have been created in the course of research. Respondents rarely forget answers if given an opportunity to respond freely. Furthermore, respondents cannot ignore some questions because they must go through all of them. Open-ended questions generate data that can be used in data analysis by other relevant authorities. In other words, they allow secondary data analysis. On the other hand, closed-ended questions are analyzed easily. That is why they were used in this study. Each response can be coded for statistical interpretation. Nonetheless, closed-ended questions are compatible with computer analysis package. The technique is specific meaning that its answers are consistent in all conditions. This aspect is impossible with open-ended questions because each respondent is allowed to use his or her own words. Finally, closed-ended questions take less time to administer unlike open-ended questions, which are detailed hence time consuming. The questionnaires were sent to the respective respondents through the internet. The decision was arrived at after considering time and resources. The method is cost less and less time consuming. Furthermore, the method allows respondents to reflect on the questions and answer them accurately. Employing research assistants would be problematic because of the sensitivity of the study. Many people would be reluctant to give their views freely. The method is ineffective because answers are dependent on each other. The respondent might not have filled the questions themselves. Moreover, the method is affected by the respondent’s level of literacy. One big disadvantage of the technique is that there is no interaction between the researcher and the researched. This means that respondent’s reactions are not captured. Reactions are important because they give more information regarding the feelings of respondents. Generally, the technique is more applicable where there is need for numbers, not deep feelings of the respondent. In this study, the interest was in identifying the number of project managers who feel multiple-attribute decision-making technique is the suitable method of evaluating projects. The literature collected provided information regarding various theories of project evaluation and assessment across the last four decades. This provides a historical perspective since the area of project evaluation started receiving specific attention at that period. Secondly, the literature availed a number of theories dealing with the application of multiple-attribute decision-making technique in the business world and project management in the context of program evaluation and assessment. The projects selected for study fit well within this parameter. Finally, the literature provided information on the state of research on the field. Various social scientists have conducted studies on various elements of multiple-attribute decision-making technique and its effect on projects. This gave the study a sound academic backing and a strong basis for drawing comparisons and conclusions. The use of the questionnaire made it possible to capture issues that are unique to project evaluation and monitoring using multiple-attribute decision-making technique. This is because there was no accessible literature with required degree of relevance to the subject matter about multiple-attribute decision-making technique. The targeted staff responded to the questionnaire online. The availability of staff influenced the choice of this method because the project heads operate throughout and therefore it is not possible at any one time to find all of them in one place. An online questionnaire reduced the costs of data collection, assured confidentiality, and was available throughout for the staff for a fixed period (Kerzner, 2003). After collection, the data went through analysis, culminating the observations and conclusions discussed in chapter three and four, respectively. The Project This was a project to determine how effective projects can be evaluated using the integrated approach. In using multiple-attribute making technique, members of the project would have to get actively involved in the process. The members came up with the projects to be evaluated. They have the experience from the field and as such, their input is invaluable in this process. At first, the projects would have to be put together and the best selected for evaluation. It is important that the management team justify why some of the projects that other members of the team could have developed cannot be implemented. This is very important because the members would feel that their efforts were appreciated, only that this time they were not good enough. It would be a challenge and a motivation for them to work hard next time and develop projects that would meet the expectation of the entire team members. It is also important that they be informed of the possible mistakes they could have made in their previous works. This would help tune them positively for the process of evaluation and selection of the evaluation. The project manager should then table all the projects that are considered effective to be implemented. Members should be allowed enough to time to study the project and conduct personal evaluations on them. This can be done before the team can sit for the discussion and evaluation. The team that came up with each project would then be given opportunity to explain their project to the entire team, categorically stating expected benefits against the possible challenges. It is from this that the project would be discussed. The team would be put to task to explain how the challenges can be overcome, and how the stated benefits would be able to counter the possible challenges in this research. The team members would then be given the opportunity to discuss the project from all the possible angles. Because they had been given opportunity to go through the proposed project earlier, they would have question as regard to a possible loophole in the project. In this process, it is important that members not simply be subjected to questioning. They should also come up with the best ways or additives they think would add value to the project. This way the team would be in opposition to come up with the best possible project out of the number that could have been proposed (Van,
Campbellsville University Wk 2 Impact of Big Data on Businesses Discussion.

Research paper basics: 8-10 pages in length APA formatted Minimum six (6) sources – at least two (2) from peer reviewed journals Include an abstract, introduction, and conclusion See rubric for more detailed grading criteria Some good questions to ask yourself before turning in your research paper: Is the paper of optimal length? Is the paper well organized? Is the paper clear and concise? Is the title appropriate? Does the abstract summarize well? Are individual ideas assimilated well? Are wording, punctuation, etc. correct? Is the paper well motivated? Is interesting problem/issue addressed? Is knowledge of the area demonstrated? Have all key reference been cited? Are conclusions valid and appropriate?
Campbellsville University Wk 2 Impact of Big Data on Businesses Discussion

Anthropology homework help. This is a paper that requires the student to discuss the problematic relationship that Italian American women writers face. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assessment description to follow:,Problematic relationship that Italian American women writers face,Discuss the problematic relationship that Italian American women writers/poets/filmmakers/performers reveal with their cultural tradition. How does this cultural tradition define women within the bounds of the domestic space and how do the women artists and writers depict and react to the domestic space and to the traditional role of woman? Discuss how the Italian American women must negotiate between the public and private spheres, between the family and the individual, between self-denial and self-affirmation.,In the paper, you may also wish to consider how the cult of the Virgin (the figure of the “Madonna”), which shapes definitions of ,femininity, in Italian American culture, has had tremendous repercussions on external perception and self-representations of women. How do the Italian American women writers/filmmakers/pop artists that we have treated in the latter part of the course respond and react to this iconic image, Helen Barolini: “How I Learned to Speak Italian” (see also interview in video “Women’s History Month”,Louise De Salvo: from “A Portrait of the Puttana as a Middle-Aged Woolf Scholar” and from “Vertigo”,Daniela Gioseffi: “Bicentennial Anti-Poem for the Italian-American Women” (see also interview in video “Women’s History Month”),Sandra Gilbert: “Mafioso”,Madonna: “Like a Virgin” and “Like a Prayer”,Lady Gaga: “Eh, Eh (Nothing Else I can Say)”,Nancy Savoca: True Love,Remember, ensure that the pages are exclusive of the cover and the reference pages. Also, ensure that you include all the references you use in finding research for this assignment paper. References should be at least three for the paper. All references, citation, and writing should follow the APA formatting and styling guidelines. Finally, ensure you focus on the assignment topic in detail.,.Anthropology homework help

Professional Networking Assignment

Professional Networking Assignment.

“Professional Networking”Select ONE of the following:Discuss three (3) reasons for utilizing professional networking during the job-hunting process. Note: Some potential points to consider include: developing a professional network, experiences you had presenting your resume at a job fair, or interaction on professional networking websites such as Linkedin.If you do not have experience with professional networking, you should do some light research into your intended career field and discuss three (3) relevant professional organizations that may be a benefit to you when looking for a job following graduation.Extra credit:Provide a link to an article or video that is pertinent to the above discussion and write a quality 250 word commentary which would include a brief summary (25-40 words) and a discussion on how you have used or will use this information in your own professional/academic life.
Professional Networking Assignment

DELIVERABLE LENGTH: Updated report; New sections with additional paragraphs and 2 tables

essay writing service free DELIVERABLE LENGTH: Updated report; New sections with additional paragraphs and 2 tables.

Type: Individual ProjectUnit: Software Quality & TestingDeliverable Length: Updated report; New sections with additional paragraphs and 2 tablesKey Assignment DraftStart by completing the following for your report:Update all previous sections based on instructor and peer feedback.Change the cover sheet to indicate the current phase, date, etc.Add the sections below to your document.Section 7: Project QualityBased on the model you chose, determine the various project milestones that are within the project. Describe the review process that will take place at each of these milestones, such as the following:At the end of project planning, the charter, project plan, and schedule will be reviewed and approved.At the end of the requirements phase, all requirements and early design documents will be reviewed and approved by a specific person and with a specific focus.There should be at least 8–10 minor and major milestones (could be a document sign-off, to a phase-end).Feel free to create a table of these things, and if necessary, map it to the governance needed and the project management activities.You can do this with a table or a diagram, and put some comments after it describing the key points.This entire section should be very usable. Long paragraphs are not needed. A table or a diagram is more appropriate.Section 8: Product QualityIntroduction:Describe the type of product testing that will take place for this project at a summary level in the opening paragraph of this section.Phases of testing:In the next section, indicate the phases of testing that will take place. Identify the deliverables and approvals that will need to be delivered.Include (at a minimum) the following:UnitIntegrationSystemAcceptancePerformance or usabilityDescribe each type of testing within 2–3 sentences each. Include the goal of each phase of testing, as well as the roles involved.This is an actionable document that a lot of people will use. Present this information in an easy-to-read format, such as a table.
DELIVERABLE LENGTH: Updated report; New sections with additional paragraphs and 2 tables

American Education Redesign

American Education Redesign. Help me study for my Writing class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

American Education Redesign

“What the best and wisest parent wants for his own child, that must the community want for all its children. Any other ideal for our schools is narrow and unlovely; acted upon, it destroys our democracy.”~ John Dewey
The reading for this week discussed three foundational aspects of this course. These include how schooling is conducted in other countries, what can be learned from the policies, purposes, and practices of education systems, or individual schools, from around the world, and the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. education system.
Darling-Hammond (2010) states that, “Creating new schools and innovations is a great American pastime” (p. 264). She also claims that education policy makers have continued to miss the mark on creating an education system that effectively meets the needs of all students that will also assist in building the American economy. What do these types of school systems look like? Which system(s) of redesign would you chose to implement in order to improve the current U.S. education system?
In a 3- to 4-page reflection, respond to the following questions:

How is schooling conducted in other countries?
What can you learn from the policies, purposes, and practices of education systems or individual schools from around the world?
Utilizing this information and relevant additional research, illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. education system.
What system(s) of redesign would you implement to improve this current system?
How would your redesign assist in building the American economy?

Be certain to use APA style for all citations and references. Support your statements with evidence from the Required Studies and your research.
Click here for information on course rubrics.
American Education Redesign

sainith-CS Discussion and 2 replies

sainith-CS Discussion and 2 replies. I’m studying for my Computer Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Task 2: What concerns should be understood about data communications being sent over wireless networks? Discuss the pros and cons of one method of transmission, such as Wireless Application Protocol (Search the Internet for help in wireless networks).
words :250
and also provide replies to below student posts each in 125 words.
harshad – Wireless network can be said as an alternative to traditional wired technology. Most common example would be WIFI, Bluetooth. Wireless technology are radio waves and/or microwaves for wireless communication. It is configured to meet the needs of applications.
The Pros can be the mobility it offers. It improves the efficiency of work done. For e.g.: An employee can be connected to the business while travelling or in the café. It is cost saving as well. No need to invest in long lan wires. It is safer in terms of other factors like people might stumble upon wires and it can temporary stop your work. The wider reach network is a part of it of not having lan wires. When compared to Offices, you have to pay less amount of money to install it and hence small server rooms.
Disadvantages include that your devices are not only physically access but also vulnerable to hackers. At times you may suffer from signal interferences or weaker signal which can impact your mobility. Sometimes even if you are connected to internet transmission may be slow and you must connect to another network or get connected with a lan wire. This is because wired networks generally support greater bandwidth and it can hold large number of devices.
Usually the concern would be of not sharing passwords or keeping financial apps open after using it. Any kind of data if leaked or kept open can be boom for hackers and infected devices in these networks might access other computers and transfer malware. But now-a days there are much security taken by Companies and at public places to avoid such instances but still they are not 100% secured.
pranav – Wireless Communication and Data Transmitting
Firstly, I would like to start off by saying the wireless communication or the data transmission is not hundred percent reliable. These communications and transmissions can be affected by heavy rains, solar flares, snow, high winds etc. Few things to be concerned while using the wireless connectivity, Slower connection speeds than wired, security issues where both bandwidth and information can be accessed, setting up a wireless is more complicated than wired, Data interception can take place, network intrusion, radio jamming and also denial of service sometimes, rogue access points, configuration troubles, passive capturing etc.
Secondly, OMA – Open Mobile Alliance, which refers to a standard body developing open standards for the mobile phone industries. OMA standardizes applicative protocols and its specifications are meant to work with any cellular network technologies. OMA is like an umbrella to many other small initiatives like WAP, Wireless village, SyncML, Location interoperability, Mobile games interoperability, wireless mobile internet, etc. OMA helps in overcoming the decision-taking procedures, releasing schedules, over-lapping specifications, causing duplication from all other small initiatives.
OMA now has merged with IPSO alliance forming a joint organization called OMA spec works. They are tasked with creating and driving a set of global technical deliverables in the mobile and internet of things service layers. This joint organization will now be able to provide developers with more accessibility by quickly transforming an idea into an industry specification and then manage the specification publication and maintenance. It is considered as the home for many lightweightM2M (LwM2M) specification companies.
sainith-CS Discussion and 2 replies