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Instructions: Reading through the historical development of second language teaching. Choose two approaches/methods. Write down how each approach/method addresses

Instructions: Reading through the historical development of second language teaching. Choose two approaches/methods. Write down how each approach/method addresses the followings: The role of the native language Whether specific skills (reading, writing, speaking, listening) are considered to be necessary to learn other skills The role of grammar in the approach/method The role of the teacher Thinking about your own second language learning experiences, what were some teaching methods/approaches that you were exposed to as a learner? MAKE SURE to address both questions APA format
2 assignments to do.

hallo there I have 2 assignments that I want you to do . if you have any questions please askfirst assignment: wellness action planYour assignment is to use the 8 Dimensions of Wellness, the strategies for wellness and academic success, and the Transtheoretical Model to create a personal Wellness Action Plan. (use the questions below as a guide) The first step in determining your Wellness Action Plan involves asking yourself some questions. Start with a list of things that you want to improve. Choose a specific item from your list to focus on.Your Path to Change1. What do you need to do?2. What needs to change in your life for you to accomplish your desire? State the change as specifically as you can. For example, you might state your goal as: I want to increase my daily activity.Your Committed Path to Change What are you making a commitment to do? Choose an initial step that is easy and doable and that will get you moving. Similar to a map, chart your course to your chosen desire. Create strategies that are challenging without being too much. a. Be specific b. Write down what you will do and by when c. Write down how you will measure your successFor example, if you want to increase daily activity, your list might include using an app to track calories burned, drinking more water, walking to class, and going to group fitness classes at the gym 3 times a week. In terms of deadlines, you might say that you will make an appointment with for a free Fitness Equipment Orientation at the Campus Rec fitness center within two weeks and that you will go to one group exercise class before the end of the week. You might measure your success by drinking 8 glasses of water everyday and doing 30 minutes of physical activity at least five days out of the week.Challenges to Your Change What are you up against? 1. List the obstacles that are in your way or you believe could prevent you from reaching your desired destination. For example: When I have a lot of schoolwork, I neglect my physical activity.Strategies to Meet the Challenges How can you overcome the hurdles in your way? 1. Create specific strategies to help you make adjustments in your life or avoid things that will hold you back. For example: When I’m under deadlines for tests, I will make my activity shorter, but I will not skip it.Sources of Support 1. Who can share this journey with you and support you? 2. Who can you count on for encouragement and accountability?For the second Assignment Choose a specific wellness concern or goal that college students might have based on the eight dimensions of wellness. Identify which dimension of the wellness wheel this concern relates to (emotional, environmental, social, occupational, financial, intellectual, physical, or spiritual). . (You can find additional wellness resources here: (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)3-5 sentences describing the wellness goal or concern, the dimension of the wellness wheel it relates to, and either a strategy for working towards the goal or a resource at USF that can help with this goal. Example: Physical Wellness – Improving Sleep – If someone who wants to sleep better, he can pick up a sleep pack from the USF Wellness Center located in the Marshall Student Center. The pack includes ear plugs, an eye mask, sleepy-time tea, and tips for improving sleep. Making sure to only use your bed for sleep (not studying or watching tv) can help you get to sleep better too.
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Climate Change/Social Psychology. Paper details Read the article distributed in class titled The World is Doing Much Better than the Bad News Suggests, by Arthur C. Brooks. Think about, then discuss Brooks’ assertion that we are “doing much better.” What are his measures of what “better” is? How does materialism and economic growth relate to global climate change? In your discussion, refer to the three videos we viewed in class , An Inconvenient Truth, the TED talk by Al Gore, The Case for Optimism on Climate Change, and student activist Greta Thunberg’s address to the United Nations. Cite these important sources by name throughout your discussion (for example, “according to the TED talk by Al Gore,…”) https// (all 10 parts) How can we persuade more members of our society to act to protect the environment from further destruction? What will you do?Climate Change/Social Psychology

University Of Management And Technology Information Technology Essay

This business plan describes a proposed venture to setting up a company called Nerd Patrol to provide individuals and small businesses with a full range of computer and networking services including hardware and software upgrades, hardware repairs, debugging software problems, dealing with network problems etc. Nerd Patrol will be initially owned by John Robbins. Depending on growth development, the company will possibly join with Mary Singh and Nabil Quresh to expand operations and to coverage in widen area. The Market Market research indicated the available niche market able to be occupied by additional businesses of this kind of nature. The very nature of the computing industry with its extraordinary rate of technological development creates a constant need for businesses skilled in updating and advising customers on computer-related issues. Individual home PC users will provide the majority of our business revenue income. Those jobs will typically consist of minor problem resolve and upgrade services such as software installation, hardware upgrade or Operation system upgrade and advising them for changing required. Business Week expects the computing industry to grow at a rate of 12% and the central processor unit speeds to continue to expand for years to come, providing obvious resource for sales. Nerd Patrol has decided to focus mainly on the individual home PC market for many kind of services. These home customers generally request the jobs done be quick, easier and less resource intensive then the opposing small business customer. In addition, this market tends to offer more flexibility for service times allowing a more productive workday and can have better human resources arrangement. Our target market will initially focus on the surrounding areas. Market research indicated there is an plenty of business for a small company such as US Computer Services, Computer Repair Chicago and Northern Computer Service, LLC. If we need exists for increased business, such promotional medium like TV, Internet or printing advertisement will be explored to increase the citizen perception of Nerd Patrol. The next step will be setting up a branch in other state to cover widen area. There are many competitors for the computer upgrade business in the surrounding area. Therefore we expect to be able to attract the price-sensitive market without much work to get involved in the competitive market. Financial Considerations Total start-up expenses are modest. Since Nerd Patrol is a service business and not product oriented, operational costs should remain low through the start-up process. Fixed costs have been set at a reasonably accurate monthly level. This should allow for equipment maintenance and purchase or replacement of basic parts used in performing our services. Somehow hardware parts may require keeping inventory at our shop as well. Variable costs have been set per unit to allow for additional expenses such as travel costs specific to each job. Objectives To provide a computer related service to the district that is in sufficient demand as to generate a profit. Maintain a strong repeat customer base in individual and or small business to maximize growth rate. Become a positive influence in the district in which we operate. Mission To become a contributing unit of society while delivering a services and products of exceptional quality, value and in a timely base. We will treat every customer as if they were our only customer. Providing the best services and suggestions to our customer. Keys to Success * Marketing and Networking being known to the public. * Responsiveness – being an on-call computer paramedic in fast response time. * Quality service – getting the job done right at the first time, offering 100% after service guarantee. * Relationships – developing loyal and repeat customers–retainers. * Experienced in SOHO operating system with Database management solution. * One stop solution to individual home users and small business. Company Summary Nerd Patrol will initially be a sole proprietorship. The goal will be to start the venture as inexpensively as possible with minimal outside financing. Nerd Patrol will be a home office start-up, utilizing one studio room in the owner’s home. Company Ownership Nerd Patrol will be initially owned by John Robbins as a sole proprietorship. Possibly later having Mary Singh and Nabil Quresh join the venture and expanding operations as well as clientele. Start-up Summary Total start-up expenses are modest. This composed of mostly equipment costs along with a few dollars for research of consumer wants and desires and few pads of stationary. Exact allocations are shown on the following table. Since this is a service business and not product oriented, operational costs should remain low through the start-up process. Start-up Requirements Start-up Expenses Legal US$200 Stationery etc. US$40 Brochures US$40 Consultants US$0 Insurance US$0 Rent US$0 Research and development US$20 Expensed equipment US$400 Other US$0 Total Start-up Expenses US$700 Start-up Assets Cash Required US$300 Other Current Assets US$0 Long-term Assets US$0 Total Assets US$300 Total Requirements US$1,000 Start-up Funding Start-up Expenses to Fund US$700 Start-up Assets to Fund US$300 Total Funding Required US$1,000 Assets Non-cash Assets from Start-up US$0 Cash Requirements from Start-up US$300 Additional Cash Raised US$0 Cash Balance on Starting Date US$300 Total Assets US$300 Liabilities and Capital Liabilities Current Borrowing US$0 Long-term Liabilities US$0 Accounts Payable (Outstanding Bills) US$0 Other Current Liabilities (interest-free) US$0 Total Liabilities US$0 Capital Planned Investment Investor 1 US$1,000 Investor 2 US$0 Other US$0 Additional Investment Requirement US$0 Total Planned Investment US$1,000 Loss at Start-up (Start-up Expenses) (US$700) Total Capital US$300 Total Capital and Liabilities US$300 Total Funding US$1,000 3. Services Nerd Patrol will offer computer support, repair, networking, upgrade and also software/hardware debug service to clients of two major categories, individual home PC users and small office users. These categories will define 90% of our operations. 3.1 Service Description Our services can be obtained through direct hourly compensation, or if preferred or more applicable, through a contract situation with pre-defined limits. Network setup will be define as job base and software implementation will be define to charge per function. 3.2 Competitive Comparison Our services are more intensive and accurate than any existing competition in the surrounding metro area. Since we have no excessive overhead we can be focused on delivering exactly what the customer wants, something other computer support providers in this area have a shock with. Also Nerd Patrol also provide hardware and software debug service which others provider not yet have such service in these area. 3.3 Technology Nerd Patrol will operate in an environment with technology that is constantly developing. Keeping up to date will be of essential importance to the profitability of this venture. We will maintain working as well as functional knowledge of all the latest hardware and software available to the public. Our customers will receive the most current versions of all software and hardware upgrades requested. Also providing suggestion to small company for the latest automated software system in order to save the operating cost. Market Analysis Summary Nerd Patrol will provide computer support in both a consulting and technical capacity to individual home PC users and small business owners. Also Nerd Patrol will apply for Microsoft authorization to sell their product like Microsoft Dynamics which is a pre-defined ERP system which can be customize. Since Nerd Patrol is currently a one man operation it will be limited in growth to the capacity of work able to be completed. Personal market research indicated an available niche market able to be occupied by additional businesses of this nature. The very nature of the computing industry with its noteworthy rate of technological development, creates a constant need for businesses skilled in updating and advising customers on computer-related issues. 4.1 Market Segmentation The existing computer service market is so spacious categorizing it is a rather difficult task. For our revenue-oriented purposes we will define the market into individual home PC users and small business customers. Individual home PC users will share the majority of our business revenue. These jobs will typically consist of minor repairing, upgrades services and advising. The small business market will be defined as customers with five or more computers or a network requiring services or maintenance. Sometime including advice for SAP, MRP, ERP, CRM system and database management solution for our customers. 4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy Nerd Patrol has decided to focus mainly on the individual home PC market for many reasons. These home customers typically requests jobs that are in immediate, economy and less resource intensive then the opposing small business customers. In addition, this market tends to offer more flexibility for service times allowing a more productive workday. 4.2.1 Market Needs As reported by ComputingNet magazine, there is a substantial need for individuals capable of performing computer repairs, upgrading and Wi-Fi network setup in a timely and cost-effective manner in this region. Nerd Patrol is directed specifically at this niche market. 4.2.2 Market Trends Both the hardware and software side of the computer industry continue to turn out new and revised computer components at surprising rates. For Nerd Patrol this means job security well into the future since our aim is to providing such service to customer. 4.2.3 Market Growth As reported by the Wall Street Journal, there seems to be endlessly to the development of the computer market. Business Week expects the computing industry to grow at a rate of 12% and the central processor unit speeds to continue to expand for years to come. 4.3 Service Business Analysis Secondary market research shows computer service customers tend to be very loyal providers that perform work in speed and satisfy their needs. An analysis of Nerd Patrol main competitors shows no demonstrative strengths that would be significant barriers to possible success. Likewise, identifying competitor’s weaknesses has illuminated several areas that Nerd Patrol can target as marketing strategies like combination of the use of Office application for home users and Dynamics with database like MySQL and Oracle for small businesses. 4.3.1 Main Competitors There are two main competitors for the computer upgrade business in this area. 1. COMPUTER REPAIR CHICAGO . They are a well established provider of computer upgrades and services and also launching the Free over the phone estimate. 2. US Computer Services. They provide low cost computer repair, network and training provider specializing in quality on-site service for small businesses and homes in metro area. Both of these companies charge higher rate then Nerd Patrol so we will be able to attract the price-sensitive market without much work. Our second main advantage is the accessibility of our services. The time conscientious customer will appreciate our speedy work. 4.3.2 Competition and Buying Patterns As previously mentioned, there had other computer service providers of in the same area. Our services will be second to no one and our prices will be rock bottom. By providing superior service word of mouth alone will bring in many new clients. The satisfaction our consumers find will keep them as our business. Strategy and Implementation Summary A value proposition of timely and practical solutions to customer and at a reasonable charge coupled with a 100% after service guarantee. A competitive edge based on breeding existing customer relationships and loyalty. Our target market will mainly focus on the surrounding areas. Market research indicated that there is large amount of business for a small company such as Nerd Patrol. If obvious need exists for increased business, such promotional mediums like TV, Internet, radio or print advertisement could be implements and distribute. 5.1 Competitive Edge Our competitive advantage will be our ability to speedy take in a request from a customer and complete the requested task in a short time. Typically we will strive for a 48-hour completion of most home PC user requests and slightly longer for small business obligations. In addition we will conduct our services at the going wage or slightly below. Setting marginal revenue at marginal cost until Nerd Patrol established a substantial customer base if not forever. With this strategy we can undercut most competitors and gain local market share. Also our team with fully certified on Microsoft and Oracle software products which other competitor does not have. We have the ability to promote Microsoft and Oracle product to small business which involving another revenue income 5.2 Value Proposition Our business will be simple and direct. Providing quality services at a reasonable price and taking care of the customers, for they are your business. 5.3 Sales Strategy Happy customers will be a repeat customer is always true for a business. If the customer feels satisfied with our services, he or she will tell his/her friends and more business will come in the door. Sales forecast figures are based on industry figures for the typical growth of a consulting start-up and reflect repeat business generated through meeting customer needs. 5.3.1 Sales Forecast The sales strategy is a prediction of slow with controllable growth rate. Since I am the sole employee at the beginning and I will be focusing on quality and attention to detail especially in the beginning to avoid some potential pitfalls encountered by new businesses. The predicted growth rate is very moderate in the individual home PC market and the small business arenas. This should allow for careful examination of variations in demand with regards to season or holidays and still allow enough flexibility to sufficiently compensate. 5.4 Milestones The milestones listed in the table below, outlined the major events that will promote as well as insure the success of Nerd Patrol and keep it going concern well into the coming future. Management Summary Nerd Patrol is a sole proprietorship initially However Mary Singh and Nabil Quresh will be join together in the future and propose the management team as follow:- John Robbins – Handle the daily home PC repairing and daily enquires. Mary Singh – Co-ordinate with John for maintain service for individual and small business. Nabil Quresh – Mainly act as the controlling of overall Nerd Patrol operation and scheduling. Also he will be able to take over the company account and keep track of all documentation. 6.1 Personnel Plan The following table shows my expected compensation. Since I am the sole employee and I am the only one on the books. I have decided to have my pay directly reflective of the businesses success. Additionally, I have decided to leave a residual amount of income with the company each month which intended to allow a means of adaptation or evolution of the business should circumstances dictate expansion or the hiring of additional employees in the future. Financial Plan The following sections include the annual estimates for the standard set of financial tables. Detailed monthly pro-forma tables are included in the appendix. 7.1 Important Assumptions Nerd Patrol customer base would fluctuate if there was a recess in the economy or other extenuating circumstances that pertain directly to consumer or industry behavior. 7.2 Break-even Analysis Fixed costs have been set at a reasonably accurate monthly level. This should allow for equipment maintenance and purchase or replacement of basic tools used in performing our services. Variable costs have been set per unit to allow for additional expenses such as travel costs specific to each job. 7.3 Projected Profit and Loss The profit and loss shown for this company is a source of inspiration. For the first year of operation the books show a modest net profit. This should allow for great flexibility and survival in the start-up phase in case of unexpected problems or expenses. The profit margin declines incrementally in the following two years as greater payroll allocations are made which reflected the join of Mary and Nabil. These increased allocations will be contingent upon the continued success of this going concern. Since this business is operated out of the home, expenses such as rent, utilities, and insurance are sunk costs and not reflective of the business venture. 7.4 Projected Cash Flow This information is presented in the chart and table below. 7.5 Projected Balance Sheet This information is presented in the table below. 7.6 Business Ratios Business ratios for the years of this plan are shown below. Industry profile ratios based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 7379, Computer Related Services NEC, are shown for comparison. Appendix Personal Plan General Assumptions Pro forma Profit

Case Study: Reciprocal Determinism

online assignment help Case Study: Reciprocal Determinism. Albert Bandura, the founder of reciprocal determinism was born in Canada in 1925. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa, where he developed the social learning theory. Bandura had certain strong beliefs on how psychological research should be done. He believed research should be conducted in laboratories where psychologists could control factors that determined behavior. Bandura has conducted many famous clinical studies, which are the basis of the several books he has written. Bandura was also the creator of the reciprocal determinism theory, which showed he believed that a person’s behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. Overview Personal factors are those that are based on a person’s morals, ethics ideas, and personality. The social environment consists of everything external to the self, which includes other people, their beliefs, ideas and external items. Two brief examples of reciprocal determinism would be a person who is afraid of flying on airplanes will act nervous, scared, and out of the ordinary which would be the personal factor. This will cause the other people on the plane to become agitated and worried, making the nervous flier even more afraid. This shows how personal determinants, environmental determinants and behavioral determinants interact and influence each other. Another example would be of a man who cannot hold a job and therefore feels like a failure. His inability to hold a job is due to poor work habits and therefore influences employers to treat him bad until his behavior becomes terrible and is ultimately fired. Reciprocal determinism is affected by self-efficacy, which is a person’s belief about their ability to achieve a goal or an outcome. There are several ways to influence self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and emotional arousal. Performance accomplishments are based on a person’s own experiences, which are past successes and failures. Vicarious experiences are based on the observations of others and their performance in executing a task. Verbal persuasion uses suggestions or self-instruction as a motivator. Lastly, emotional arousal is used by diminishing emotional arousals that are associated with decreased performance. A helpful way to think of reciprocal determinism is in the form of a triangle. At the top would be behavioral determinants and the two corners would be personal determinants and environmental determinants. Arrows go back and forth between each word showing that they are influenced by each other. The basic idea is that personal factors (cognitive and affective events), the environment and behavior all influence each other. This triangle aids to understand that humans are shaped by their environment and also shape the environment. Self-Efficacy A person’s belief about their ability to organize and carry out courses of action needed to accomplish a goal is known as self-efficacy. Those persons, who are confident in their capability to execute a behavior, have very strong efficacy beliefs. These beliefs are influencing our personal emotional reactions and choices, motivation, and patterns, therefore they are considered to have a very significant impact on our goals and accomplishments in life (Bandura, 1977). For example, people with high confidence in their capabilities, consider difficult tasks as challenges to be proficient at instead of seeing them as threats to be avoided. These kind of people set challenging goals for themselves and continue to be committed to them. If they fail, they enhance and keep up their efforts, rather than giving up. Higher self-efficacy also produces personal accomplishments and reduces stress, and vulnerability to depression. In contrast, people who have low self-efficacy shy away from challenging tasks, which they view as personal threats. They loosen their efforts and give up quickly when faced with difficulties rather that concentrate on how to perform successfully. People with low self-efficacy do not require much failure to lose faith in their competence. They can easily get stressed and fall into depression (Bandura, 1994). We can influence self-efficacy through four sources, which include performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. The Four Sources of Self-Efficacy Performance accomplishments are one’s personal proficiency experiences, defined as earlier successes or failures. Because of these experiences people form expectations towards other situations that could be similar or substantially different from the ones experienced. For example, if a person experiences a repeated success he or she would develop strong efficacy expectations. In contrast the person who experienced repeated failure could generate reduced efficacy expectations. Personal mastery for a behavior can be increased through participant modeling, self instructed performances, performance exposure, and performance desensitization, where aversive behavior is paired with enjoyable or comforting experience. Vicarious experiences are when people are observing others perform threatening activities without unpleasant consequences. These experiences can improve personal self-efficacy by showing that the action is “doable” with little effort and determination. Vicarious experiences can be improved through live or symbolic modeling. In verbal persuasion people are led to think they can effectively complete a task or behavior through the use of suggestion, catchphrase, or self-instruction. However, since verbal persuasion is not embedded in personal experience, it is a weaker inducer of efficacy and may be extinguished by past failure experiences. Self-efficacy can be enhanced by withdrawing emotional arousal such as physical agitation, fear, and stress since they are connected with decreased performance, reduced success, and other aversive behaviors. Repeated symbolic exposure that permits people to practice handling and dealing with stress, symbolic desensitization, and relaxation techniques can alleviate emotional arousal (Bandura, 1977). Predicating and Understanding Behavior Social Learning Theory Proposed by Albert Bandura, the social learning theory has become one of the most influential theories in regards to learning and development. Bandura believed that direct reinforcement wasn’t the only element that influences learning (Ewen, 2003, p. 367) so he added a social element to his theory. Bandura argued that people could learn new information and behaviors through observational learning (also known as modeling). Observational Learning One basic learning concept is that people essentially learn through observation. In a variation of Bandura’s famous Bobo doll study, preschool children observed an adult’s aggression toward the doll on film. In this version, the adult hit the Bobo doll with a hammer, and the film had three different endings. One group of children saw the adult rewarded for aggressive behavior, a second group saw the adult punished, and a third group saw an ending where the adult was neither rewarded nor punished. When the children were then allowed to play with a Bobo doll, those who had seen the adult model being rewarded were most likely to attack the doll, while those who observed the model being punished were least likely to be aggressive (Ewen, 2003, p. 373). What Bandura’s study shows is that we observe, formulate rules, concepts, and conclusions based on what we observe, and apply these inferences in ways that lead to behavior that is related. Bandura identified three models of observational learning (Cherry, 2010): A live model involves an individual portraying a certain type of behavior. A verbal model that describes and explains the behavior. A symbolic model involves real or fictional characters (such as in books, television, or films) displaying certain behaviors. The Modeling Process Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Therefore, Bandura proposed that there are certain factors that the observer must possess in order for the modeling process to be successful (“Social Learning Theory,” 2008): Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what’s happening. Retention: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it afterward. Reproduction: Observers must be capable of reproducing the observed behavior. Motivation: In general, observers will perform the act only if they have some motivation or reason to do so. The presence of reinforcement or punishment, either to the model or directly to the observer, becomes most important in this process. Rewarding a model tends to increase the probability that the observer will behave this way (vicarious reinforcement), whereas punishing the model makes imitating the model less likely (vicarious punishment). Self-Regulatory System Bandura brought about the self-regulatory system, which we all use for self-development. The self-regulatory system provides the foundation for coherent actions. In the social cognitive theory, as human beings we apply a continuous use of self-influence as motivation and regulation for our behaviors. Bandura’s system derives from the interaction between three elements, which include self-monitoring, judgment of one’s behavior, and self-reaction. Each sub-function plays an important role in self-regulated learning. Self-Monitoring Individuals influence their own actions by focusing on their performances. It is crucial for an individual to analyze their current or previous actions to further regulate their future procedures. Thoughts, self-beliefs, and moods can affect an individual’s self-monitoring. Self-observation provides the information required for planning realistic goals and assessing the progress made to achieve them. Paying close attention to one’s thoughts and patterns can contribute to directed change. Some of the functions self-observation provides as illustrated by Albert Bandura in his Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation article are: Self-diagnostic function: By paying close attention to their thoughts, emotions and behaviors individuals can begin to see patterns that are influenced by the social environment around them that lead them to behave a certain way. This acquired knowledge can be used to correct behavior and thought or the social environment itself creating a positive change. By changing routine thought patterns and observing the change that follows we can get a hold of how thoughts can alter emotions, motivation, and even every day performance. Self-motivating function: When individuals keep track of their performance and actions they are motivated to set goals for improvement “even though they have not been encouraged to do so” as Bandura stated. Yet, the individuals who don’t take action in setting milestones for themselves realize no personal change and are outperformed by those who create more challenging goals to achieve for growth. Motivational level: Self-motivation is a heavily weighted factor on goal setting. Individuals who truly desire to change their actions or performance are motivated to set high objectives for them selves to evaluate their progress. Individuals with low motivation are prone to have an unrealistic self-observation. Successes or failures: A self-monitoring accomplishment increases desired behavior, while dwelling on one’s failures cannot only be discouraging but has the ability to reduce performance accomplishments. Judgment of Behavior This is the step where individuals compare their actions and behavior with personal standards and environmental circumstances. Even though an individual’s performance may have been successful they then take that further step to compare it to certain acquired personal standards to feel gratification. People have many different standards in which they compare their performance to which include (as Bandura depicts in his article Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation): Personal standards: created by the way influential individuals in the social environment have reacted to our behavior. Our personal standards are not created just by other people’s reaction but by their behaviors as well. We then come to judge our actions based on these standards. Social referential comparisons: the comparisons of one’s own achievement to that of others. An individual will first compare their performance to their personal standards and will continue by comparing their performance to that of others. In most cases individuals tend to compare themselves to others they believe are in a similar situation or standing. Self-comparisons: the comparison of an individual’s performance to previous performances. An individual will use prior accomplishments as reference and guide for self-growth- always aiming to outperform previous goals. Valuation of activities: another crucial factor under the judgment process. People tend less importance to activities that have little significance for them. Little effort is usually given to activities that are categorized as being of low value. Self-Reaction Self-reaction is what follows after an individual has compared their performance to their standards. Individuals pursue accomplishments that create positive self-reactions and behavior. Individuals add self-incentives and rewards to accomplishments as well. Self-incentives affect behavior mainly through their motivational purpose. When people add self-incentives or benefits that are dependent on the accomplishment of an action they motivate themselves to give that extra effort to be able to attain the incentive as described in, The Self System in Reciprocal Determinism written by Albert Bandura. Individuals who set self-incentives outperform those who perform the same activity under instruction without self-incentives or rewards. People who succeed in regulating their behavior follow up with self-incentives, meanwhile individuals who are unsuccessful rarely give themselves these perks. Most people value their self-satisfaction derived from a job well done more highly than they do material rewards. Self-reactions affect how much satisfaction an individual gets from what they do. Applications of Reciprocal Determinism Reciprocal determinism has been shown to be present in over 25 nations, although it does not appear to work in the same in all nations. Thus, just as reciprocal determinism crosses cultural boundaries, it can be applied across a variety of fields. In this section we will focus on three areas in which reciprocal determinism has been utilized: child or developmental psychology, industrial/organization psychology, and clinical psychology. We will talk about how reciprocal determinism is demonstrated in learning, in the workplace, and specifically in leader-subordinate relationships, and in how reciprocal determinism affects treatments in patients with mental disorders. Reciprocal determinism is found and is very important in the learning process. As discussed previously in the chapter, self-efficacy bears a strong relationship to this concept and perception of strength in a specific domain has powerful influence on child’s ability and desire to learn in that area. For example, Ghee and Khoury (2008) found that students who perceive math and science negatively tend to perform worse in those subjects as compared to students who hold positive views of math and science. That is, perception of the subject affects performance, and performance in a certain area affects the personal view towards this subject. Reciprocal determinism is clearly present in the workplace. Performance and efficiency are affected by employees’ motivations, which in turn can be affected by the work environment and their personality characteristics. To give a concrete example, Sims and Manz (1984) found that the behavior of leaders tends to both, be caused by subordinate behavior and to be a cause of performance. In this dyadic relationship, reciprocal determinism is evident in the truly two-way direction of influence between leaders and subordinates. In a different area, Makoul (1998) explored reciprocal determinism in physician-client relationship. There are physician-reliant patients and self-reliant patients, and the former tend to visit the doctor more than twice as often (Makoul, 1998) than the latter. Reciprocal determinism comes into play when the physician adjusts his or her orientation to match the patient’s self-reliant or physician-reliant orientation. However, if physicians attempt to get the patient more involved in treatment options and decisions, the patient will adjust his or her orientation, which thus demonstrates reciprocity. Issues with Reciprocal Determinism In discussing reciprocal determinism, a number of issues appear in the history and the concept itself. Firstly, while Bandura was the one who coined the term, reciprocal determinism, the idea was present in the sciences long before. Specifically, reciprocal determinism appears in natural sciences in the form of functional laws. That is, functional laws are not cause-and-effect relationships but interactions of variables – which is what reciprocal determinism is. In addition, J. S. Haldane, a biologist, attempted to show that “surroundings and organisms successfully act and react to one another” (Life and Mechanism as cited by PhillipsCase Study: Reciprocal Determinism

Management Information Systems – Case Study

Table of Contents Introduction Business Functions Supported How do they Improve Operational Efficiency and Decision Making? Problems Solved. Businesses most likely to Benefit The iPhone is an Industry Changer Introduction Businesses require constant information to be processed and disseminated to the relevant stakeholders on time. To achieve this, they need Management Information systems. A Management Information System is a set of connected apparatus, mostly computerized combinations that continuously acquire raw and needed data from within and outside a particular firm. Consequently, the data is processed and stored in a central place called database, where it is always updated and availed to those with authority to access it (Business There are several applications that are described in the case study. In a community medical center known as Doylestown, an application, Meditech, is in place. In the same medical center, another application, titled Epocrates Essentials is described. Another application, which is ChainLinq Mobile application, is described as used in D.W. Morgan, being a supply chain, transportation and logistics service provider. Lastly, the iPhone camera is described in regards to a firm known as Aedas Sport. Business Functions Supported Meditech conveys data on crucial signs, drugs, lab results, aversions, notes by nurses, results from remedial treatment, as well as patient food straight to the doctors’ phone. Epocrates Essentials, an aesculapian reference tool is used to help doctors to decode laboratory outcomes and procure medical data. ChainLinq assists in updating of shipment information, collection of signatures, as well as provision of global positioning system locations to each individual box delivered. It has afforded Morgan the ability to present an attestation of delivery promptly. The iPhone camera has been used by designers and architects to take pictures of designs, models, and construction sites which are in turn sent to prospective clients to Aedas Sport. How do they Improve Operational Efficiency and Decision Making? Meditech application enables doctors to be on call wherever they may be through sending them sensitive alerts through their emails from their work stations. This allows the doctors to make decisions quickly and long before they even get to the hospital. ChainLinq application has reduced the time needed to provide proof of delivery from half a day to immediate. The iPhone camera has enabled Aedas Sports to productivity jump to 400 percent. In addition, iPhone has facilitated the building of a large chronicle of observable assets almost effortlessly. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problems Solved. First and foremost, the problem of mobility was solved for doctors in Doylestown meaning that doctors can still communicate even while not in the vicinity of the hospital. Thanks to ChainLinq, Morgan does not have to make numerous phone calls so as to track and proof deliveries. The customers as well are in a position to be aware of the status of their deliveries by logging in to the company’s website which is updated by the servers throughout. Businesses most likely to Benefit Among other businesses, the following will likely benefit. The Health sector will benefit when their employees are equipped with mobile digital devices. This will assist them in keeping in touch with their employers as well as patients’ history whenever needed. They can make decisions and communicate immediately. In addition, they will be able to make accurate calculations on laboratory results using the devices. Courier businesses are to benefit as well through tracking of their parcels as well as tracking the exact position of the mode of delivery, for example, trucks among others. In addition, these businesses will get proof of delivery in real time thus increasing efficiency and therefore, staying calm without having to make numerous phone calls to track the process of delivery. Designers and architectural businesses also stand to benefit from mobile devices. The iPhone will especially make it possible to get clear and professional photo shots, compile them into journals and send them to potential and actual clients. Supply store chains like Wal-Mart are likely to benefit, too. As soon as a customer buys a certain item, the supplier through the iPhone is alerted to ship replacement for the item. The supplier is able to know what quantity is needed as well. The banks are the ones that get lot of beneficiaries. The managers get real-time data in regard to customer complaints, network performance and line outages. The motor industry is set to benefit greatly too. For instance, Toyota uses Toyota Production System to achieve high levels of efficiency and quality. This gives them a competitive edge over their rivals. This arises from the fact that they charge less for superior products, as well as give better responses to suppliers and customers through the system. We will write a custom Case Study on Management Information Systems – specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The iPhone is an Industry Changer This statement is about the change in communicating with suppliers and customers. The industry has changed through using iPhone since communication is conducted in real time. In the supply chain, transportation and logistics industry, where D.W. Morgan belongs, the firm is able to track every detail; it takes few minutes to do so. In other words, they make delivery in real time while it takes their competitors up to twelve hours to do the same task.

PUB 620 New York University Week 4 Health Behavioral Program Paper

PUB 620 New York University Week 4 Health Behavioral Program Paper.

IMPORTANT NOTE REGARDING WORD LIMIT REQUIREMENTS: Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit. Program planning models organize the steps and actions needed to reach the intended program goals and objectives. Public health behavioral theories are used to explain health, and established theories provide evidence-based support for your proposed intervention. For this assignment, select a program planning model and public health theory to create a framework for your program intervention. Write a 750-1,000 word paper detailing the model and theory used to implement your program. Include the following: Describe your chosen model. Why is this model relevant to public health? Explain why this model is best for the implementation of your project.Apply this model to your proposed program. Include a description of each step or phase. Project how the chosen model will support your proposed goal and objectives for your proposed intervention.Describe your chosen health behavioral theory. Explain why this theory is best for the implementation of your project. Project how the chosen theory will support your proposed goals and objectives for your proposed intervention. General Requirements You are required to cite at least SIX sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the discussion question criteria and public health content. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is not required. While APA style is required, solid academic writing is expected as well, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. PLEASE make sure APA citation and permalink for articles are complete and correct. PLEASE add the links/sites below to the reference list if you use any of these readings and make sure everything is in proper APA format.… Read “Framework for Selecting Best Practices in Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review,” by Ng, and de Colombani, from Journal of Public Health Research (2015). URL: Read “Six Components Necessary for Effective Public Health Program Implementation,” by Frieden, from American Journal of Public Health (2014). URL: Read “Tools for Implementing an Evidence-Based Approach in Public Health Practice,” by Jacobs, Jones, Gabella, Spring, and Brownson, located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: Read “Identify Evidence-Based and Promising Program Models,” located on the Rural Health Information Hub (RHIhub) website. URL: MUST haveat least 5 citations with the page numbers and 5 references in APA format.(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.) Include at least one scholarly reference and appropriate in-text citations and Address all points on the DQ. One point will be deducted for not addressing each item mentioned above. Remember that presenting someone else’s work as your own is plagiarism. Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources. It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class I am a stickler for good organization in everything. I do not want to have to dig for your answers. For instance, if an assignment asks you to provide three examples of something, I suggest that you number them 1-3 so I can find them easily. I also expect that when you submit something as a narrative, you pay attention to how you organize your thoughts: use paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences; and change paragraphs whenever you introduce a new idea. Also, if there are multiple parts to an assignment, use sub-heads within the paper to organize them. To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors. REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED. References American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
PUB 620 New York University Week 4 Health Behavioral Program Paper