Need assistance with a portion of a group assignment
Need assistance with a portion of a group assignment. I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.
There are several types of waste generated in the health care industry: infectious, pathological, sharps, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, genotoxic, radioactive, and non-hazardous or general waste.
Create an infographic that illustrates each type of waste in the health care industry. Include descriptions of the waste, sources for the waste, how much is generated per year, how it is disposed, and solutions for reducing it.
Cite 3 reputable references to support your assignment (e.g., trade or industry publications, government or agency websites, scholarly works, or other sources of similar quality).
Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.
Need assistance with a portion of a group assignment
Industrialization and Modern Economic Growth in India and China Compare and Contrast Essay
assignment writing services Industrialization and Modern Economic Growth in India and China Compare and Contrast Essay. Introduction In the 18th century, India was a chief actor in the global textile export market. However, by 1850, it had lost not only a substantial share of its export market but also the local Indian domestic market. Other than the textile industry, other local industries also suffered some decline. As a result, India was forced to undergo a secular de-industrialization. In 1750, India produced 25 percent of the worlds industrial output. Surprisingly, by 1900 it was only able to produce 2 percent. Deindustrialization of India’s Economy The decline of indigenous industry was associated with the British rule. The nationalists argued that competition with cheap British mill cloth drove Indians out of the handloom industry and into agriculture. A few contended that this shift was an inevitable result of the cost advantages of British mechanized cotton spinning and weaving, while most pointed to low tariffs on British imports, implicitly suggesting that protection might have promoted the development of an indigenous mill industry. Indias de-industrialization is premised on two theories. One theory contends that de-industrialization was driven majorly by the fall of the Mughal Empire that resulted in supply constraints in home manufacturing. The other theory suggests that the de-industrialization of Indias economy was a result of the British victory in foreign markets for cottage made manufactures, followed by its penetration in the India’s home market with cheap factory produced manufactures. Therefore, India suffered negative globalization price shocks in key manufacturing goods. According to Roy (2002, p.4), the latter theory is common among Indian historians. Decline of the Mughal Empire The decline of The Mughal Empire stretched over a long period. The political and economic stability it had provided reached its lowest point in middle 18th century. This decline negatively impacted on India’s agricultural productivity. As a result, the grain prices increased compared to tradables like textiles. The first widely known report of Indian de-industrialization seems to have come from Sir William Bentinck, the governor-general of India from 1833 to 1835. Somewhat later, in the New York Daily Tribune, Marx (1977) referred to “the British intruder who broke up the Indian handloom” (Harnetty 1991, p. 455). There seems to be plenty of evidence of economic decay in India across the 18th century, and given the huge size of agriculture in all pre-industrial societies, the decay must have had its main source there. This weak and crumbling empire invited invasions both from without and within. In addition, later historians have equated The Mughal Empire decline to its sharp downward trends in the economy of India while assuming that by the middle of the 18 century, the empire had reached its lowest ebb. The empire was characterized by war and anarchy for long period with poor economic results being the outcome (Raychaudhuri 1983, p. 5). As a result of the internal and external wars, regional trade and specialization within the sub continent was suppressed. Those Indian districts that had hither to specialized in textiles and other manufactures and had satisfied there food requirements by grain imports from districts with surplus, began feeling the pinch of rising grain prices. The demise of the Mughal Empire created a supply shortage for grains in all parts of India resulting in improved wages (Raychaudhuri 1983, p. 6). It is this rise in wages that made India lose its 17th and 18th century competitive advantage as a long time supplier of foreign textile markets. With the arrival of the British, cheap manufactured products were brought into the local Indian market in large quantities (Habib 2002, p. 341). The Globalization Shock Theory The more popular of the two hypotheses being considered here is the one associated with what modern economists would now call globalization shocks. The rise in productivity in European industries spearheaded by Britain led to increased supply of textile and other manufactured goods in the world market. With the excess supply, prices of manufactures began to drop in the world markets. Britain started experiencing unfavorable terms of trade, its exports of manufactures significantly dropped relative to its imports (MitchellIndustrialization and Modern Economic Growth in India and China Compare and Contrast Essay
Macroeconomic Environment: Self Correction of the Economy Essay
Introduction In 2008, the world experienced one of the worst recession that led to drop in macroeconomic indicators such as employment statistics, household income, rise in prices of food commodities, the rise of unemployment rates, and shocking GDP rates. Generally, it was the crush of many business activities, especially those related to demand and supply of goods, which led to recession. In other words, recession occurs when there is a drop in consumer buying, leading to a supply shock. In most cases, when the supply side of the economy is affected, the economy bubbles. When there is recession, it means that even the stock market is affected. Nevertheless, the natural happenings within the macroeconomic environment can self correct the economy, and move it back to full employment. Aggregate Demand – Aggregate Supply Model In order to explain the possibility of this situation happening, it is imperative to apply the income-expenditure model or the aggregate demand – aggregate supply model. This theory is based on four assumptions namely: macroeconomic equilibrium, aggregate supply and demand, the consumption function, and the aggregate expenditure and equilibrium. Indeed the crash of stock markets has proved to be a menace to many economies. For instance, if the aggregate demands prove to be more than the income on payments, then we expect more firms to trade in the stock market. However, if the demand of shares in the stock market drops, it means that there will be a drop in income payments and many firms will be affected. In this model, the stock market is entirely dependent on the income payments. The income payments also depend on the aggregate demands. For the full employment to resume there will be a supposed free flow of income, increased production of local goods, and reasonable interest rates. In economic terms, the shrinking of the aggregate demands leads to stalled production of commodities and declining of employment indexes. Consequently, one expects that price of shares in the stock market to go down. However, if the situation reverses itself, the economy will improve. On the other hand, if there is higher aggregate demands, inflation predicaments arise. Evidently, most households either spend their income on consumption or savings. Indeed, there is no problem with consumption as it is all about buying the final goods. However, on savings, households investing their money in stock market will be at risk if there is stock market crash, and that is why savings are a leakage in a circular flow economy. Investing this money in stock market will improve the economy and return it to full employment. Conclusion For the economy to self correct and move back to full employment, it is not a single day task. Certainly, a number of things must take place. For example, the supply of money must be constant. If there is a sustained flow of money, it means many people will invest in stock markets and full employment will resume. This is known as wealth check. Additionally, if there is an increase in prices of commodities and the supply of money is low; many people will not trade in the stock market. Thus, an improved supply of money will lead to increased transactions and full employment will resume. It is also imperative to note that the fall of interest rates will also lead to improved investment spending—positive aggregate demand—leading improved economy and hence, full employment.
Disclosure Of Cancer Diagnosis To Patients Nursing Essay
-Disclosure of cancer diagnosis to patients is an ethical, sensitive and controversial issue in health care practice. There have been several studies focusing on merits and shortcomings of informing patients about their diagnosis of cancer. Many studies have been conducted to find out exactly what is the best practice in this regard. However no firm results have been achieved. I find this issue extremely important especially for patients who are at the terminal stage of cancer. It has been observed that prevalent attitude of people in our society forbade disclosing cancer diagnosis to patient, whereas others emphasize practice of honest communication and patient’s right to be informed of their diagnosis. Those people who support disclosure of the diagnosis provide their reasons as it helps a patient to get mentally, physically, emotionally and cognitively prepared about his/her terminal illness. On the other hand, the people who stress no revelation of the diagnosis to patients claim that it will bring a psychological trauma to the patient. Besides, some cultures assume this ailment as a social stigma. Additionally, it is also believed that this disclosure may bring fear of death in the patient or cause impairment of coping for the patient. In my opinion, it is one of the patient’s fundamental rights to be informed about his/her health status and health care personnel should reveal cancer diagnosis to the patient in an appropriate and acceptable manner regardless of varying value belief patterns. It is argued that disclosure of cancer diagnosis can worsen patient’s hope and coping. Whenever a person gets a bad news about his/her health, he becomes hopeless and feels the most helpless in the entire world. For instance, according to Kazdaglis et al. (2010), disclosing cancer diagnosis can prove harmful for him/her. Moreover, in view of Angelos (2008), “â€¦in the face of terminal illness, honesty is cruel because it will force patient to lose hope.” (p.73) Furthermore, according to Mukhida and Bernstein (2008), disclosure of the cancer diagnosis may have upsetting effects on the patient and family, along with shock and feelings of fear. On contrary, I will advocate that early information about the diagnosis helps patient to adopt positively. In general, coping and hope are very much abstract concepts and people perceive these concepts differently but if patient applies his/her coping in adaptive manner, it would become easy for him/her to cope better with the present situation. A research by Yun et al. (2010), exclaimed that most of the patients and family caregivers want the disclosure of terminal cancer. Another article by American Cancer Society (2010) also emphasized that adequate knowledge according to patient’s understanding, if provided, can help patient decrease his/her fear of unknown. Likewise, Nelson (2010) stated that it is better to disclose the diagnosis to patient and that it is unfair and unjustified to keep patient suspicious about his/her health status. According to our Islamic teachings too, it is important to let patient go through his/her grieving process and allow him/her to ventilate the feelings regarding what ever good or bad occurs to him/her. Also by letting know about his terminal disease he/she can make arrangements that would be essential after him/her for example, patient’s will. Furthermore he/she will be able to spend his/her time recalling God asking forgiveness and saying bye to all his/her loved ones properly. It is claimed that once patient or his/her family members become aware of the illness they may feel socially stigmatized and patient’s self-esteem may deteriorate. According to Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Centre (2007), after the disclosure when patients head for treatment, they feel themselves different than others. Similarly according to another article by Breast Cancer Care (2009) if patients lose their visible body parts, it damages their self-esteem too. Equally, Ramsohok (2009) describes that physical and mental changes due to cancer treatment affect patients’ confidence level. However, I argue that those patients who use positive coping mechanisms can fight from the disease as well as any stigma from the society. Positive thinking can help patient to maintain his self-esteem as earlier. Stephan (2009) affirms that support groups play vital role in coping with disclosure positively. Another article by Oral Cancer Foundation (2010) exclaims that it increases hopefulness in patients. I also firmly agree that coping with the diagnosis disclosure might be very hard but it is not impossible. It is disputed that diagnosis if disclosed, stressors concerning additional financial burden will be too disturbing for patient. According to Sharp and Timmons (2010) cancer treatment increases financial burdens on the patient and his/her family. In addition, it is very difficult for middle and low income class people to get their complete treatment done. Lowell as cited in Latta (2007) also added that “Discussing the costs of care with patients has become a real issue for doctors” (para. 11). I emphasize that financial consideration at a cost of patient’s life is not a wise decision. Instead, we need to assist patient in identifying available and accessible resources (both government and charity) and support from family and community welfare trusts etc., in order to overcome his/her financial burdens. In our country, there are some charitable hospitals who are working for the good of cancer patients including Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bait-ul-Sukoon as hospice for palliative care, Children Cancer Hospital, etc. Those people who are affording and have health insurance policies can take great benefits from it in their time of need. Thus in view of above arguments, I claim that it is essential for health professionals to inform patients about their diagnosis while providing opportunity for discussions supporting their coping, hope and adaptation or his/her financial stressors. Positive thinking, adaptive coping and hope can make the patient capable of fighting with his/her life’s uncertainties. According to Macklin (2006) “The ethical principle of ‘respect for autonomy’ mandates that doctors treat patients as autonomous individuals and so must inform them about their illness” (p.673). It is very important to have a positive attitude to achieve positive outcome in this controversial run of life. If we won’t disclose cancer diagnosis to the patient, we will be violating patient’s right, which is morally and ethically incorrect and unacceptable and can give harm to the patient’s life.