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Infrared Wireless Local Area Networks Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Main text Summary References Introduction WLAN, Wireless Local Area Network, can generally be defined as a computer network architecture that allows communication between various localized (i.e. located over a short distance) computing devices making use of radio or infrared technology and hence eliminating the need to wire all the networked computers together. Today wireless LANs are widely deployed in places such as corporate office conference rooms, industrial warehouses, Internet-ready classrooms, and even coffeehouses. Main text “Wireless communication involves transmitting signals via radio waves through air and space. Signals are measured in frequency and amplitudes” (Harris, n.d.). The frequency determines the amount of data that can be carried. However higher frequencies are also prone to greater interference from the atmosphere as the distance from the source increases. “A wide range of broadband wireless data transmission technologies are used in various frequency ranges. Broadband wireless signals occupy frequency bands that may be shared with microwave, satellite and radar, for example.” (Harris, n.d.) These technologies are used for television transmissions, cellular phones, satellite transmissions, spying, surveillance, and garage door openers etc. WLAN uses a transceiver, called an access point (AP), which connects to an Ethernet cable; this cable links the wireless devices to the wired network. The APs are in fixed locations throughout a network and work as communication beacons. Typically, computers on a wireless LAN have a radio modem, MAC (Media Access Controller) controller, a host interface and the driver. The radio modem transmits data onto and receives data from the frequency band. The MAC controller mainly controls the data packet format, channel access mechanism etc. The driver is actually software that acts as an interpreter between the operating system and the hardware. Each device over the WLAN shares an allotted finite radio frequency spectrum with all other wireless devices within the same network. In order to avoid collision of data packets over this shared spectrum, one wireless device sends out a broadcast indicating that it is going to transmit data. This is received by other devices causing them to hold their transmissions off. Standards are developed so that different vendors can create products that are capable of working seamlessly with other vendors’ products. The first WLAN standard was 802.11 developed in 1997. It outlines how wireless clients and APs communicate, lays out interface specifications, “dictates how signal transfer should take place and describes how authentication, association and security should be implemented.” (Harris, n.d.) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order for a host to participate within a particular WLAN, it must be configured with the proper Service Set ID (SSID). “The SSID is a construct that allows logical separation of wireless LANs. In general, a client must be configured with the appropriate SSID to gain access to the wireless LAN. The SSID does not provide any data-privacy functions”; it does not truly authenticate the client to the access point either. In order to be authenticated, a client broadcasts a ‘probe request frame’ on every channel. (A channel is a certain frequency within a given frequency band). All APs within the range responds to this with a ‘probe response frame’. The client decides the best AP for access and sends an authentication request to it. The access point sends an authentication response. If authentication is successful, the client sends an association request frame to the AP which then replies with an association response. After this response is received by the client, it can participate in the traffic through the AP. To authenticate a device on the WLAN, the wireless standard 802.11 provides two methods i.e. Open System Authentication (OSA) and Shared Key Authentication (SKA). In OSA, the wireless device does not have a specific cryptographic key to allow for authentication with the AP. As such OSA is a “null-authentication algorithm” that allows any device network access. SKA on the other hand requires that the client configure a static key that is used to send an encrypted message to the AP. If the AP can decrypt this message, it responds with an authentication response that grants the client access. Summary Wireless LAN deployments should be made as secure as possible. Standard 802.11 security is weak and vulnerable to numerous network attacks which include sniffing data packets, collecting particular frames or coercing information from a WLAN to derive the key to gain authentication etc. A number of vendors offer solutions to prevent exploitation of these vulnerabilities, for example Cisco Wireless Security Suite which can augment 802.11 security to create secure wireless LANs. References Harris, S. (n.d.) All In One CISSP Exam Guide. McGraw Hill/ Tourrilhes, J. (2000). A bit more about the technologies involved… Web. Wireless LAN Security White Paper. Web. Configuration examples and TechNotes. Web. Wireless LAN. Web. What is Infrared Wireless LAN. Web.

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the following information: Identify and compare the causes and

Compare and contrast two endocrine disorders within the guide. Include the following information: Identify and compare the causes and diagnostic tests. Identify and compare the signs and symptoms of the disorder. Describe the nurses’ role in caring for a patient that suffers from this disorder to include the multidimensional aspects of nursing care. Identify how you will evaluate responses to the interventions taken for each disorder. don’t need that many sources, just cite what is used please

Design Liability under National Engineering Contract (NEC)

best assignment help Design Liability under NEC Problem Every construction or engineering project is generally designed and occasionally defects occur as a result of defective design. These defects if possible then have to be rectified and this has associated costs. Where interested parties cannot agree on which of them is responsible for the defect they often seek a legal remedy to allocate costs. To avoid this legal entanglement the majority of construction projects are carried out under the relative control of a contract that identifies the party that is responsible for the design. The degree of liability depends on how the design responsibility has been allocated under the contract. However, the complicated interaction of various legal elements with contractual provisions can consequently make this difficult to determine. For practical use a contract should allow for the incorporation of clear acceptable levels of liability to both parties. Research by Gaafar and Perry (1998) suggests using a contract that allows for a spectrum of liability such as the NEC/ECC. This allows the level of responsibility to be tailored to the individual project by the inclusion of secondary clauses. Another consideration that must be investigated is that even if the design responsibility is not allocated under the contract, or no written contract exists, a level of responsibility under tort almost always exists. This responsibility is often forgotten and is rarely referenced in the contract’s text. The level of design liability differs depending on what type of organisation the designer works for. For example, the level of design liability is the same in tort for a consultancy’s designer and a contractor’s designer, however, under a contract the level of liability may be different. In tort, the nature of the designer’s obligation is to exercise ‘reasonable skill and care’ irrespective of the designer’s organisation. In contract, a consultancy’s designer’s liability is to exercise reasonable skill and care unless they know the purpose for which they are designing in which case a fitness for purpose liability is implied. Because of this risk of suffering an implied liability terms of engagement for a consultancy’s designer usually contract out fitness for purpose requirement. This is useful as no level of Professional Indemnity insurance exists to cover a consultancy’s designer for fitness for purpose liability and it is unlikely the consultancy would be able to independently cover the risk. Even if a fitness for purpose liability is excluded, a consultancy’s designer could still be liable for not delivering the end result, if it can be proved that they did not use ‘reasonable skill and care’ and has ultimately committed professional negligence under tort as well as being in breach of contract. As the tort of negligence is implied into both written and none written contracts, wherever a situation arises where one party owes another a duty of care, it is essential to look at its meaning. The Institution of Civil Engineers (2006) defines negligence as being based on the inflicting of injury or loss upon another person by failure to take such care as the law requires. A contractor’s designer suffers risk by reference to the statutory implied terms, under the Sales of Goods Act 1972 and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982, which will impose certain contractual warranties relating to merchantable quality and fitness for purpose, irrespective of what the contract says. The statutory implied terms give rise to risk for the designer’s contractor in that a contract which is silent on the point will impose on him a strict liability for all the obligations he has undertaken, including his design obligation. It is also worth noting that because of this, if a contractor chooses to appoint a consultancy designer under a subcontract, even if he is using the relevant standard subcontract form of the main contract, they may open themselves up to considerable risk. This is because they still have an obligation to deliver the end result that is fit for purpose, unless there are express provisions to limit liability. This why most Design and Build standard form contracts limit the liability of the contractor for design to that of an architect under a traditional build contract. However, if there are express provisions in the contract to impose an explicit fitness for purpose liability on the contractor these provisions will then be subject to the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977. As already stated, there are two levels of design ‘reasonable skill and care’ and ‘fitness for purpose’. These two terms are the most commonly used and even though they are an over simplification it is important to define them in more detail. ‘Fitness for purpose’ is just that, it should satisfy and/or deliver the client’s requirements whereas ‘reasonable skill and care’ can be further split into ‘professional skill’ and ‘duty of care’. As well as carrying out their specialist skill competently the construction professionals have to exercise a defined level of care. This duty of care is based on foreseeability, where one must take reasonable care to avoid acts, omissions or statements, which could reasonably be foreseen to be likely to result in injury or loss to other people. The standard of care to be exercised is that of the ordinary, prudent person and will depend on the particular circumstances of each individual case. In the context of this proposal it would be the construction professionals, working for the contractor who must exercise due care to highlight errors when reading and implementing the client’s design, or the contractor’s own designer who must exercise due care when creating and developing a design (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2006). The element of skill required by a construction professional, whether they are an engineer, designer, quantity surveyor or project manager is to carry out their own specialist skill competently. The courts have defined the specialist skill and competence on many occasions and the following direction to the jury in Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee [1957], has been adopted by the House of Lords and is frequently cited:- “Where you get a situation which involves some special skill or competence … the test is the standard of the ordinary skilled man exercising and professing to have that special skill. A man need not possess the highest expert skill … it is sufficient if he exercises the ordinary skill of the ordinary competent man exercising that particular art” (Institution of Civil Engineers, 2006). As previous research by Gaafar and Perry (1998) suggests, the NEC/ECC contract is an acceptable document that can be tailored to individual projects and remain workable and acceptable to both client and contractor. These advantages could explain why it has rapidly become the contract of choice for public sector work. Due to the economic situation that exists in the construction and engineering industry at present the majority of work is in the public sector and as a result is under NEC3 the most recent version of NEC/ECC form of contract. According to the Bank of England the current economic situation is going to continue for at least the next 6 months before signs of recovery start to filter through to the construction industry in the form of private investment. Because of this, more disagreements over design defects carried out under the NEC3 form of contract are probably going to go before the courts. It would be useful then for contractor’s construction professionals to know what design liabilities the contractor could be exposed to so that they can take steps to avoid any legal entanglement. This is especially prudent as the NEC3 contract does not include the term ‘fitness for purpose’ in its text and instead relies on the works information given by the client to specify the performance requirements and secondary clauses to limit a contractor’s liability. When this information is incomplete or missing it creates a situation where the responsibilities and the end requirements are unclear and the contract reverts back to a silent position as discussed earlier and imposes a strict liability upon the contractor, unless secondary clauses to expressly limit liability are included within the contract document. Even where these clauses are included contractual warranties implied by the Sales of Goods Act 1972 and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 may take precedence. It is important to note that in this silent position a contractor would not be liable for design works carried out by subcontractors even if appointed by them under the relevant NEC3 subcontract form. The aim of the dissertation then, is to carry out primary and secondary research to determine whether, and if so, how, a contractor’s design liability can be limited to reasonable skill and care under the NEC3 suite of contracts. Your problem specification specifies the problem alright, but it does not indicate what can be done to resolve the problem or what issues need to be addressed in resolving this problem. These issues would form the basis of the ensuing chapters of the dissertation. There is a decided lack (although not a total absence) of appropriate citation to substantiate your many authoritative statements in the problem spec. Literature Review Current literature on the National Engineering Contract 3 (NEC3) includes legal cases, commentary or ‘how to use guides’ and finally but not exhaustively research by construction and engineering academics and/or professionals. This literature individually covers the different aspects of design liability and the NEC3. Need to make more substantial to provide a structured overview. The NEC3 is endorsed and recommended by the UK Governmental Office of Government Commerce for use on all public sector construction projects. And because the majority of current construction and engineering work is in the public sector at present it is getting a lot of use and therefore it is important that those using it fully understand it. To that end Eggleston (2006) has written a comprehensive commentary on the NEC3. His commentary explains how each NEC3 contract is uniquely put together to meet the employers needs by assembling clauses from the option structure and by particularisation in accompanying documents. This commentary is particularly useful in that it helps the reader use the contract by providing step by step instructions to ensure the basic building blocks of the contract are set up correctly. A good example of this is the five steps that an employer must follow in order to create a set of NEC3 conditions for a particular contract. Eggleston’s (2006) commentary is an overview of the entire suite of NEC3 contract documents and gives a brief definition of the clauses. It does not give instruction of which combination of options and clauses to use but instead informs the user how to incorporate their chosen selection into a working document. On the down side the book does not give you enough legal analysis and only refers to a handful of cases and to this end does not highlight sufficiently what the repercussions of not getting it right are. This means unless the professional using it is fully versed or doesn’t follow a commentary such as Eggleston’s to the letter they could end up in hot water regardless of what secondary clauses they think are in place to limit liability. Using Eggleston’s (2006) definitions of clauses and with cross reference to an NEC3 contract it is apparent that it is the secondary options X15 limitation of contractor’s liability for design and X18 limitation of liability are the most relevant to this proposal. This is because they are the clauses that can be included if agreed between the client and contractor to pre-determine the level of liability. Need to insert what Eggleston says… Difference between two clauses and what they limit…Contradiction with works information… Express catch all sentences added under Option Z or included in works info… Eggleston’s thoughts on silent position… Gaafar and Perry (1998) have written an insightful paper that is relevant to the proposed aim of this proposal. They based some of their findings on communication with an unnamed author involved in the development of the NEC. From this they discovered that these optional clauses came about due to legal advice that was given to avoid the term fitness for purpose and to the eventual adoption of the notion that the employer would either define the extent of his requirements for performance through the works information or would limit the liability through the choice of an optional clause. The term ‘fit for purpose’ is very open to interpretation and could be a reason why it was left for the employer to fully define their requirements. Gaafar and Perry (1998) were unable to find a precise definition for the term ‘fitness for purpose’ and concluded from comparing correspondence and discussion with unnamed legal academics and professionals that no such definition exists. This is hard to accept as regardless how many legal academics and professionals were contacted it is precedence set in the courts that establishes a meaning for the term not the legal academics and professionals opinion. It may be the case that these legal academics and professionals are unaware of any relevant case law and it is unlikely that they exhausted all published volumes. In addition Gaafar and Perry (1998) may have narrowed the question posed to the legal academics and professionals too much and a definition may exist in a non construction and engineering context that could be applied if the principles are the same. In addition to correspondence and discussion Gaafar and Perry (1998) also carried out a survey to determine the desirability to be able to adjust the level of liability. They highlight that 30% of clients questioned in the survey said that a ‘fitness for purpose liability’ is not desirable as they recognise the practical and commercial problems it can cause. Gaafar and Perry (1998) expand on the description of these problems reiterating that professional designers do not have to carry a professional liability higher than ‘reasonable skill and care’ and therefore no higher level of insurance cover exists. This means that the contractor can not obtain cover either and because of this if a ‘fitness for purpose’ obligation exists and the design is carried out by a professional designer under a subcontract, the contractor can not pass this liability down to them. This leaves the contractor carrying a large uninsured risk. This unexpected result in their findings gives strong support to their recommendation of using a contract that allows liability to be tailored to an individual contractual situation. The theory and supporting research is comprehensive, however, the raw data is not given and it undermines their reasoning, as it is impossible to determine the significance of the results without knowing the sample size, methods used, the context and appropriateness of the questions. Gaafar and Perry (1998) was published in the International Journal of Project Management and looks at a number of problems associated with the interaction of legal elements and contractual provisions. They look at, but do not directly compare, a number of standard forms of contract and their individual advantages and disadvantages when the limitation of design liability is the key issue. The paper concludes by recommending the use of the NEC contract as they suggest it provides a spectrum of liability. Despite their suggestion of using a contract that allows a spectrum of liability they importantly acknowledge that a strict liability and obligations under the Sales of Goods Act 1972 and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 exists and is difficult to sign away. This difficulty in signing away rights is also made reference to when they discuss liability under tort and the inclusion of express clauses to limit liability. These important points included by Gaafar and Perry (1998) are relevant to this proposal as they have a bearing on how effectively liability can be limited. Professor J. Perry and Dr H. K. Gaafar are academics at the School of Civil Engineering, the University of Birmingham and for this reason their assumptions on NEC3 in practice are likely to be based on 3rd part information and not their own practical experience within the construction and engineering environment. It is also worth noting that The Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act 1996 (HGCRA) states that parties cannot sign away certain rights under UK law and current precedence will determine what obligations exist regardless of whether a clause was included to limit liability. The HGCRA forms the basis of the current UK law and as such must be treated seriously and acknowledged as the presiding authority on set aspects of construction projects. It is also important to note that the HGCRA is 13 years old and largely based on the report by Latham (1994), as such developments have happened in the way contracts are worded to either incorporate it or find ways around it. Egan (1998) suggests that a move to partnering and mutual cooperation will do away with a need for contracts. In this situation a strict liability will be implied by current UK law and legislation and as discussed a ‘fit for purpose’ obligation will be the default situation. If clauses intended to limit design liability are not effective then Eagan’s (1998) view that; “designers should work in close collaboration with other participants in the project…” will protect the contractor’s and reduce the risk as they will be fully aware of the requirements and ultimately able to deliver the end product that is ‘fit for purpose’. This work by Egan (1998) is a very theoretical academic view and 11 years on has not fully been adopted despite moves to create more trust through partnering, however, it does provide an alternative view to the confrontational and aggressive stand many contractors and clients are adopting in the economic down turn. Wallace (1995) states his opinion that the obligation to construct a work capable of carrying out its intended use overrides the obligations to comply with specification given in the works information. If this is the case even though a contractor may have produced a design that complied with all the works information, if the end result is not ‘fit for purpose’ they are then responsible. This goes back to the implied obligation discussed earlier and responsibility of the contractor to request more information and highlight lack of clarity in the works information. They may have done everything including ‘reasonable skill and care’ to produce a design that complies with the works information but if the works information was inadequate they were liable for not correcting this fault and therefore liable for not producing a design that could deliver. Wallace (1995) published this work a year after Latham (1994) and in a climate where a more progressive approach to construction was the new way of thinking, however, it ignores this work and focuses on fact and the law as it stood at the time. This is not a bad thing but when applying Wallace’s work to contracts such as the NEC3 it does not always directly apply and extrapolation of the legal principles is necessary, however most are still the same and the book is still widely accepted and used. Jackson and Powel (1992) conclude that the particular obligations of a contractor to his client are generally of a different nature from those owed by a professional man to his client. They make the point that this does not expressly state that the contractor’s obligations amount to a fitness for purpose requirement. However they imply in the passage, “my complaint against him is not that he has failed to exercise reasonable skill and care in carrying out the work but that he has failed to supply what was contracted for”, that a higher level of liability than reasonable skill and care exists and that the precise level of liability is governed by what is stated in the totality of the contract. Jackson and Powel (1992) is considered to be an accepted legal text and the authors experts in their field. This opinion is supported by the fact that the book has been quoted in the courts. A good example being; Lady Justice Butler-Sloss in the Court of Appeal regarding the case of Sansom and Monaghan v. Metcalf Hambleton

Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture Critical Essay

Throughout the course of recent decades, the rise of a global popular culture and the manner in which it is being reflected by movies have been discussed from a variety of different sociological perspectives. As a rule, the individuals that discuss this particular socio-cultural phenomenon do agree that the emergence of such a culture has been dialectically predetermined – that is, the very of laws of history created objective preconditions for people to grow increasingly cosmopolitical, which in turn causes them to relate to the global culture’s presumed values emotionally. At the same time, however, there is a specific rationale in believing that the very process of a perceptual cosmopolitization inevitably results in them becoming ever more intellectually marginalized and consequently, in growing dispossessed of certain psychological qualities, which allowed their ancestors to ‘fuel’ the ongoing socio-technological progress (Elhefnawy 2007). Therefore, it can be well suggested that many of the contemporary Hollywood (British) films do in fact contain some themes and motifs, which suggest that, as of today, the Western civilization is being rapidly deprived of its former vitality, in the figurative sense of this word. The reason for this is simple – as it is being subtly implied in many of these films, once people are being allowed to prioritize addressing their individualistic anxieties, it becomes only the matter of time, before they transform into essentially social parasites, incapable of acting as the society’s productive members. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above statement, in regards to what can be considered the discursive significance of the films ‘The Player’ and ‘Gosford Park’ by Robert Altman (director). Probably the most memorable aspect of the film ‘The Player’ is that fact that, while working as a studio executive, in charge of selecting the best screenplays to be put into production, the film’s main character Griffin Mill is represented as an individual with utterly tight daily schedules. Thus, Mill’s ability to lead a luxurious lifestyle appears to be warranted to an extent. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After all, it is namely the main character’s harworkingness, which formally explains his high social status. Nevertheless, as the film’s plot unravels, it becomes increasingly clear to the audience members that, even though Mill is indeed a rather busy person, his ‘busyness’ appears to have very little to do with the character’s presumed ability to contribute to the society’s well-being, which would have justified his riches. The rationale behind this suggestion is quite apparent – it is Mill’s talent in selecting individually those screenplays that correlate with the viewers’ animalistic urges, which made it possible for him to attain a high status within the Hollywood movie-making industry. As it is being revealed in one of the film’s final scenes, in order for a particular screenplay to be selected for production, it must feature the elements of suspense, violence, sex and above all – it needs to function a ‘happy ending’ (01.42.32). In other words, it can be well suggested that the line of Mill’s work was concerned with making the ‘Hollywood reality’, seen in the movies, to be fully consistent with the workings of people’s unconscious psyche. On their part, they are being defined by the fact that, physiologically speaking, the representatives of Homo Sapiens species are nothing but hairless primates (Dawkins 1976). As such, they are naturally driven to strive to be put in the position of having to work as little as possible, without experiencing any material/emotional discomfort, as a result, so that they would be able to preoccupy themselves with experiencing sensual pleasures. After all, it is namely the ‘activity’ of bellyful idling, in time free from abusing the pack’s weaker members and having sex, in which the alpha-male apes indulge 24/7 (Propp 2004). Therefore, by applying an effort into ensuring that, when put into production, the selected screenplays will prove commercially successful; Mill contributed to the process of the American society becoming ever more intellectually marginalized. We will write a custom Critical Writing on Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apparently, he was well aware of it, which explains why in the scene where the film’s main character is having lunch with his business-associates, he asks for the topic of the ensued conversation not be concerned with the industry, because according to Mill, “educated people do not discuss Hollywood movies” (00.13.16). However, being an individualistically minded individual, Mill could care less about the fact that, while exposed to the movies produced by his studio, people do grow ‘dumb’. The same can be said about the rest of the high ranking representatives of the Hollywood movie-making industry, seen in ‘The Player’ – these people’s endowment with the strong sense of individualism was naturally causing them to adopt hypocritical attitudes in life. This explains why, despite being aware of the fact that the most successful Hollywood blockbusters are in essence the instruments of the citizens’ continual ‘dumbing’, these people find it thoroughly appropriate to refer to what they do professionally in terms of art (01.26.13). Even the character of Tom Oakley (a British screenwriter, who came up with the idea to make a ‘realistic’ film about the functioning of the American legal system) ends up allowing his screenplay to be ‘improved’ to the extent of featuring Bruce Willis with the shotgun in his hands, who in the end ‘reestablishes justice’. Thus, there is indeed a good rationale in referring to ‘The Player’, as such that promotes the idea that, contrary to what neo-cons believe, there are some socially counter-beneficial effects to the American people’s endowment with the acute sense of individualism. After all, as it can be seen in the film, it is such their sense that weakens their ability to act as the agents of progress, which in turn undermines the integrity of the American society from within. The reason for this is simple – once people allow their individualistic anxieties to delineate the manner in which they address life-challenges, they turn into ultimate hedonists, completely deprived of the sense of a social responsibleness. The consequence of this is that, despite remaining ‘respectable’ on the outside, the American society continues to regress to the era when it was named the citizens’ varied affiliation with the ‘laws of jungle’, which used to define their chances of social advancement. Not sure if you can write a paper on Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to the fact that, as ‘The Player’ implies, people associated with the American movie-making industry, have long ago been turned into essentially the representatives of one of the country’s parasitic social classes, whose ability to enjoy a high-quality living does not even slightly reflect their factual worth, as individuals. Therefore, it is fully explainable why the currently dominant social discourse (global culture), reflected by the mainstream Hollywood movies, promotes the values of a blind consumerism, when people are being made to believe that it is possible for them to be able to enjoy prosperity, for as long as they succeed in ‘striking it lucky’. However, as the realities of a contemporary living in America indicate, these values cannot be referred to as anything but counter-productive, in the social sense of this word, because it is specially the citizens’ assumption that they can well lead a socially parasitic existence, which created objective prerequisites for the outbreak of the current economic recession in America (Schelkle 2012). The earlier deployed line of argumentation can also be utilized, within the context of how one may go about defining the discursive significance of the film ‘Gosford Park’. After all, just as it happened to be the case with the earlier analyzed Altman’s movie, ‘Gosford Park’ does convey the subtle message that there is something utterly unnatural about the practice of having people stratified along class lines. What allowed us to identify this message is that, as it being shown in this particular film, the rich and powerful simply do not have any reason, whatsoever, to believe in their factual superiority over the ordinary people. This poses us with the question – if the socially disadvantaged/poor citizens (such as the characters of servants in ‘Gosford Park’) do consciously realize that the ‘nobles’ are by no means superior, what prevents them from adopting an active stance, while exposed to the social injustices? ‘Gosford Park’ provides a thoroughly sound answer to this question – this is because, the upper-class people succeeded in creating a popular culture, which serves the purpose of legitimizing the hegemony of the latter (Katz 2006). The validity of this idea can be explored in regards to the scene, in which the earlier mentioned servants do not only situate themselves at a dinner table (down in the basement) in exactly the same way as their masters did on the upper floor, but they also strive to mimic the mannerisms of those they serve (00.31.46). Apparently, throughout the course of their lives, these servants never ceased being indoctrinated to think of their subservient social status, as a ‘natural’ state of affairs. What it means is that, just as it happened to be the case nowadays in America, the qualitative subtleties of popular culture in pre-war Britain never ceased being reflective of what accounted for the actual agenda of the representatives of social elites – namely, ensuring their continual dominance in the society, divided along class lines. As such, this agenda could not possibly be justified, in the discursive sense of this word, due to having been concerned with the rich and powerful trying to slow down the pace of a historical progress – all for the sake of being able to enjoy high living standards, without even having to move a finger (Tomlin 2013). However, as sociologists and historians are being well aware of, when due to their high social status, people are allowed to lead an essentially parasitic lifestyle, it becomes only the matter of time before they turn into the bunch of degenerates – just as it happened to be the case with the ‘socially-upstanding’ characters in ‘Gosford Park’. Thus, it will only be logical to conclude this paper by reinstating once again that there is indeed a good reason to refer to both films, as such that imply that there are certain overtones of decadence to the rise and the considerable refinement a global popular culture, as we know it. References Dawkins, R 1976, The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Elhefnawy, N 2007, ‘On Dark Ages’, Futurist, vol. 41. No. 6, pp. 14-19. Gosford park 2001, DVD, Shepperton Studios, London, UK. Katz, H 2006, ‘Gramsci, hegemony, and global civil society networks’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary

Disaster Recovery in Organizations Discussion Board

Disaster Recovery in Organizations Discussion Board.

*** Plagiarism is not acceptable *** 1) Discussion Topic: Disaster Recovery in organizations Tasks: Discuss the following topics: Why is it that some organizations do not place enough importance on disaster recovery? What are examples of the type of disasters that could happen? What are some things that might happen to these organizations if one of the disasters actually occurred? What kind of mitigation strategies would you put in place? Support your assertions by citing credible sources. Feel free to make assumptions when answering the question. Support your assertions by citing credible sources. 2) Also need help to comment provide comments to two classmate posts and Questions asked by the professor? Instructions: Cite any sources you use using correct APA format on a separate page. Plagiarism is not acceptable. (Please consider this top priority).
Disaster Recovery in Organizations Discussion Board

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