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Information Systems, Not Computer Science

The largest growth in most economies is coming from ‘information’ industries. The success of such knowledge-based organisations lies in their information systems. Also, forced by technological change and globalisation of markets, many manufacturing industries are also placing increasing emphasis upon information systems. Information systems are more than just computer programs. Though information and communications technologies are playing an increasing role in meeting organisations’ information needs, an information system is a much more general concept. It refers to the wider systems of people, data and activities, both computer-based and manual, that effectively gather, process, store and disseminate organisations’ information 2.0 Information Systems not Computer Science Information systems, as a discipline, focuses on exploring the interface between management, information science and computer science. Computer Science focuses on information technology: software. Information Systems mediates the two opposing worlds of human activity systems and information technology 3.0 Information Systems and the Modern Organization 3.1 Outline Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems Evolution of Information Systems Classification of Information Systems The Modern Computing Environment Managing Information Resources 3.2 Learning Objectives Describe Porter’s competitive forces model. Discuss strategies that companies can use to achieve competitive advantage in their industries. Describe strategic information system (SISs) and how information technology helps companies improve their competitive positions. Describe various information systems and their evolution. Learn major Information System classification schemes. Describe the emerging computing environments. Describe how information resources are managed and the roles of the information systems department and the end users 4.0 Competitive advantage and SIS Competitive Advantage: An advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed, which leads to control of a market and to larger than average profits. 4.1 Competitive forces model A business framework, devised by Michael Porter, for analyzing competitiveness by looking at five major forces that might alter a firm’s competitive standing. 4.2 Porter’s five forces Model 4.3 Strategies for Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership. Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry. Differentiation. Offer different products, services or product features. Customer orientation. Concentrate on making customers happy so that they remain loyal. New markets. Discover new markets either as a means of expansion and growth, or with the goal of capturing market niches. Innovation. Introduce new products and services, add new features to existing products and services or develop new ways to produce them. Operational Effectiveness. Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than its rivals. Discussion: Which of these strategies can be enhanced by the use of IS/IT, and how? 4.4 Strategic Information Systems (SISs) Systems that help an organization gain a competitive advantage through their contribution to the strategic goals of an organization and / or their ability to significantly increase performance and productivity. 4.5 IS Related Organizational Responses Strategic Systems may provide advantages that enable organizations to increase market share and/or profits, to better negotiate with suppliers, or prevent competitors from entering their markets. Customer Focus is the idea of attracting and keeping customers by providing superb customer service. Can be enhanced by use of IS/IT. Made-to-Order. is a strategy of producing customized products and services. Mass Customization is producing a large quantity of items, but customizing them to fit the desire of each customer. E business and Ecommerce. Is the strategy of doing business electronically. Discussion: Which Information Systems would be strategic for: An university An online book store A car manufacturer? 5.0 Evolution of Information Systems The first business application of computers (in the mid1950s) performed repetitive, high volume, transaction computing tasks. The computers “crunched numbers” summarizing and organizing transactions and data in the accounting, finance, and human resources areas. Such systems are generally called transaction processing systems (TPSs). Management Information Systems (MISs): these systems access, organize, summarize and display information for supporting routine decision making in the functional areas. Office Automation Systems (OASs): such as word processing systems were developed to support office and clerical workers. Decision Support Systems: were developed to provide computer based support for complex, or no routine decision making. End-user computing: The use or development of information systems by the principal users of the systems’ outputs, such as analysts, managers, and other professionals. Knowledge Management Systems: support creating, gathering, organizing, integrating and disseminating of an organization knowledge. Data Warehousing: A data warehouse is a database designed to support DSS, ESS and other analytical and end-user activities. Intelligent Support System (ISSs): Include expert systems which provide the stored knowledge of experts to non experts, and a new type of intelligent systems with machine learning capabilities that can learn from historical cases. Mobile Computing: Information systems that support employees who are working with customers or business partners outside the physical boundaries of their companies; can be done over wire line or wireless networks. 6.0 Classification of Information Systems The two most common classifications are: Classification by breath of support Classification by organizational level. 6.1 Classification by Breath of Support Typical information systems that follow the hierarchical organization structure are functional (departmental), enterprisewide and interorganizational Functional information systems are organized around the traditional departments. Enterprise information systems serve several departments or the entire enterprise. Inter organizational systems connect two or more organizations. An organization’s supply chain describe the flow of materials, information, money, and service from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers. IT provides two major types of software solution for managing supply chain activities: Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM) 6.2 Departmental, corporate, and inter organizational IS 6.3 IT outside your organization 6.3 Classification by Organization Levels The typical enterprise is organized hierarchically, from the clerical and office worker layer, to the operational layer, the managerial layer, the knowledge worker layer and finally the strategic layer. 6.4 Levels in an Organization 6.5 The Clerical Level Clerical workers constitute a large class of employees who support managers at all levels of the company. Among clerical workers, those who use, manipulate, or disseminate information are referred to as data workers. These employees include bookkeepers, secretaries who work with word processors, electronic file clerks, and insurance claim processors. 6.6 The Operational Level Operational or first line managers deal with the day to day operations of the organization, making routine decisions, which deal in general with activities such as short-term planning, organizing, and control 6.7 The Knowledge Work Level They act as advisors and assistants to both top and middle management and are often subject area experts. Many of these professional workers are classified as knowledge workers, people who create information and knowledge as part of their work and integrate it into the business. 6.8 The Strategic Level Top-level or strategic managers (the executives) make decisions that deal with situations that may significantly change the manner in which business is done. 7.0 The Modern Computing Environment Computing Environment: The way in which an organization’s information technologies (hardware, software, and communications technology) are organized and integrated for optimal efficiency and effectiveness. Legacy system: Older systems, typically those that process an organization’s high volume transactions that are central to the operations of a business. 8.0 Managing Information Resources Information resources includes hardware, software, data, networks, applications etc. Management includes acquisition, introduction, support…. Traditionally, department (ISD – IS department) owns, manages and controls all resources End-user computing: employees use computers, write applications, manage data etc. Leads to fragmented management and need for cooperation between ISD and users Who is responsible for which resources? Includes financial responsibilities (contracts between users and ISD – IT controlling) Discussion: What are the possible problems associated with: Complete control at ISD, and Complete control for end-users? Which factors in a company would lead to which outcome Chief Information Officer (CIO): sometimes member of top management, nowadays no longer technical, but strategic function IT Governance: “… the leadership and organisational structures and processes that ensure that the organisation’s IT sustains and extends the organisation’s strategies and objectives.” Framework for IT Governance: COBIT Control Objectives for IT and related Technologies Mandated for Turkish banks in 2006 Domains: Plan and Organize, Acquire and Implement, Deliver and Support, Monitor and Evaluate COBIT 9.0 The information system strategies implementation in UK companies 9.1 Strategic process formality Business strategy relationship % companies The ISS is a formal documented part of the business strategy 47.5 There is no formal documentation, but the ISS is related to specific strategic aims 41.8 The ISS is a departmental function, rather than a corporate function 6.4 The ISS is not seen as related to the business strategy 0.0 9.2 Success of strategies 9.4 Conclusion: Collective intelligence and knowledge management can become effective mechanisms to help avoid the disturbances leading to internal disequilibrium within the organisation. Collective intelligence and knowledge management can remediate the negative effects of the instability of environment. The information and knowledge become “raw materials” for the intelligent organisation; their management requires simple solutions. Life cycle for products and services is getting shorter; the markets are global, fragmented by the needs and exigencies of the clients. The organisational culture evolves according to the aggregate strategy. The role of knowledge manager is to invest in the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge, leaving the employees to capitalise their personal competence
Vaccination causing or correlating to Autism. I’m stuck on a Biology question and need an explanation.

read the following document and then answer the following questions

Component:
Possible Points

Background and Question – what is the currently accepted “common knowledge” about your topic? What question are you addressing in your topic?
2

Describe at least two strengths of the news article in its reporting of scientific information.
2

Describe at least two weaknesses of the news article in its reporting of scientific information.
2

Describe at least two strengths of theprimary research article in its analysis and reporting of scientific information.
2

Describe at least two weaknesses of the primary article in its analysis and reporting of scientific information.
2

Poster design is clear, compelling, well laid out
1

Poster presentation includes an activity or participation component for the audience
1

Total
12

Vaccination causing or correlating to Autism

Adults’ Perception of Identical and Non-identical Twin Infant Behaviour

Adults’ Perception of Identical and Non-identical Twin Infant Behaviour. Study of adults’ perception of identical and non-identical twin infant behaviour and the applicability of the contrast effect Abstract The “contrast effect” is the tendency to believe that there is an outstanding temperamental difference between two non-identical twins, beyond what could be explained by genetic difference. This study examined the hypothesis that non-parent observers will perceive the difference in behavioural traits between two non-identical twin infants as greater than that of two identical twin infants. Twenty first-year university students were asked to partake in a between-subjects design, half of which were primed to rate the behaviour of identical twins, and half of which were primed to rate the behaviour of non-identical twins as they watched a 3-minute video of two infant baby girls playing with each other. Then, participants were instructed to rate each twin for two behavioural traits—affect trait and task orientation trait—and calculate the absolute difference between the scores of the two infants. The results showed that the two conditioned groups were not statistically significantly different. Therefore, it was concluded that the contrast effect did not apply to non-parents, a phenomenon that proved to be effective among parents in experiments in the past. Introduction Many studies have been conducted on parents’ interaction with infants, and on a smaller scale, parents’ observations of their infant’s behaviours and tendencies. Such reports have been mostly subjective and well controlled, but there still lied subjective components because of individual parental biases when engaging with their own children (Pauli-PottAdults’ Perception of Identical and Non-identical Twin Infant Behaviour

Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Emergency Management

essay writer The Age of Unmanned Aircraft Systems: A Pivotal Time for Emergency Management PURPOSE This literature review serves to determine if a need exists for comprehensive unmanned aircraft systems training for emergency management practitioners. The literature reviewed within examines the background, current state, and proposed future of unmanned aircraft systems both in the context of the risks they pose and the public safety benefits they present. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) have gained both significant popularity and notoriety in recent years. UAS and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are frequently used interchangeably, and both are commonly referred to as “drones”. There is one key difference between a UAS and a UAV, as a UAS refers to a system that includes both a control unit and the vehicle being controlled, while UAV refers only to the vehicle independently. UAS is the appropriate nomenclature in almost all circumstances outside of referencing an autonomous vehicle. UAS initially began piquing worldwide interest after the widespread media attention given to Central Intelligence Agency use of a General Atomics Predator Drone in an attempt to neutralize Osama Bin Laden in 2002 (Funk, 2016). The Predator Drone was successful in delivering a precise and fatal payload. Unfortunately, the man killed was not Osama Bin Laden, but was an innocent bystander foraging through scrap metal in the mountains of southern Afghanistan (Funk, 2016). Outside of military operations, consumer and commercial drones rose to prominence beginning in 2012 after the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) loosened flying restrictions for commercial drone pilots (Meola, 2017). As drones become more common with commercial enterprises and private citizens, economists have estimated that the United States commercial UAS industry will be worth $12 billion by 2021, up from $8.5 billion in 2016 (Meola, 2017). With consumer UAS being sold at prices as low as $50 at most big box stores and through all of the common online marketplaces, the number of UAS owned by private citizens presents a host of significant potential hazards for emergency management. Conversely, because UAS are so simple to use and so readily available, they may also serve as a powerful tool for public safety officials. LITERATURE REVIEWED The literature covered in this review is split into two focus areas. The first section is comprised of articles and reports best described as UAS centric threat assessments, which contain compelling examples of criminal and terroristic UAS use and describe the public safety concerns that have become prevalent. The second section examines the flipside to UAS for public safety, and highlights some of the current and potential benefits of UAS for emergency managers as tools for all phases of emergency management. Within all of the UAS threat assessments reviewed there are three prominent and recurring concepts. The first of these is that UAS are both very easy to acquire and very easy for the average person to operate. Secondly, even consumer grade UAS have the capacity to be used as terrorism delivery methods with or without modification. Finally, UAS are nearly impossible to track or stop once they have been launched to conduct an operation. The ease of access and use of UAS was understood as a potential hazard at least a decade before the recent consumer drone market increase. In a 2005 report titled Threat of Terrorism Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Technical Aspects, author Eugene Miasnikov writes that “If the volume of sales increase dramatically in the future, state control over proliferation and use of UAVs will become significantly more complicated, especially in a case of a lack of adequate mechanisms” (p.11). In 2005 the military wartime use of UAS was still in its infancy and as such, consumer markets for UAS were not advanced and did not offer nearly the same access to the technology that is available today. By 2015 Miasnikov’s foreshadowing had come to fruition. In Examining Unmanned Aerial System Threats

South University Insights on People of Haitian Heritage Research Paper

South University Insights on People of Haitian Heritage Research Paper.

-Below I have attached the document you will be using.-In the document there is four case studies throughout the article called “Reflection Exercise” that you will be answering using the document and that document only. So, only cite from the document provided.-In total there are four reflection exercises that need to be done: Reflection Exercise 15.1 (page 9) , Reflection Exercise 15.2 (page 14) , Reflection Exercise 15.3 (page 15), Reflection Exercise 15.4 (page 17)- Put on a word document. Using APA 7th Edition Format and only cite using the document provided.
South University Insights on People of Haitian Heritage Research Paper

Chestnut Hill College Rear Window & It Had to Be Murder Film Adaptation Discussion

Chestnut Hill College Rear Window & It Had to Be Murder Film Adaptation Discussion.

The title changes from story (“It had to be Murder”) to film (Rear Window). What is the meaning behind the change in title? How does this impact the story, the characters, or even the readers/viewers interpretation of the story?Literary conflict is a struggle that the character (or characters) in a story need to overcome. Choose one conflict that is in “It had to be Murder” and explain it. Directions:Your initial response needs to be at least 150words and answering the above question(s).At the end of your answer, include a open-ended question to the class to further the discussion.https://vimeo.com/433068100
Chestnut Hill College Rear Window & It Had to Be Murder Film Adaptation Discussion

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