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Influence of Trade, Power and Religion on Architecture Around the World

Influence of Trade, Power and Religion on Architecture Around the World. 1. Introduction 1.1. Aims of Study The following essay aims to explore and investigate the main influences of architecture across Africa, Europe, Asia and the Americas during the time period 600 AD. It will highlight significant events, analyse the relationship between these spaces with reference to mainly religion, power and trade, as well as climate and human activity while also making reference to one public and one private building in each continent comparing similarities and differences. This is done to see whether the spread of architecture in different parts of the world can be linked 2. Africa In the early 600’s, large parts of Northern Africa were conquered from the Byzantine by Muslim Arabs and thus began the Rise of the Islamic Empire in Africa bringing with it religion and law. The Islamic Empire spread throughout Africa by means of trade. Swahili emerged as an Arab/Bantu-African hybrid language. North Africa was fundamentally shaped by the coming of Islam and the migration of large numbers of Arab people, therefore the architecture was significantly influenced by Islam. Islamic architecture comprises of a wide range of religious and secular styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. These styles influence the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. Recognizable Islamic architectural styles emerged soon after Prophet Muhammad’s time. These buildings were inspired by Islam with the addition of localized adaptations and inspiration of the former Sassanid and Byzantine models, the Germanic Visigoths in Spain also made a big contribution to Islamic Architecture. Often in English, the vocabulary used to describe public baths, fountains and domestic architecture are derived from Arabic phrases. 2.1. Public Building Great Mosque of Kairouan The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Figure 1 Cross Section of the Great Mosque of Khairouan Masjid (Mosque) of Uqba was built in the year 670 by the Sahabi (friend of the Prophet Muhammad) Uqba-bin-Nafe who was a military general. He began the Islamic conquest of present-day Algeria and Morocco. Kairouan was used as his base to mount operations. The Masjid became a Madressah (centre of learning) for Islamic and Quranic learning. It attracted Muslims from all around the world. The Masjid has a surface area of 9000 square meters and is considered as a model for Masjids in the western Islamic World. 2.2. Private Building Figure 2 Adobe Multi-storey townhouse Adobe Brick Compounds The compounds were a mix of Sudano-Sahelian architecture. They were built using mudbricks and adobe plaster, thus the name Adobe Brick. Wooden-log beams that jut out the face of the buildings were used as supports for larger buildings such as Mosques and Palaces. These beams also acted as scaffolding for reworking which was done regularly and involved the entire community. Sudanese compounds were characterised by the several cone roofs. This was a primarily urban building style. 3. Europe The time period 600AD is also knows as the Dark Ages or the Middle Ages. It refers to the time period between the Fall of the Roman Empire, the Italian Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the eastern parts of the Mediterranean where Greek was the vernacular. During the Dark Ages, the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations (Byzantium) were remarkably advanced and contributed immensely to human progress, notably in the areas of science, government, philosophy and Architecture. The emperor Constantine who was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire declared Constantinople (modern day Istanbul) the new Rome and placed in the major trade routes for Europe and Asia. Christianity as a religion was the dominant influence of architectural style and Byzantine architects constructed numerous religious buildings. (Visual-arts-cork.com, 2019) 3.1.Public Building Figure 3 Hagia Sophia before Islamic Conquer Hagia Sophia The Hagia Sophia is a former Greek orthodox church (Construction of the 3rd church began in 537). It served as a cathedral and seat of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. It was later converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. With the Rise of the Islamic Empire, Byzantine was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Turks and the Church was converted to a Masjid. With Sketch of a Minaret, Auhors own work the conversion of the church into a Masjid, Minarets (turret from which people are called to prayer) were added to the original building, Christian relics were removed and a minbar (pulpit from which a sermon is delivered) and mihrab (niche in a wall to indicate the direction in which prayers should be performed) were constructed. These additions significantly changed the use of the building and its identity. 3.2. Private Building The Great Palace of Constantinople The Palace is also known as The Sacred Palace and is the Byzantium equivalent to the Palatine in Rome. The Great Palace of Constantinople was the primary residence for Emperors and the centre of imperial administration for over 800 years. The Palace is located in Constantine (Old Istanbul/Modern Turkey). It overlooks the Sea of Marmara to the south-east. It is a complex of buildings and gardens situated on a 600x500m terraced site. Later on in History, specifically the year 1453 when Mehmed II entered Constantine, he found the palace abandoned and in ruins. Mehmed allegedly whispered, “The spider spins his web in Figure 4 Arial View of The Great Palace the Palace of the Caesars, An owl hoots in the towers of Afrasiyab.” (Ferdowsi) During the Ottoman era, much of the palace was demolished and was initially turned into housing and a number of small Masjids. 4. Asia “Between the fall of the Han dynasty in 220 CE and the year 600, more than thirty dynasties, kingdoms, and states rose and fell on the eastern side of the Asian continent. The founders and rulers of those dynasties represented the spectrum of people in North, East, and Central Asia. Nearly all of them built palaces, altars, temples, tombs, and cities, and almost without exception, the architecture was grounded in the building tradition of China.” (Steinhardt, 2014) China used the silk road as the inventors of silk in the early ages, they became extremely wealthy transporting luxury goods along the silk road. 4.1. Public Building The Great Wall of China The Great wall of China was rebuilt in the early 600’s which was funded through the trade of silk via the silk route. The Great Wall of China was constructed along an east to west line. The structure is a series of fortifications built using Figure 5 The great Wall of China stone, brick, tamped earth, and wood. The main purpose behind the Great Wall was to protect Chinese states and empires against raids and invasions. Other purposes of the Great Wall included border control, encouraging trade and the control of immigration/emigration. 4.2. Private Building Domestic Houses Sketch of a Pergoda, authors own work In early China, most of the people who could not afford to live in fancy houses lived in small houses made out of mudbrick, with only a room and a dirt floor (the the way most people in the Roman Empire, West Asia and Africa lived). Wealthier people could afford fancier homes and built temples and palaces. Ancient Chinese architecture was built according to strict rules of design that made Chinese buildings follow the ideas of Taoism (philosophy and belief that is deeply rooted in Chinese customs and world view) and other Chinese philosophies. The first design idea was that buildings should be long and low. The roof would be held up by columns and should seem to be floating. The second design idea was influenced by symmetry and balance just as the fundamentals of Taoism. A drastic change in Chinese architecture was influenced by religion when Buddhism first came to China from India. Buddhists began building pagodas (tiered tower with multiple eaves) to keep sacred things. These pagodas were inspired by Indian buildings called stupas (hemispherical structure containing religious relics). In the early 600’s, under the Sui Dynasty, the ideas of symmetry and balance once again became important in Architecture and the principle of Taoism was brought back. (Ruiz, 2013) 5. North America The time period 600AD falls under the Pre- Columbian Era in North American history. The Pre- Columbian era is classified under five stages; namely, Archaic period, Climate Stabilized, Woodland period, Formative period and the Classic period. The Woodland period (1000BC – 800AD) refers to the large sites between the Archaic period and the Mississippian cultures, this periods involved development such as tools made of bone and stone, making of textiles and shelters. The specialization of crafts and metallurgy also took place around 600AD and is known as the Classic period. 5.1. Cahokia Figure 6 Cahokia Cahokia was the most important centre for the people known today as Mississippians. Their settlements ranged across the Midwest, Eastern and Southern United States. In its peak, Cahokia was the largest urban centre and was subsequently larger than any American city until the 1780’s. Cahokia was situated in a strategic trade position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri and Illinois river. It maintained trade links with communities near the Great Lakes to the North and the Gulf Coast to the South. They traded in exotic items such as copper, Mill Creek chert and whelk shells. (Crystalinks.com, n.d.) 5.2. Public Building Monks Mound at Cahokia Monks mound is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork in America. (Crystalinks.com, n.d.) Its size averages 30m high, 291m long and 236m wide. The base of Monks mound is roughly the same size as the Great Pyramid at Giza. The platform mound was constructed almost entirely of basket transported soil and clay. The flattened top and construction method caused it to retain rainwater within the structure and over the years, this has caused slumping. The Grand Plaza is a large open area that spreads out beyond Monks mound, this was a public area used by residences of Cahokia. Beyond Monks mound as many as 120 private mounds stood at varying distances from the city centre. 5.3. Private Building Sketch of Mound Structures, authors own work Cahokia Mounds Cahokia consisted of approximately 120 private mounds. Private mounds were constructed in the same way as Monks mound but at a much smaller scale. Earthen mounds were constructed for residential, ceremonial and burial purposes. The basic structure of a mound was that it was either flat-topped pyramids, cones with flat or rounded tops or elongated ridges but in some cases, mounds took on unusual shapes, such as the outline of significant animals. (Crystalinks.com, n.d.) 6. South America South America has been inhabited for approximately 20 000 years by hunters and gatherers who began developing agriculture around 4000BC. The first permanent agricultural settlements appeared about 3500BC in coastal river valleys. Inhabitants of South America during 600AD included the Moche, Nazca, Tiahuanaco, Huari and Pachacmac tribes. The Huari people excelled both agriculturally and with trade between the other small villages in Peru at the time. On the coast of South America, the Tiahuanaco people started to rise with its war parties and tactics. Nazca and Moche were coexisting civilizations in the Andes Mountain area of the Americas. The civilization of Moche was limited in communicating with the Ica-Nazca areas. Both of these civilizations collapsed in the year of 700. 6.1. Moche The Peru state became known as ‘Moche’ due to the civilization which founded it. It lies at the foot of the Cerro Blanco mountain and once covered an area of 300 hectares. It has urban housing, plazas, storehouses, and workshop buildings, as well as an impressive monuments which include two massive adobe brick pyramid-like mounds. The multiple levels, access ramps, and slanted roofing are typical traits featured in Moche architecture and this monument is impressive as it is in its original state. (Cartwright, 2014) 6.2. Public Building Huaca del Sol The Huaca del Sol temple is an adobe brick temple built by the Moche civilization on the North Coast of Peru. The Huaca del Sol was built using approximately 130 million adobe bricks and was the largest pre- Columbian structures built in the Americas. It was composed of four main levels and was expanded and rebuilt by different rulers over time. Markings on the brickwork suggest that over 100 different communities contributed to the building of the Huacas. 6.3. Private Building Figure 7 Huaca del Sol Moche Adobe Brick Compounds “Monumental Moche architecture is characterized by large adobe (mud brick) pyramids with platforms. They often decorated the pyramids and temples with friezes depicting Moche deities. Tombs of the rulers were placed inside the pyramids with elaborate ceremonies which are depicted on the Moche pottery. Residential areas were located adjacent to the major pyramids and in the smaller towns up and down the river valleys.” (Ojibwa, 2011) 7. Cross Analysis and Conclusion The history of architecture traces the changes and influences through various religions, traditions, regions and styles. From the above research, one can say that the influence of architecture was spread mainly through trade and power. The Silk Road is a network of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting Asia, Europe and Africa. It linked traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. Trade was a significant factor in the developing of civilizations along the silk route. Through this, architecture developed and adapted. Architecture was largely influenced by the spread of religion which was spread through trade. With the exchange along the silk route, religions were Figure 8 Map of the Silk Route introduced into different parts of the world where they once did not exist. Islam, Christianity and Buddhism were among the religions which were spread vastly and made significant impacts on the architectural styles in each region. One can see the Islamic influence of Architecture from the Middle East adapted in the Adobe Brick Masjids as well as in the Hagia Sophia in Turkey. Further along in history, the Taj Mahal in India was built and once again, one can see the adaptation of Islamic architecture in India. Moving from India into China, with the spread of Buddhism, one can see the influence of Indian architecture in the pagodas that were built as Buddhist shrines. Power also played a huge role in adaptations and styles of architecture. The Hagia Sophia is an excellent example of a building that was adapted through power. Much like the inhabitants of Africa, we see that tribes in South America also used the adobe brick method of construction. Adobe is the world’s oldest manufactured building materials. Its use spans all parts of the globe and crosses many cultures. In an architectural context, the word adobe means, sun-dried mud brick or a structure built from such bricks. More generally, “adobe” is used as a term for the mud used to make these bricks. The word derives through the Spanish language from several Arabic terms meaning “mix” or “smooth.” The derivation of the word adobe hints at the influence of Arab/Islamic architecture in the Middle East and its spread to Africa. During the period 600AD, contact between Africa and the Americas had not yet been made, yet we see similar construction methods developed in these different parts of the world. This can suggest that development of Architecture is universally known guideline and civilizations made use of what they had to construct their buildings. In conclusion, religion, power and trade played important roles in the development, adaptation and spread of architecture. The Islamic empire was a dominating force within this time and brought forward law, philosophy, theology and architecture. Although, the Byzantine empire was conquered, they also played a large part in the development of early architecture. Architecture in the Americas was fairly similar. The communities were large and thrived. References Anon. (n.d.) Sacred Destinations. [O] Available at: http://www.sacred-destinations.com/tunisia/kairouan-great-mosque [Accessed 13 Sep. 2019]. Bardill, J. (1999). The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors and the the Walker trust Excavations. Roman Archaeology, pp. 216-230. Bergdoll B. (2000). European Architecture 1750-1890. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy press Cartwright, M. (2014). Moche Civilization. [online] Ancient History Encyclopedia. Available at: https://www.ancient.eu/Moche_Civilization/ [Accessed 15 Sep. 2019]. Cooke, J. e. a., (1981). History Timeline. In: F. Franklin, ed. A 40000 year Chronology of Civilisation. New York: Barnes and Noble. Crystalinks.com. (n.d.). Cahokia: North American Mounds – Crystalinks. [online] Available at: https://www.crystalinks.com/NorthAmericanMounds.html [Accessed 1 Oct. 2019]. Finlay, G. (2014). History of Byzantine and Greek. Oxford:Oxford University press Fletcher, B. (2014). The Victorian Web. [O] Available: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/byzantine/bf1.html [Accessed 14 Sep. 2019]. Graves, D. (2007). Consecration of Hagia Sophia. [O] Available: http://www.christianity.com/church/church-history/timeline/301-600/consecrationf- hagia-sophia-11629710.html [Accessed 13 Sep. 2019]. James, E. (2009). Europes Barbarians AD 200-600. United Kingdom: Taylor Francis ltd McKenzie, J. (2007). The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt 300 BC – AD700. Hong Kong: World Print. Ojibwa (2011). Ancient America: The Moche. [online] Daily Kos. Available at: https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2011/05/05/973301/-Ancient-America-The-Moche [Accessed 13 Sep. 2019]. Prakash, M. J. a. V. (2010). A Global History of Architecture. 2nd ed. s.l.:John WileyInfluence of Trade, Power and Religion on Architecture Around the World
Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Questions for In-Class Consideration References Introduction It is worth noting that continental philosophy is not limited to several philosophical approaches. It seeks to consider problems in all their breadth, focusing on the humanitarian side of sciences (Koopman, 2013). The main difference of this direction from the analytical philosophy is that the first one does not reduce its discussions to formal analysis. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the ideas proposed by continental philosophy and its integral thought. Discussion The discussion addresses the query of whether continental philosophy considers that sensible human agency has the potential to alter the setting of people’s experience. Rorty (1997), who is the representative of hermeneutics and pragmatism, links explanation to causation. According to the scholar, social structures in which people function, as well as the background of individuals, affect the way they perceive and comprehend the world (Rorty, 1997). This philosopher believes that such scientists as Foucault reject the possibility of attributing a moral meaning to human knowledge. In order to substantiate his thought, Rorty (1997) also provides an example of the way Foucault and other liberal philosophers view the truth. They regard it as a notion isolated from power. Moreover, Foucault believed that the language of science was neutral and could analyze political and moral institutions in an unbiased manner (Mills, 2003). However, the divergence between the views of Foucault and Rorty can be characterized as political at its core (Luxon, 2013). Both intellectuals are anti-realists. Nevertheless, Foucault’s narrative shies away from the tasks of social reformation. In his turn, Rorty (1997) is guided by the social construction of knowledge. According to this approach, in order to understand science, it is necessary to correlate it with the historical process and place science in a social context. Interestingly, Rorty (1997) argues that it is important to have certain metaphysical ideas about the nature of people. According to him, “these heroes of humanity are the people who dissolved the problems of their day by transcending the vocabulary in which these problems were posed” (Rorty, 1997, p. 530). In particular, he suggests that society is not rallied on a philosophical basis but through a common vocabulary. In his turn, the social philosopher Lewis (2000) reiterates this position from an ontological point of view. He states that “the social world is the joint product of people’s discursive practices” (Lewis, 2000, p. 255). Therefore, he does not generalize knowledge. Notably, the discussion held by continental philosophers is important for our professional endeavor since it has addressed the issue from different perspectives. The evolution of thought can lead to an understanding that social structures should be interpreted in terms of their causal powers (Wain, 2014). That is to say, the circumstances of human agency can be altered based on their internal constitution. Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that continental philosophy debunks the worldview of analytical philosophers. Perception of the world is indicated not only in the language of humans but also in their culture. Social structures are inseparable not only from stylistics and language but also from non-philosophical categories and other means of the context. The continental approach gives grounds to assert that philosophy is not a universal knowledge and that social structures are related to causality. Questions for In-Class Consideration Based on the discussion and the assumptions made, the three questions for in-class consideration are as follows: Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What are the weaknesses of continental philosophy? Is it possible to reach an agreement on the truth as applied to different cultures? How are individual agents related to social structures? References Koopman, C. (2013). Genealogy as critique: Foucault and the problems of modernity. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Lewis, P. (2000). Realism, causality and the problem of social structure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(3), 249-268. Luxon, N. (2013). Crisis of authority: Politics, trust, and truth-telling in Freud and Foucault. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Mills, S. (2003). Michel Foucault. London, England: Routledge. Rorty, R. M. (1997). Hermeneutics, general studies, and teaching. In S. M. Kahn (Ed.), Classic and contemporary reading in philosophy of education (pp. 522-536). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Wain, K. (2014). Between truth and freedom: Rousseau and our contemporary political and educational culture. London, England: Routledge.
Intricacies Of Management And Organizational Behaviour Business Essay. Introduction “Management is the cornerstone of organisational effectiveness, and the integrating activity that permeates every facet of the operations of the organisation. The word management comes from the French “management” which is the art of conducting and directing. Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives and measuring results. Management is all about attaining the business goal in an effective and efficient manner. Management is not only limited to specific people in the organization and every employee of the organization is supposed to perform certain functions of the management as part of their job. Management and Organizations: In this uncertain economic climate, organizations need strong people to manage and lead the staff in accomplishing the business goals. Managers are more than leaders – they are problem solvers, cheerleaders and planners. In the current scenario, organizations abound in today’s society. Groups of individuals constantly join forces to accomplish common goals. Sometimes the goals of the organizations are for profit but other times the goals are more altruistic. But no matter what the aims and goals are all the organizations share two things in common: “They are made up of people and some people are in charge of these people.” In today’s era one of the prime responsibilities of the manager is to channelize the efforts of the employees in attainment of the self goals and also the goals of the organisation. In essence, managers get the job done through other people. Intricacies of Management: In today’s changing scenario managers are not only responsible for their own performance but also are held responsible for the performance of the group of individuals. For example as observed in Mc Donalds, the serving time for a customer is three minutes. In a situation where a customer orders a number of products manager steps in and takes the responsibility of completing the order within the time span of three minutes to ensure the deadline of serving a customer within three minutes is met in any given situation. Hence, the performance of the team is not hampered and efficiency of the employees increases with due course of time. Levels of Management: Functions of Managers: Managers do not perform their responsibilities haphazardly .Effective managers master the five basic functions: planning, organising, staffing, leading and controlling. Planning: This step involves defining goals, establishing strategy and developing sub-plans to coordinate activities. Organizing: Determining what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is to do it. Leading: Directing and motivating all involved parties and resolving conflicts. Controlling: Monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned. All these functions lead to achieving the organisation’s stated purpose. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions, but the amount of time the manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organisation. Roles performed by managers: Managers wear many hats. They perform multi facet roles. They are the role model, planner organiser, cheerleader, mentor, problem solver and decision maker- all rolled into one. In the classic book of Henry Mintzberg – The Nature of Managerial Work, the manager performs ten roles. These roles are classified into three categories: Interpersonal: Figurehead, leader, liaison. This role involves human interaction. Informational Roles: Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson. This role involves the sharing and analysing of information. Decisional: Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator. This role involves decision making. Essential Factors affecting Organisational Performance: In this uncertain economic and social climate there are many factors that affect the organisational performance. Here by we would discuss the key essential factors affecting the overall organisational performance. The most essential factors are Leadership, Motivation, Organisational Culture and Knowledge Management. a) Leadership: Leadership is the prime factor affecting the success or failure of organisations. It is the process in which one individual exerts influence over others. . Leadership is a process that enables a person to influence others to achieve a goal and directs an organisation to become rational and consistent. In organisations where there is faith in the leaders, employees will look towards the leaders for almost everything. During drastic change in times, employees will perceive leadership as supportive, concerned and committed to their welfare, while at the same time recognising that tough decisions need to be made. True leadership states that leadership s bkills can be mastered by people who wish to become leaders. The two very important components of effective leadership: One is belief and confidence in leadership, which is an indicator of employee satisfaction in the organization. The second is effective communication by the leadership in making the employees understand the business strategy, helping them understand and contribute to the achievement of the organisation’s business objectives and sharing information about organisation with the employees for their benefit and guidance. For instance: The well known entrepreneur Narayana Murthy turned his small software venture started in 1981 with his friends into a great name on the map of the world. Infosys grew rapidly by leaps and bounds in the 1990’s.Narayana Murthy introduced a program through which he distributed the company’s profit amongst his employees practicing corporate governance practices. Through this he earned trust, praise and respect. In 1999, it became the first Indian company to be introduced on the Nasdaq Stock Market. By 2000 Infosys made its presence on the globe. Narayana Murthy with his exceptional leadership nurtured the organisation to become one of the most respected across the globe. His strong value systems, high ethical values and a nurturing atmosphere at the organisation lead to the success. Narayana Murthy’s leadership style not only had many firsts to his credit but he also championed corporate governance. From the beginning, Narayana Murthy focused on the most challenging market of those times The United States. In order to keep up the pace of growth of Infosys and manage the same he set up a Leadership Institute in Mysore, India. Commenting on the institute, Narayana Murthy said, “It is our vision at Infosys, to create world-class leaders who will be at the forefront of business and technology in today’s competitive marketplace. b) Motivation: Motivation is a catalyst to move individuals toward goals. Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. According to Lowell “Motivation may be defined more formally as a psychological or internal process initiated by some need, which leads to the activity which will satisfy that need.” Motivational factors differ from person to person. According to Abraham Maslow there are five levels of human needs which need to fulfil for individuals at work. According to this theory the needs are structured into a hierarchy which starts at the lowest level of need when it is fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. (Source: Solomon, 2010) According to Herzberg (1987) there are two main factors of motivation: Contextual factors and Descriptive factors. Contextual factors are factors like salaries, working conditions, organisation strategy etc. Descriptive factors are threats, opportunities, competences, sense of belonging etc. Motivation factors that are affective and effective in one employee or in a group of employees may not be affective or effective in others. This is an area where study and feedback will have to be carried out. For example: As per the chief executive officer of Starbucks Corporation, Howard Schultz the secret for the success of Starbucks is its employees. The best way to be sustainable is to accumulate the experience of the employees and give them chances of promotion. Mr Schultz feels privileged about the values and spirit of Starbucks employees. In order to have consistent organisational performance it is important to have perfect education and training policy in place (Michelli, 2006). Due to the organisational structure being interactive in nature at Starbucks the employees get ingrained into their jobs to motivate themselves and achieve a new level of performance. c) Organisational Culture: Since the past 25 years the concept of organisational culture has been widely accepted to understand human systems. It is a valuable analytical tool in its own right. Organisational Culture is the totality of beliefs, customs, traditions and values shared by the members of the organisation. Each aspect of organisational culture can be seen as an important environmental condition affecting the systems and its subsystems. Edgar Schein, one of the theorists of organisational culture, gave a general definition: The culture of a group can be defines as: A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaption and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems. (Schein 373-374) The nature of the organisational culture decides the degree to which the desired results from the employees are obtained. The individual perceptions of the members of the organisation determine the various types of organisational culture, individuals with realm of universal truths and are broad enough to accommodate any variety of circumstance. The primary components of organisational culture are: a) Primary value of the organisation b) Existing management styles and systems. These components contribute to the degree to which the desired result from the employees is obtained. The direction in which the organisations move in the future is highly determined by the value system to which the employees support directly or indirectly or by their behaviour. A strong organisational culture contributes to the better performance of the employees. The behaviour of the employees is an analytical tool to determine an effective organisational culture which includes a system of informal rules .Culture helps the organisation to achieve the desired goals. The organisational culture acts as a motivating factor to enhance their own and organisational performance. For Example: Several years ago Hewlett Packard faced huge problems which encouraged it to change its organisational culture. In Hewlett Packard they introduced program in which the staff had to formulate three personal and professional goals each year. The members of staff those meet these set goals were acknowledged and were sent early to be their respected families. After the introduction of this program it was observed that despite the fact that the staff was working less hours there was no loss in productivity and the staff retention rate had also increased. The program was graded by the extent was its implementation in managerial personal lives and how they modelled it. Hence, HP succeeded in making changes in its organisational structure to be a competitive advantage. d) Knowledge Management: The concept of knowledge management is came into existence in the early 1998, it is a concept in which an organisation deliberately gathers, organizes, shares and analyses its knowledge in terms of resources, documents and people skills. As a result of technology advancement the way we access and embodies information has changed; in the current scenario many organisations have knowledge management frameworks in place. Knowledge Management has become a treasurable business tool; its complexity is often vexing and as a field, will still be under development for a long time to come. Knowledge management will be integrated into the basket of effective management tools. The objective of Knowledge Management is to build and exploit intellectual capital in an effective and profitable manner. For instance, in 1938, Chester Carlson invented the photocopy machine. After his deliberate attempts to sell it to big giants like IBM in the industry who thought that it is a failed concept he handed the marketing of the product to small company called Haloid. After the proven success of the product Haloid changed its name to Xerox in 1961to define its core business. Xerox further diversified into different products, some added value to the business and some were liquidated. In order to further define its core business the company named itself the “Document Company”. To keep up with the pace of growth and sustainability of the business in 1990’s started implementing knowledge management and knowledge sharing activities. In order to decentralise their knowledge sharing initiatives they introduced a program called “Eureka”. In this programme they informally captured the tips shared by their service representatives and created a database of tips. These tips then were accessible to all the representatives around the world. Xerox continued to introduce these knowledge management initiatives both internally and commercially as well. Because of such initiatives Xerox was acknowledged and recognised as the “Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises in the world”. Obstacles of Organisational Performance: a)Change of Management: Resistance to change is an integral part of human behaviour. It can be defined as an individual or group engaging in acts to disrupt an attempt to introduce change. Resistance has many different forms: from disheartenment of change initiatives, lack of trust, lack of co-operation etc. The reasons for resistance are loss of control, threat to status, ambiguity etc. Change of management often results in change in organisational structure, teams and working environments. For example: As observed in the case study: The Rise and fall of the HP Way: The owners of HP Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard had a legendary management style that lead to the success of the multi -billion dollar tech giant-it was the HP Way. After the demises of Packard in 1996 and Hewlett in 2001, respectively the times had changed. After the merger of Compaq and HP, it was considered to be the end of HP Way. As proclaimed by one of the employees Carl Cottrell “HP Way was the way of life. We used to eat, sleep and breathe HP”. In 1999, Carly Fiorina, former head of HP’s European division was hired as the Chairman and CEO of HP. She was unaware of the HP Way. She had a different style of management. She was accused of mishandling layoffs, valuing profits more than the employees and creating a “cult of personality”. There was a wave of fear among the employees that did not occur before. Even the former employees had complete disregard for her way of handling the company. This is a true example of how change of management resulted into negative impacts within the company. b) Lack of Communication: Effective communication is the life line of every organisation. Employee morale, performance, trusts are directly influenced by communication. Effective communication can boost up the execution of business strategy; maximize efficiency and company operations contributing to the overall success of the organisation. Communication is the only way for information to be effectively spread throughout the organisations so that everybody can be informed to the degree that they required achieving their goals. As seen in the case of Lehman Brothers the main reason for the downfall of Lehman brothers was the lack of communication between the regulatory bodies the SEC and the FRBNY. These regulatory bodies failed to share the information about Lehman’s liquidity and Lehman’s encumbered collateral in its liquidity pool. The regulators were not fully engaged and did not direct Lehman Brother’s to alter the conduct which ultimately led to ruining the organisation. Recommendations to overcome the obstacles to enhance the organisational performance: a) Identification of Activities: In order to have an effective organising process, the management must identify the series of tasks to be carried out to achieve the business objectives. It is important to take care of all the main and interrelated activities. It is important to keep in mind the objectives to be achieved when identifying the tasks to be performed. The total workload should be divided into tasks that can be logically performed by skilled individuals. Adam Smith’s wealth of the nation opens with a full passage on the specialization of labour in manufacturing of pins.”One draws the wire, another straightens it, the third cuts it, a fourth points it, and a fifth grinds it at top from receiving the head.”Ten men working in this fashion made 48000pins in one day, but if they are working separately they end on producing just 20 pins in a day. The greatest advantage is the division of objectives into small tasks that increases the performance. b) Employee Engagement: According to one of the research the employee satisfaction is linked to customer satisfaction the ultimately lead to the success of the organisation. In 2007, Towers Perrin conducted a survey with 90,000 employees worldwide they found that there is direct correlation in the company’s financial performance and employee engagement levels. Employee engagement acts as a common thread between the senior management and employees giving them the trust that the senior management is sincerely interested in their well being. As seen in the case study of The Rise and Fall of HP Way: At HP it was all about “integrity” “trust” and “team”. HP had a business strategy of helping its employees how their work contributes to the overall success but also asking their feedback which gave the company an opportunity to factor their inputs into the business decisions. HP has a trend of taking formal feedback through the annual voice of the workforce global survey and regular pulse surveys on specific issues. The owners of HP roamed around the halls, talking with their employees about their projects, how employees put on annual skits where they ribbed their bosses including Bill and Dave; how co-workers were reassigned to new jobs rather than fired; how the company for a time implemented a shortened work week for all employees so certain individuals would not lose their jobs. Hence, as we know rest is history how this company grew to become a multi-dollar tech giant. c) Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal processes are one of the centre pillars of the performance management which is directly proportional to the organisational performance. Performance appraisal has a direct impact on the organisational performance. Appraisal contributes to employee satisfaction which in turn contributes to their improved performance. Performance appraisal not only contributes to the achievement of organisational goals but also facilitates the optimal use of the organisational resources. It also increases the degree of commitment of the employee. It acts as a motivational tool to communicating the performance expectations to the employees and giving them feedback. As observed there are various tools to measure the performance appraisal for example: Hp uses Management by Objectives (MBO). As an appraisal system it starts with job description and job planning. It involves the co-operation between the management and the employee. The performance plan created by manager and the employee is then used in the performance evaluation process. HP was able to use MBO to support the culture that it promotes and to encourage the employees to take initiative in performance planning. MBO Is an effective tool in empowering employees and making sure that they perform to their best ability. Hence, this also helps HP to abide by is HP Way philosophy. In this economic climate and changing times the management plays an important in the organisations in moulding the employees to the success of the organisations objectives and goals. Management is the soul of the organisation. Management comprises of people that lead, guide and shape the organisation. Management is the organisations co-ordinate all the activities in the organisation to achieve the clearly defined objectives. Management is required to increase the effectiveness of the organisation as a whole. Management works for the benefit of the employees and the organisation to achieve it respective goals at the same time. Critical Evaluation: Management brings the factors of systematic labour, leadership and predicting in the controlling of decisions. As mentioned management have five functions: planning, organising, staffing, leading and controlling. Management is the bridge between employees and proprietors. Managers act as first point of contact for the clients and employees. Without management, there would be no one to deal with the issues that arise in businesses. Flat management structures are not very successful in large organisations on contrary to that of small companies. When a company reaches an entity it is difficult to survive with a flat structure as it tends on resulting into negative impact on productivity with loss of control. These structures are not applicable in organisations that are geographically distributed due a number of reasons like management of suppliers, assigning tasks according to the constraints and priorities, smooth execution of day to day functions and activities of the organisations etc. In the cases of flat management as observed in INOX Cinemas, India, their flat management structure has lead to the failure of the company because it was observed that the structure being more horizontal there was ineffectiveness and inefficient decision making .The loss of control at the right place and it could not cope with the rapid changing demand in terms of innovation and customer service, which lead to its failure. The role of management is critical to the success of the organisation. The factors of management that contribute to the success of the organisations are goal setting, leadership, delegation skills. On the contrary, as observed in the case of Citibank after the massive downsizing there was fear and low morale among the employees. Due to competitive forces and the uncertainties prevailing in the times Citibank was undergoing change and reorganization which lead it to mergers and acquisitions. In spite of the difficult times the management maintained the trust in their employees through the theory of “Love not Fear”. The Internal Information Systems department incurred a loss of 25% of its workforce due to the merger activities. As a result of this loss there was a wave of distrust in the department. The management of this particular department played a very crucial role in keeping the rest of the employees which were left motivated and united. The management reorganized employees into a “work team “structure and focused them on key internal business units. In spite of all the efforts there were concerns on performance, poor levels of teamwork, finger pointing and blame fixing and disorganised approaches of servicing the business unit customers. They used consultants from the Inner Work Company to meet the Chief Information Officer and the Department manager over the concerns. The consultants then used the Transformation Project approach to design a solution over a six-month time span. They formulated strategy of encouraging and motivating the Department management first. In order to define and guide the effort they encouraged the Department managers to organise small leadership team, called the “Guidance Team”. Then they developed a three day off site program to deliver an integrated curriculum of Self Change, Team Change and Business Change programs. In order to give deep understanding and learning of the program and accelerate the “turn around” process four one-day monthly training sessions were held onsite. After this initiative came into place they had factors to measure the success. These measures involved twelve key behavioural aspects of individuals and team performance. They had also assigned three business measures: reduction in software development time; increase in mainframe system uptime; increase in work time productivity. There were concerns about various issues that may arise like resolving conflicts between key people, stress, and life balance coaching, facilitation of identifying and resolving the customer concerns improvement activities on two key processes. Hence, the Inner Work had to provide coaching on needed basis through a six-month period. Results of the Initiative: The launch of the program received an awe-inspiring response of 75% of the department participating in the program. In due course of six months the department experienced a huge up gradation in their performance internally and with their business unit customers. There was a paradigm shift in the culture of the department the attitudes of the surviving people shifted from “we are the survivors” to “we can make things happen”. Inner Work consultants also created a workplace community in which they had social outings and numerous other projects. There were numerous enhancements in the behavioural changes and business results, which were commendable .There was 76% increase in the levels of trust, 32%-85% in terms of team effectiveness, 48% in communication, 75% in adaptability to change, 68% in personal emotional mastery, 65% stress reduction, 75% in commitment to the company, 75% reduction in software development time cycle, 99% increase in mainframe system uptime and 33%-50% increase in team work productivity. Hence, this depicts that the management works a s the soul of the organisation .Just by the initiatives of the department manager not only were able to achieve their business objectives and goals were even able to align them with the expectation of the employees, giving them new hope, high morale, trust to continue as inspired to people to the accomplishment of their objectives and goals. Conclusion: As seen throughout the role of management includes many factors in these changing economic climate like leadership, communication etc. The right decision making at the right time and right place can lead an organisation to success and failure; hence forth the management plays as the backbone of the organisation and its performance. Intricacies Of Management And Organizational Behaviour Business Essay

Discuss the various business imperatives in promoting diversity.

Discuss the various business imperatives in promoting diversity.. I’m stuck on a Law question and need an explanation.

4.1: Discuss gender differences in factors that influence career
Development (Powell, pp. 180-192).
4.2: Evaluate the factors that make a career successful (Powell, pp. 192-195).
Provide your own definition of a successful career. Does the definition
of a successful career differ for women and men? Why or why not?
4.3: In the context of Ch. 8, explain the concept of the glass ceiling (Review
Powell, p. 133). Can the glass ceiling be “broken from below” or does it
need to be “removed from above”? Will the glass ceiling always be present
to some extent, or do you envision a day when it will not exist?
Justify your conclusions.
4.4: Summarize Powell’s ideas for facilitating employees’ career success (pp.
199-206). To what extent do you agree or disagree with these conclusions?
Justify your responses.
4.5: Outline the pay-issues and non-pay issues of the sex discrimination laws
(Powell, pp. 213-221).
4.6: Discuss the various business imperatives in promoting diversity (Powell,
pp. 221-226).
4.7: Analyze the contribution of the following factors to organizational success or
failure in promoting equal opportunity and valuing diversity (Powell, pp. 226-
236): (A) Setting and communicating goals; (B) Identifying and rewarding the
right behavior; (C) stimulating employee involvement; (D) educating employees;
and (E) implementing cultural change.
4.8: Discuss the concept of reverse discrimination (Florence, pp. 32-36).
is there any evidence for a double standard when dealing with claims
of discrimination brought by men vs. women? With more women entering
the managerial ranks, how do you envision the future of reverse
discrimination?
4.9: Survey the history of legal decisions surrounding issues of sexual
orientation in business and society (Florence, Ch. 3), then evaluate the
the author’s conclusion presented on pp. 137-138.
4.10: Study the sections “Do We Have a Right to Privacy?”(pp. 149-153),
“The Legalities of Monitoring Employees” (pp. 159-162), and “Legal
Actions Against Privacy Violations” (pp. 172-179) in the Florence Text.
Summarize what you have learned from studying these sections
Discuss the various business imperatives in promoting diversity.

EUT Insightful Lessons by Brian Tech Savvy and A Successful Entrepreneur Discussion

assignment helper EUT Insightful Lessons by Brian Tech Savvy and A Successful Entrepreneur Discussion.

Part 1 :double-spaced, one-page report, will discuss the insights gainedfocus on describing the insights I gained during the presentation and how this newly acquired knowledge may affect my future career.At just 19 years old, Brian pioneered the industry of professional junk removal with 1-800-GOTJUNK?, turning a chore people avoid into a successful business. Then he scaled that success into two more home-service brands, WOW 1 DAY PAINTING and Shack Shine.Part 2 :Brian heads one of the biggest companies to have ever been showcased at an Entrepreneurship Thursday event. With more than 500 employees, 1-800-GOT-JUNK? is a very big enterprise that requires a strong leader.During his presentation, Brian told a very impactful story about firing his entire team in a single sitting. He also talked about the importance of looking after his employees and about creating the right culture.Your task in this thread is to discuss the kind of culture you would like to have in your organization. Discuss how you will sustain and support that culture. Be ready to explain how you will be able to afford it (financially) and how you are going to be able to manage it as a leader. I emphasize this point because I want to make sure that you talk about things that are realistic and executable.
EUT Insightful Lessons by Brian Tech Savvy and A Successful Entrepreneur Discussion

Unit VII Essay

Unit VII Essay.

Unit VII EssayFor this assignment, you are to respond to one of the following questions. Discuss it thoroughly using the course learning outcomes for this unit as a foundation to discuss the concepts. Do EMS providers develop transitory symptoms from incidents they respond to? Why, or why not? Do declining work performance and the deterioration of professional relationships interfere with organizational goals? Why, or why not? Are EMS leaders, managers, and/or supervisors responsible for identifying and/or recognizing personality disorders? Why, or why not? Are EMS leaders responsible for employees who may exhibit inappropriate behavior in the workplace as a result of situational stressors? Why, or why not? Should mental health problems that interfere with work and job duties be addressed through the progressive disciplinary processes? Why, or why not?The purpose of this assignment is for you to apply the concepts and knowledge you learned within this unit. Also, this provides you with the opportunity to use your skills, expertise, and experience to enrich your response. Since you are offered the choice of which question to respond to, you should provide a rich and thorough discussion on the concepts in the question and how they could relate to your field or career choice. To supplement your discussion, you may use journal articles, case studies, scholarly papers, and other sites you may find pertinent.Your response should be at least two pages of content, double spaced, and appropriately cited using APA style writing. Any material that is directly quoted is required to have the necessary citation. Your paper should have a title page and reference page meeting APA format. This should largely be original work that demonstrates a higher level of learning. The use of examples is appropriate to show that you can analyze the information and apply it to other situations.Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below.
Unit VII Essay

Pitting Edema Disease’ Analysis Essay

Table of Contents Etiology of the Lesion Macroscopic and Microscopic Findings Symptoms, Signs and Lab Findings Treatment and Prognosis Relevance to Dental Practice Works Cited Etiology of the Lesion Pitting edema is mostly caused by either local conditions including the affected parts or systemic diseases, this means that the diseases affect different body systems. The most often systematic disorders related with pitting edema include the kidneys, liver, and heart, and in these common diseases, pitting edema takes place mainly due to the retention of excess amount of salt in the body. Too much salt (sodium chloride) triggers the body to hold water and this water later enters the interstitial tissue gaps that cause swelling called pitting edema (Williams 565). Pitting edema is usually caused by heart failure, diabetes, and venous incompetence that bring about heart illness that then result in pitting edema. Pitting edema is only an expression of a general illness and the general local states that bring about pitting edema are thrombophlebitis (inflammation appearing in the veins) and varicose of the interior veins that are found in the legs. These situations may cause insufficient supply of the blood by the veins (venous deficiency) and the following raised back-pressure in the veins of the legs and stresses the fluid to remain in the ankles and feet or other extremities. Too much fluid in these extremities then seeps into the interstitial organs’ gaps and leads to the pitting edema. Pitting edema can take place during the period of pregnancy since would-be women have a higher amount of fluid flowing in the body tissues and organs, and since they have higher probability to retain more fluid than in the normal days. Pregnant woman may also undergo postpartum edema and the wall of the blood vessel is damaged and may not retain equilibrium required by the body organs. Macroscopic and Microscopic Findings Macroscopic results in pitting edema consist of swelling, along with the loss of flexibility of the lungs that are pit of pressure and turns to be paler than the usual state. Too much amount of serous liquid is displayed in the cut area of the lung and usually, collections of fluid exist in the parenchyma and alveoli. Microscopic findings include the point that in all body organs or tissues are observed severe inflammatory foci and variable amounts of parasitic pseudocysts and the foci contain various eosinophils and in the most commonly and greatly injured body organ. The liver also reports a fatty degeneration or paranchymatous and severe spelenitis is most frequently reported. There is prolonged dent when a thumb is pressed on the surface affected with pitting edema, and the dent will stay for sometime before coming back as usual. Symptoms, Signs and Lab Findings The signs and symptoms of pitting edema include fever, dysphagia, distention, jugular vein, and pericardial friction rub. Other symptoms are non productive cough, orthopnea, dyspnea, and pain experienced in the chest (Williams 565). Hypertension can also be experienced by patients with patting edema. When a finger is pressed on the swollen part of the body of a person with pitting edema, the finger leaves am imprint. Pathogens are not reported after examining the stool and throat and there is negativity of both urine and blood components. The tests taken from synovial fluid from the joints of the knee reported reduction in leukocyte count and viscosity that contain alot of lymphocytes. There is normality in the roentgenograms of the hips, hands, shoulders, ankles, and knees. These symptoms and laboratory results report that the patient is experiencing pitting edema. Pitting edema takes place after the fluid leaks into the tissues and if you press a thumb on the region experiencing pitting edema for some time, the dent will created and this dent disappears after some time. The dent remains for some minutes and this differentiates between pitting and non-pitting edema. The laboratory findings include Hemoglobin 9.9 g/dl, 4% of eosinophilis, leucyte count 10, 300, and 10% of lymphytes. Urinalysis reports 2-3 leukocytes and 7-8 erythrocytes in every high-power area and the rate of erythrocytes sedimentation are 115mm per hour. There is slightly elevation of complement elements and the results of the anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-dsDNA, and serum IgM reheumatoid factor are always found to be negative. There are findings of below 200 Todd units of sertum anti-streptolysm-O titer and positivity of the C-reactive protein that is found to be 192mg/L (Sussman and Bates-Jensen 56). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Treatment and Prognosis The doctor examines the condition of the affected area to identify if it can be shiny or stretched. The most appropriate approach to treat pitting edema is use of massage before it becomes more severe (Howle 127). Approaches like frequent exercise, air splints, Jobst gloves, appropriate massage, and supported elevation are examples of the interventions that should be carried out to control pitting edema. Compression stockings are also applicable to this disorder. The treatment for edema includes undertaking an intervention on the basic condition of the disorder, limiting the quantities of the salt consumed, and frequently using diuretics, these are drugs that are used to induce urination. Relying on the causes of the pitting edema and if it is critical or temporary, curing this disorder commonly concentrates on treating the disease that facilitate pitting edema. The patient may be provided with a low dose of prescribed medicine (water pill) to help decrease the swelling and reduce too much fluid around the affected area. However, it is very vital to understand that this procedure only treat the symptoms and is not essentially solving the cause of pitting edema (Sussman and Bates-Jensen 56). If it is observed that the cause of the pitting edema is a damaged or blocked vessel, surgery can be recommended to allow the flow of blood in the veins. Use of blood thinners can also be recommended to solve blood clots that can triggers pitting edema. As the blood clots start to disappear, fluid drainage helps recover and swelling, therefore, begins to disappear as well. Edema treatment should contain safeguarding the regions that are swollen, edematous regions of the organ from damage, injury, severe temperatures, and pressure. The skin that experience edema turns out to be fragile eventually. Cuts, burns, and scrapes are regions of the body that experience pitting edema experience much longer time to recover and are vulnerable to any infection. Relevance to Dental Practice Edema of the body organs takes place because of insufficient dental practices and hygiene. Some dental procedures should be taken and application of ice cubes is one major way to ease the pain. Edema often appears after dental procedures and cold compress on the affected areas of the body on the first day after recognizing the symptoms. Infections always spread through bacteria that remain in the affected part of the body organ and dental procedures should be followed to remove all the bacteria that are eligible to cause severe edema in the body. Works Cited Howle, Janet. Neuro-developmental Treatment Approach: Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Clinical Practice. Laguna Beach, CA: NeuroDevelopmental Treatment, 2002. Print. Sussman, Carrie and Barbara Bates-Jensen. Wound Care: A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals. London: Lippincott Williams