Introduction: The term Global South refers to “The Third World” which it colloquially replaced to describe the poorest countries in the world, countries particularly in the South Asia, Middle East, Central and South America, Africa and Oceania that were unaligned with either the Communist Soviet bloc or the Capitalist NATO bloc during the Cold War. There is an immense social, economic and political gap between the wealthy Global North and the poorer least developed countries of Global South. The Geographical division of the world differentiating the rich from the poor starting from the Global South includes all of Asia except Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Brunei, and the South East Asian ‘dragons’ of Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand; all of Africa; the Middle East, except the oil-rich UAE, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain; and Central and South America. The North includes Europe; the USA, except Bermuda and the Bahamas; Canada; and the European republics of the former Soviet Union. Newly industrialized countries such as South Korea and Taiwan now have more in common with the industrialized North and fast-developing Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Chile than with other countries in the developing world. (http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0030871.html) The Third World or Global South’s persistent underdevelopment can be explained by analysing both the internal and the external factors that consistently contribute towards halting its progress. When Imperialism started in United States, which was a natural product of economic pressure due to sudden advance of capitalism which needed foreign markets for goods and investments. Europe was going through the same scenario, overproduction in the sense of excessive manufacturing plants and surplus capital which could not find stable investments within the countries, forced Great Britain, Holland, Germany and France to place large portions of their economic resources and capital outside their own political domain and stimulate a foreign policy of expansion to new regions and areas. Germany in the early 1900s was suffering severely from what is called a glut of capital and manufacturing power and had to move to new markets and trade settlements were forced upon Asia Minor, West Africa and other colonies. Improvements in method of production and industrial revolution boosted a machine economy with one nation after another adapting industrial methods, it became difficult for their merchants, manufacturers and financiers to dispose profitably their economic resources, so they used their Governments in order to secure for their particular use, some distant underdeveloped countries by annexation or protection. These economic conditions of affairs form the taproot of Imperialism.(Hobson, 1954) Hence my point being that the developed world has used the developing world for its own gain and cheaper raw materials and labour. Due to the relationship of interdependence between world economies and world trade there are dominant countries which expand because they are self sufficient and there are dependent countries that can only do this only as a reflection of these dominant countries. The concept of dependence allows us to see the situation of these countries internally as a part of the world economy. In the Marxist tradition, the theory of imperialism has been developed as a study of this process of expansion of these imperial centres and their quest of world domination. Scholars following the Marxist tradition have presented the most extensive analysis of foreign economic policy. Karl Marx himself was primarily concerned with developments within national economies, although he did not ignore international and global problems. The international aspects of capitalism assumed a place of importance for Marxist scholars. Marxist theories can be divided into two basic types: instrumental and structural. (Laski, 2003) Instrumental Marxist theories view governmental behaviour as a product of direct social and societal pressure. In its sophisticated form, Marxist arguments analyze the general ties between the government officials and the capitalist sector. I would like to quote Mr. Harold Laski here who argued that ‘historically we always find that any system of government is dominated by those who at the time wield economic power; and what they mean by ‘good’ is, for the most part, the preservation of their own interests.’ (Laski, 2003) Structural Marxist have different arguments. They do not link the behaviour of the state to any capital class and see the state playing an independent role within the whole capitalist system. Analysing this from an economic perspective, we can see that capitalism is not self sustained towards general equilibrium in the long run profit because the labour cannot be exploited in the long run due to technological advancements which decrease the ratio of labour to capital in the long run. This process leads to more goods produced than its members can consume also known as under consumption and this drives the weaker firms out of the market and capital accumulation and greater power in the hands of owners or managers of capital. The relationship between giant multinationals, advanced capital societies and foreign activity has been emphasized by some recent Marxists like Harry Magdoff and James O’ Conner. Through the behavioural theory of the firm, Magdoff suggests that corporations are systems of power and each firm tries to control and capture its own market. This fact could not be realized at the beginning of capitalism because the level of competition was too high. Businesses seek to maximize control over actual and potential sources of raw material and foreign markets. The foreign investment by these multinational guarantees this control. And these corporations are the foundation of the American capitalist system and their political power is immensely great and for these reasons the United States, the leading capitalist nation in the world maintains an international economic system with minimum constraints on the functioning and operation of these giant multinationals. (Magdoff, 1960) Although another Marxist James O’Conner maintains that in modern capitalist systems, monopoly sector is the most important source of profits. However the monopoly sector can expand rather quickly than demand and employment and this leads to aggressive foreign policy. Thus overseas activity can create new opportunities of investment, sales and profit. Marxist analysts have also suggested a relationship between capitalist system, military expenditure and imperialism. This military power is important in direct sense because the use of force may be necessary to keep foreign areas open to investment and trade. (Connor, 1973) One of the main focuses of these capitalists was the supply of cheap raw materials and United States was itself dependent on foreign sources for some commodities that were essential for industrial operations and also military equipment. One author argues that all American foreign policy can be explained by the need “to insure that the flow of raw materials from the Third World is never interrupted.” (Dean, 1966) Marxist theories tend to explain the effect of imperialism and capitalism on underdeveloped countries. A famous quote of Karl Marx, “Capitalist production, therefore, develops technology, and the combining together of various processes into a social whole, only by sapping the original sources of all wealth – the soil and the labourer.” Modernization Theory is another competing theory which tends to explain the underdevelopment of the Global South and also gives an essence of the internal factors involved in its causation. Modernization Theory suggests that the cause of underdevelopment in third world nations is their own policies and socio-economic structures that are based on feudalism, tribal system, family/cultural ties and primitive economic structures. The Third World society is lacking rules, regulations, law rule of jurisprudence and democracy and their underdevelopment is a product of their own slowness and failure to adapt to the modern worlds patterns of efficiency to modernize and develop themselves. While the modernization theory does recognize that the developed world has a role to play in the progress of the third world, the main focus of modernization theory is that the developed countries only have limited responsibility for the underdevelopment of the third world as the third world is largely responsible for its own poverty. They have a traditional societal approach and the new generation is expected to imitate their ancestors. In these societies there is hardly any belief of development and improved living conditions or the eagerness to engage in fundamental social changes such as a switch from subsistence economies to market economies. Traditional economies is where groups and individuals in position of immense power cause corruption and halt economic development and redistribute profits into their own hands. In order for underdeveloped countries to develop they have to abandon their traditional approach and their social and cultural models in replacement for the western traditions of free market system, good governance and stable economic planning. For capitalism to take hold and entrepreneurial environment with individual innovation and political freedom is required. (Isbister, 2003) A sound economic environment which will draw investment and prudent spending of public funds by officials for maintaining social infrastructure such as public safety and education is necessary for development. Disciplined monetary and fiscal policies are needed to create an investing environment for both domestic and foreign investors. Rule of law such as tort law and contract law should be enforced for businesses to expand from traditional family/tribal/cultural ties to person who will be trusting non-relative person, who will invest capital. The benefit that the first world can give to the underdeveloped nations is the transfer of technological knowledge and assistance though enabling transnational corporations to introduce advance technology in their third world branch of plants. (Isbister, 2003) While the modernization theory implies that underdeveloped countries have to follow the same path of the first world , the dependency theory opposes the modernization theory and rather argues that impoverishment of the third world is caused by the economic well being of the first world. While contemporary dependency theory is largely Marxist in origin (Isbister, 2003), the foundation for the concept of dependency theory goes way far back to Adam Smith who acknowledged that the imperialist economic practices of the European nations had denied colonized peoples the benefits of socio-economic progress. The dependency theory argue that unfair economic practices and unequal trade conditions transfer the surplus generated in the dependent countries to dominant countries; financial relations are based on the viewpoint of the dominant countries based on export and loans of capital giving them interest in return and also control over the developing economy. Trade relations are based on monopolistic control of the market and the developing country are exporting their profits and interests out of their country but also bear the loss of control of their domestic resources. From colonial dependence in earlier times where the colonial countries of Europe economically dominated the colonized countries, to the financial-industrial dependence of the nineteenth century, where raw materials where supplied from these developing nations, each of the forms of dependence corresponds directly to the control that the first world had over the dependent world. Third world poverty is, therefore, not the result of tradition or accident but rather the direct result of plunder conducted by the first world for its own development and to sustain its economic position. As a result of first world actions in shaping the world order, in the eyes of dependency theorists, the third world has been impoverished and rendered incapable of balanced development. (Isbister, 2003) These two main theories discussed above (Modernization Theory
Every one has his or her own way of learning . This learning process starts from birth and keeps on till death. There are two types of learners i.e. Independent Learner and Dependent Learner. No one can be an independent learner from the first day of life. Moreover, one has to depend directly or indirectly on others in many different ways throughout life. One learns from his parents initially, the learning process continues from family members to friends and teachers to colleagues etc. Parents are the first institute of learning. The love and affection of family members is like a soul to body. Friendship is also a unique source of learning. The students learn from the knowledge and exposure of the teachers. The process of learning has no limitations and exceptions. One has to be an independent learner at the same time. Dependent learning is easy but limited, whereas independent learning is difficult but vast. The independent learner makes many mistakes but learns more from the experience. Kolb’s Learning Style (Payne E. and Whittaker). My strength as a learner is that I am adaptable. I am a Diverger according to Kolb’s (Payne and Whittaker 2000). I like group discussions in the class. It helps me to get innovative ideas. It is a good activity for brain storming. It helps to increase confidence. I also learn from students from different backgrounds. These students provide a unique source of learning for me. During my college studies, our teacher used to ask for presentation in front of the class. The teacher used to gave us topic and split us into the group for discussion and presentation in the class. So that’s why I am good at learning from other students. Weakness: Weakness means badness. My weak point is that I am adaptable. I am Accommodator according to Kolb’s (Payne E and Whittaker). This is a very bad habit of mine. I like to do things at the spot. I am an action orientated person. I never think before what I am going to do. I always get involved in new experience. When I get the task in the class I finish it immediately. I do not understand on first time, what I read. I never make a plan for this what I am going to do. Conclusion: Learning is a never ending process. One should keep on learning either being a dependent or independent learner. One has to know about his weak and strong points to be successful. The weaknesses should be taken care of and strong points should be enhanced. I have learned about my weak points as well during this study. I believe my capabilities even with the few weaknesses. Bibliography: Book: Payne E and Whittaker “Learning to Learn” in developing essential study skills, Harlow: Pearson Education 2000 What is Culture? Culture exists in every society. It can be defined as all the customs of life plus arts, beliefs and traditions of a population that have been passed through generations. Culture has been called, the way of life for a complete society. As such, it includes rules of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, games, norms of behavior such as law and honesty, and systems of belief as well as the arts. (Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002,). We studied about the culture; Gibson (OUP 2002), I can define easily with the concept of iceberg which is best to way to describe the culture that the top of iceberg is known as explicit and the bottom is known as tacit. In the top of the iceberg culture clearly represent food, clothing, music, behavior and language, below the surface of the iceberg we can find gender, values, family and religion. All this affects shows how someone behaves at the surface. There are different types of culture (Gibson, R, and Intercultural Business Communication OUP 2002). Our status and region also affects our culture some parts are more developed like other and certain things, may not happen in certain regions, this is because all the people lives in different style in their countries and also religion affects our culture. All the people live in different class culture like first class, low class and middle class. Some people works together on their project from different culture and show how they behave and living style. At the end I would like to say that culture represents the life style, behaviors, attitudes, environment, food, dressing, likings, tastes etc. Overall culture is a most important aspect of the human beings life, they lives their life according to the culture. The culture shows the important features of societies, regions and religions. There might be difference between cultures but every culture is beautiful in its own right. Bibliography, Books Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002, ( pp 7-8) What I have learned? There is one way to understand a person’s culture which is to look into his or her background. I have learnt about the culture and background after I did the workshops about diary. I have learned different things from different workshops. Now I am able to analyze the cultural characteristic of any society. Now I understand things of culture much better than before; because of the culture diary. I have learnt many things from culture and learning diary. In this university we meet people from different culture and background. It helps to know about their cultural values and life style. This has increased my exposure and confidence. By writing learning diary, I have learned to correct my actions, if they were not right before. It helped me to be respectful to others. This has increased my understanding of living in a multicultural society in a way that is learning from others. I have learned to become more helpful for someone in need. By writing the activities of every day, I have learnt about the behavior of different people. I have analyzed the attitudes in view of the culture of the people. I have learned to understand the ways of life in different cultures. I have come to know about the value and standard of food, dress, behavior, living style, and religion in different societies. To conclude, I have realized that one can be easily acknowledged by the culture it represents. After reading about the culture, now I can understand and explain the culture in good way. Now I can easily manage to live effectively in a multicultural society. I think that people behave in different ways as compared to my culture. But with the help of the classes and essays that we have written, I behave differently to other people than before. My culture profile Culture shows that the how people behave in different regions, countries and societies. If we look in depth, it seems that the culture appears from a difficult contact among different basics like family, race, gender, nation, religion and heritage. Every person in this world has different likings, taste, language, slang’s and environment; therefore everyone is bound to behave differently Gibson (2002). I shall explain my own cultural profile with the reference to a number of ‘types of culture’ according to Gibson. The most important aspects of my culture are family system, patriotism, age, religion and gender Gibson (2002). I am an elder child in my family. Therefore, I have a lot of responsibilities. I was born to an educated middle class family. I have seen my parents to work very hard to meet both ends meet, it has made me to learn about the harsh realities of life. I have become matured and sensible very early in life. I am not intelligent student but I am hard worker. I spend very difficult life in my previous school. It was like to live as a soldier of Pakistani army. I always behave like a typical Pakistani. I used to live with my parents and grandparents. When I meet with someone, I am respectful to the other person and behave like a civilized person. I have been a consistent traveler throughout Pakistan. I have also lived in Dubai for my studies for a short period of time. This has given exposure of different societies. I have learned about the life and culture of other societies as well. It has increased my knowledge and made me more confident. I conclude that my culture make-up is therefore always growing like Gibson (2002) tree and my life experience make me perfect. The people are living in different ways and standards. I am able to know how I should behave with others in a civilized manner. Bibliography, Book Gibson, R. Intercultural Business Communication, OUP 2002, (pp 7-8) Knowledge Management “Knowledge management means to understand the relationship a variety of practices used in a group to recognize, fashion, represent, distribute and allow agreement of insights and knowledge” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). It can be divided into ‘product and process’ the product of knowledge mean the way of working with the company it can easily be shared and the process of knowledge achieved in the course of team work, relationship and the replace of thoughts (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). Knowledge as process is much more difficult than the product. Knowledge management is defined as “understanding of relations” (Kluge et al 2001). Such insights and experiences include knowledge, any embodied in persons or embedded in society processes or practice is called knowledge management. It focus on office objectives such as better presentation, possible benefit, improvement, the distribution of lessons learned, and continue improvement of the relationship. In this essay I shall discuss that knowledge management does matter or does not matter in the modern world. There are a lot of companies in the world and all the companies do different types of work. “The Modern world focuses on knowledge management because it is important for the company to improve the efficiency of the business” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). The owner of the company has a lot of information and ideas about the work; he shares his ideas among the employee of the company and gives them information. It helps the business to be more efficient and also it help the associate to find their way more easily thus construction of the company function more efficiently and fast. Therefore knowledge management helps the business to be efficient and make easy the work for everyone in the company. Two different companies are working on the building constructions; both the companies are making very fine buildings and using good stuff. One company has an educated employee for the communications with the customer in a good way and gives them the true information and other company doesn’t have the good employee and they don’t know how to behave with the costumer and give them information. So therefore the “Modern world focus on knowledge management, because the competition between the companies and improves their efficiency” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002).The “Modern world focus on knowledge management does matter because, a knowledge product is increasingly more available and more document”. A long time a ago all the companies do their work in the paper and put in the cupboard for the information that was very difficult but now a days all the companies work in the computer and save their all data in the computer, experience and education is necessary for every person who works in the company. “The Modern world focus on knowledge management does not matter because it is not very important for the running of a company” (Daniels-Dwyer, 2002). There are different types of company their aim to make money by selling a product or service, this type of work can be successful without the knowledge for their companies like Taxi Stand Company, if some one has a taxi stand he can earn a lot of money by driving the car this is called service for the people this type of company can not success they only earn money. Knowledge management is merely one of many optional extras for improving efficiency but does not really matter. A lot people thing too much about their companies for example only two people are working in working one company the aim of their work to only earn money and spend their life. These types of people can success in their lives by earning money. This shows that the focus on knowledge management does not matter. In the conclusion the knowledge management process can be categorized into knowledge manufacture, knowledge support, knowledge presentation, knowledge distribution and knowledge application activities. To take advantage of on knowledge, a society must be quick in balancing its knowledge management activities. In general, such a balancing act requires changes in organizational culture, technologies, and techniques. A number of organizations believe that by focusing exclusively on people, technologies, or techniques they can manage knowledge. The exclusive focus on people, technologies, or techniques does not enable a hard to continue its competitive advantages. At the end I would like to say that if some want to success in his life he or she must work hard day and night. Bibliography, Website 1. Daniel-Dwyer R, Implementing a knowledge management programme from bottom up, http;//www.knowledgeboard.com/library/Robert_daniel_dwyer_implementtating_a_programme_paper.pdf 2002 2. Wilson, T.D., “The Nonsense’s of knowledge management” information Research, 8(1) paper no. 144 http;//information.net/ir/8/paper144.html 2002 Culture shock Firstly I want to mention that my country culture is totally different from other countries. If some one comes from British or America in my country he or she will face lot problems. First of all the person will face the language problem because lots of people cannot understand the English language, if the person want to go some where he or she cannot get the information as compare to the other countries like England they do all the works in internet, in our country there is no information about the transport. There are lots of people on the street beggar and also on the signals this is new for the other people. The main problem for the foreigners’ people is food there is no good quality of fast food because in our country people likes spicy food like chicken roast and beef. Our country is not safe there is a big security problem for the foreigner’s people and when some one comes in our country all people watch that person because that is new thing for them. The person will also face the living problem and road traffic because the living standard is not good and there is traffic all the times on the road also another big problem for the foreigners is electricity. The electricity goes after every one hour. There is very difficult to live in my country. Faisal Nawaz Conflict Conflict means to have opposing interests and difference of opinions and it may exist between people, nation, societies and regions it can be causes due to social, political, economical, religious, cultural, environmental, and educational upbringing. In Pakistan there are few conflicts in social life. Like many other countries in the world; men are the dominant gender. This may be as a result of lack of education and unawareness of the rights of the others. There are many other Islamic countries where women’s rights are limited, but this does not stand exact true for Pakistan. Pakistani people are much more open-minded than other Islamic communities  In this essay I shall discuss about the women jobs in Pakistan according to the life cycle of conflict (PPU, 2008). In our society male usually works and female takes care of the family activities because people believe that women is too delicate and sensitive to work. Many people believe that family life will also be more productive and peaceful in this way. The up bringing of children can be better in this way. Furthermore, people do not like to expose their females to every body. This is considered a way to honor the women (this does not mean those females are living a depressed life, in a way they are more independent and relax in their life). But there are still uneducated people in our country who never things, that how they can success in their lives now I am going to talk about the real conflict about the cousin of mine with her father. She was very obedient and intelligent from her childhood and in the family every persons loved her because of her humble nature. She was very hard working lady; she finished her education from a well renowned university in Pakistan and she was highly motivated for NGO job because she wanted to help the poor masses of the country. Conflict arises when people are disagreeing with each other and their belief clash and this was the beginning stage of conflict with her father (PPU, 2008) (2, p.30). Her father was strongly against for her job because her family was well respected in surroundings for her father goodness and financial status but she wanted to do the job to utilize her knowledge, skill and to be exposed the real treasures of life she was very confident lady. On other hand her father insisted that she does not need a job she gets married. This stage was early growth because of their beliefs (PPU, 2008) (2, p.31) both the sides were opposing each others beliefs. The anxious period continued for about eight months she was not willing to marry and her father did not allowed for job both the sides were openly at war(PPU,2008)(2,p.31) even her father did not allow her that she cannot go out side the home. She talked to my uncle and he talked to her father but he did not listen to his arguments, her father was very aggressive my uncle told him that job will make her better human and she can help the poor people both the sides were very aggressive in their approach and suffered due to this conflict this was the (b. a surge of violence on one side) stage in deadlock according to the (PPU, 2008) that her father said that she should married and no jobs for her. My uncle found a proposal for her the boy had completed his education from America university fortunately they both were cousin. It was agreed upon between the elders of the family that she will engaged first then she will allowed to do job. Therefore a compromise helped to save the happiness of all the family. This incident happened five years ago now a days they are living happy life. The above conflict arose as a result of difference in education. There is a lot of difference between the life of women in UK and Pakistan. Women in UK are more independent and bold and live their life in their own way. The Pakistani women are dependent but have no financial responsibility and they gain honor from strong family values. I think that education and the sense of the rights of females needs to be increased in our country. Biblography: Website: www.jazbah.org is a website dedicated to the women of Pakistan (1) Understanding Conflict, Text from the Peace Pledge Union, (2) www.ppu,org.uk/learn/conflict/st conflict.html, 2008 Maggie Kennedy, Mediation: A Worthy Alternative, Consensus Mediation Limited, 2000(3) www.consensusmediation.co.uk/mediationworthy.html (pp 1-4) WOMEN MEN AND POLITENESS: AGREEABLE AND DISAGREEABLE RESPONSES Introduction: In this article, the author discusses that how women and men behave in different cultures in different countries? Her aim is clear to thinking for some academic space about these terms women, men and politeness. Women, men and language research cannot continue to discuss gender simply in terms of the linguistic gap behavior of women and men except in particular situation and with particular goals. The study argues that we need several analytical changes: firstly, we need to see politeness as occurring over longer-stretches of talk; secondly, it should be seen within the background of a community practice, rather than as simply as the product of individual speakers, and finally, we need to be aware that there may be conflicts over the meanings of politeness. In this essay I shall discuss that women men politeness agreeable and disagreeable (Holmes, 2006). Summary of the article: In this article, the author use different references for her research, she explained in her article “women men and politeness” are agreeable and disagreeable. Women and men behave differently according to Holmes (2006) women reply in a more polite way than men. Women are well-mannered with others and they are very kind. Men are completely different according to Holmes, in some contexts, “aggressive and competitive verbal behaviour appears to be experienced as thoroughly enjoyable and mutual insults may even serve as expression of positive politeness and solidarity” (Holmes, p.330). She explained in her examples that girls are more cooperative with each other then the boys. She studied among the children and found out that boys used more bold disagreements, which means they are talking the exact point no more description, but girls tried to expand the conversation with out any reason according to Maria Stubbe (1991). Evaluation of the article: Strengths: The article was very well structured, and it was written in good way, she started with the language that was an academic and simple to understand. She explained in a good way with the rules and regulation of the topic sentences, in all examples she started to talk about the teenagers and afterwards on adult. The Author Holmes (2006) use a good illustrations to demonstrate her examine which mostly focus on unlike young people talk that, how women or teens girls can be broadminded or risk taker and men as destructive in their language? This article should have examined the characteristics of women and men and its effect on the politeness because the reasons how they behave with others. It is important to allow women and give an idea about their good deeds, which were undeveloped for many centuries by men succeed in this place and Holmes (2006). The culture of women is completely different then the men because they speak in good way and they can deal their problems easily. Weaknesses: I have noticed that Holmes (2006) has not properly taken into account that it might depend very much on the relationship you have with someone e.g. husband/wife, friends, strangers. Sometime it happen that the men are more polite when they are talking with their elders, parents and visitor and sometime they behave differently while talking to their wife and friends. Holmes (2006) the behavior of women and men and totally different, women are positively polite and hard working then the men. The females are not like the male they are very kind. Women have a different characteristics as they have a different role in the society, they are expected to act like a lady and respect to the people around them and that’s the reason they are not that direct as man. Conclusion: I conclude that it is not a complete picture of reality. How men or women behave depends upon the situation, relation, country, religion. Of course I also agree that women are more polite. But women are not always polite even. Sometimes they are harsher than male even in different situation. How anyone behaves is not easy to capture or understand, this study is good but can not be generalized. It needs a better framework or examples to be done to decide more concrete solutions.
This task comes under the prescribed Part 1 – Language and Cultural context. The topic I have chosen is – Cyclic nature of language. This topic is related to the Part 1 of English as it deals with change of the English Language which influences all the cultures throughout the world since the beginning of time. Language in itself has been evolving over the centuries. I have gone about this task in such a way that it shows the difference in the way of communication (through language) since the beginning of time to the language that has come to be in the present day. It shows the evolution of communication from gestures to emergence of language to change in language itself and then back to gestures and visual representations. This change is shown through examples like – (change in form of asking someone to keep quiet) – shhh â†’ hist â†’could you please remain silent? â†’ Keep quiet â†’ shut up â†’shhh â†’ :-X. The aim of this task is to bring out the possibility of the claim that language is cyclic in nature. This is also a personal opinion hence I have chosen a blog form to express myself freely while using an informal approach. Also this enables me to put across my opinion among a varied range of audience who might be able to access this when in the form of blog. The blog helps my text to be conveyed in a generic form and audience as intended. Language came into existence in order for humans to communicate. This can be said for any form of language. It began from grunts, sign language and gestures in the 6000BC and evolved into the defined universal form of language which we speak in the present day. We still speak in gestures, only along with language too. After all “actions speak louder than words.” When angry we still wave our hands about or make offensive gestures, when happy a smile is intact on our face, when we feel compassionate we hug, kiss or embrace, when despising someone we either glare or make a face.  To communicate or send a message across we usually end up gesturing rather than only use words. According to me gestures are a way better means of expression or communication than words of a language as it is more universal, innate and natural. Not all gestures have evolved over the years like language has. Some gestures come naturally to everyone. If worried or deep in thought one involuntarily frowns. However lately it is seen language is deteriorating quite in the literal sense. Here is an example to show the deterioration of language over the past few centuries- Dost thou feel melancholic? (18th century) Is it sad that you feel? (19th century) Are you unhappy? (20th century) R uŒ? (21st century) Above is a simple example of how the language has evolved over the past centuries with the meaning still intact. Yes, a chap from the 19th century will only be able to guess at the most, what the emoticon Œ conveys. If anything, he will be surprised at the lack of words used when enquiring after someone’s well being. Whereas, a 21st century dude will only ever use words like “thou” and “melancholic” as a joke. It is quite evident how inappropriate using either kind of language in either century would be. Linguists and literature lovers cringe over the language used today. Authors from the earlier centuries might roll in their graves at the new meanings of same words used earlier. However evolution of language is inevitable and necessary too. Whether for the good or the bad, it differs from person to person depending on their perception. On one hand a literature lover might revel in the fancy and articulate language used earlier and despise the brief and hasty way the language has turned into in the present day. On the other hand, a 21st century, text savvy teenager might appreciate the usage of language in the earlier centuries and consider it a part of the lush history of literature but will be more comfortable using the abbreviated form of language these days. Also it is very important to note that the changes noted in the form of communication are in the form of letters in the olden days and texts now a days. Earlier, communication was slow and less frequent. Yet it was important and more efficient for the letters to be long and expressive. Whereas in the present day not only communication is extremely quick and efficient, meeting someone is also very easy. Hence in the era where texting and video calling is possible and it is almost like communicating with the person face to face, one doesn’t feel the need to be overly expressive and long. Being brief does the task. Earlier it might be considered rude to be curt and short but now being long in your sentences in informal communication (where being short is perfectly fine) might make you look like a literary snob. In a way it is quite efficient as, even though the sentences are short it gets the point through. Either way it is seen how sentences have become shorter, words abbreviated, certain words for emotions all together turned into emoticons, gestures conveyed through words turned into visual gestures, tone conveyed by exclamations. Example – Thou â†’you â†’u Sad – Œ I love you – I â™¥ U What? – ?!!!! It is obvious from the above to the extent to which language is literally deteriorating. One could claim how language is cyclic in nature. It started from grunts and gestures and went through the phase of development of language to emergence of different languages and then evolution of words in language to abbreviation to conversion of words into visual gestures altogether. Are we going back in time? Are we becoming barbaric and unrefined? Does it matter? Does it matter that the English language is deteriorating? Because is not the primal use of a language to communicate? If the other person understands what you are trying to say to the same extent that you mean it, then does it actually matter how language changes? Moreover, I think when you personalize it, it defines you more, gives what you are saying more meaning if anything. My opinion is my own and it is not my intention to offend anybody whose opinion differs from mine. Yes I still acknowledge the fact that it is important to speak right if not, change of language would not mean evolution but just mere slothfulness and ignorance of one to learn a language properly. If that were to be entertained, not a single person would understand another without a manual on their own kind of language. Yet an efficient and meaningful change should not be dismissed simply but acknowledged and embraced as the time changes too.
Purdue University The Expansion and Integration in the Health Sector Discussion
Purdue University The Expansion and Integration in the Health Sector Discussion.
write 400 words for the written assignment write 200 words for each of the 3 case studiesTOTAL = 1000 wordsNO PLAGIARISM!! MODULE 04 WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT – EXPANSION OF HOSPITAL SERVICESThe past decade has seen profound changes in how the hospital industry has organized itself, including the rising importance of hospital systems. Theoretically, system consolidation can have positive effects from improved efficiency and quality or negative effects from greater market power. Furthermore, these developments have led to hospital bankruptcies and closings, reductions in bed complements, and mergers and takeovers, as well as the formation of an ever-increasing number of hospital networks.In this module, you studied how vertical integration can impact a health care system. In your opinion, should hospitals expand into other services in order to strengthen their financial standing, or is this a method of “self-referral,” reaching out for income-producing areas that are outside the realm of the hospital’s mission statement?In a 1-2 page paper, written in APA format, address the following:Explain how vertical integration can impact a health care system.Explain how a hospital’s expansion into other services can strengthen their financial standing.Explain how a hospital’s expansion into other services can have a negative impact on a system by operating outside the scope of the hospital’s mission statement.MODULE 04 CASE SCENARIO – OUTPATIENT SURGERY?Technology and reimbursement patterns have increased the amount of surgery performed on an ambulatory basis. Hospitals all over the country are experiencing a rise in the number of surgical patients who come into the hospital and go home on the same day; cases that previously required at least an overnight stay in the hospital. The move to outpatient treatment can significantly affect a hospital’s use of beds and its overall organization. However, the move to outpatient care also poses some risks, especially to patients with difficult medical histories. The move from inpatient to outpatient care is driven by cost containment, as well as by new technologies. However, there are risks to care provided in the ambulatory setting. For example, advanced age (especially older than 70 years) is associated with increased hospital stay and perioperative morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the type of surgery is important in the risk assessment.In the following three case scenarios, determine if the patient has an increased risk for surgical complications based on their current health status and medical history. Write a 1-2 paragraph response for each scenario, and determine the following:Does the patient’s medical history pose a potential risk for complications prior/post surgery? Explain your reasoning.Based on the patient’s current health status and their medical history, should they receive surgery or be evaluated and treated outside of the ambulatory care setting? Explain your reasoning.Case Scenario 1:Mr. Rogers is a 51-year old male. During his pre-operative examination, he tells the nurse, “I have an ache in my right foot”. He offers an explanation, suggesting, “I must have stepped on something or twisted my ankle. Maybe I got bitten by a bug when I was outside yesterday”. The nurse notes that the patient’s ankle is reddened, slightly swollen, and warm to the touch. However, his temperature is within normal limits. Mr. Roger’s ankle is x-rayed and there is no fracture noted. He has full range-of-motion of his right ankle. Mr. Rogers has a preexisting medical condition of gout. He is scheduled for outpatient surgery on his thyroid.Case Scenario 2:Mr. Sanders is a 61-year old male who presents with nausea and has been vomiting for two days. He is also experiencing mental confusion. His blood glucose is 796 mg/dL. He is a newly diagnosed diabetic and has not been getting medical treatment. Intravenous regular insulin is administered to Mr. Sanders in order to bring his blood glucose level down to a normal level. Further tests show that his Hemoglobin A1C is 10.3%. Mr. Sanders has a preexisting medical condition of coronary heart disease and hypertension. He is scheduled for outpatient surgery on his thyroid.Case Scenario 3:Mrs. Miller is an 88-year old woman who presents with nausea, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain. Further tests reveal that her white blood cell count is 13,000/mm3. Her physical examination reveals that her abdomen is distended and very tender to the touch. Her doctor suspects that she has acute pancreatitis. Mrs. Miller has a preexisting medical condition of heart failure and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). She is also scheduled for outpatient surgery on her thyroid.
Purdue University The Expansion and Integration in the Health Sector Discussion
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Pitt Community College Curiosity and Motivation in Young Children Discussion
Pitt Community College Curiosity and Motivation in Young Children Discussion.
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Introduction:Research has shown that by the third or fourth grade, many children can be identified as having acquired what is called “learned helplessness” and have lost their natural curiosity and motivation to learn. What do you think might cause this to occur?The Prompt: Respond to the following prompt(s) for your discussion forum post:What do you think has contributed to children losing their curiosity and motivation to learn in today’s society? Provide at least two factors you believe have contributed and explain why.
Pitt Community College Curiosity and Motivation in Young Children Discussion
Context Based Approaches in Teaching of Primary Science
This chapter provides a theoretical rationale for creating technology-rich, constructivist learning environments that use context-based teaching strategies in classrooms and engage students in student-centered, personally meaningful, authentic, and collaborative learning. It also provides examples of schools that have experimented context-based teaching in science in classrooms, and a curricular example that teachers can modify to increase student understanding of any curricular area. Finally, it provides online resources and a podcast that provide teachers with additional ideas for making their lessons more interesting and engaging, empowering, and enlightening classrooms. There have been many studies that indicate context-based approach is essential in order for student learning to take place. Research reveals that teaching Strategies are necessary in schools for teachers to effectively increase student achievement. The focus of this research study is to examine effects of context-based approaches in teaching science in Classroom. The review of literature will look at several factors related to teaching strategies. Those factors include the Traditional view of teaching science, problematic questions that arise in this research, importance of context-based teaching, in classroom. The review of literature will also include a discussion about how teachers can encourage character and social development of students, and the current brain-based research, which suggests and encourages context-based teaching, which promotes success of students, teachers, and improves communication standard among them. Context-based approaches to teaching science in primary school have become widely used over the past two decades. They aspire to foster more positive attitudes to science while, at the same time, provide a sound basis of scientific understanding for further study. One of the most distinct trends of the last two decades in science curriculum development across a number of countries has been to use contexts and applications of science as a means of developing scientific understanding. Teaching in this way is often described as adopting a context-based approach. The trend toward the use of context-based approaches is apparent across the whole age spectrum from primary through to university level, but is most noticeable in materials developed for use in the secondary age range. Traditional Teaching Style of Science Over the last two decades reports have traced students’ increasingly negative attitudes to Science in Australia over the primary years of schooling, and the associated decrease in student participation in post-compulsory science (Goodrum, Hackling,