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Industrialization Change Society And The Economy Sociology Essay

Industrialization is a period in time in which economic and social changes lead a pre-industrial agrarian society into an industrial one. During this period, both economic and social changes are paired with technological innovation, leading to a massive manufacturing growth, where the economy itself, is organizing for the purpose of manufacturing. [1] Industrialization is also defined as the replacement of farming and resource extracting by manufacturing and the growth of the service industry. [2] Industrialization started with the industrial revolution, around 1760, in Britain. It is considered to be a huge turning point in history; Daily life of everyone around the world changed because of industrial revolution. Average income and population underwent a sustainable growth that was never seen before. Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr. said: “For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth … Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.” [3] I believe, along with literature evidence, that industrialization impacted the society and economy of the countries in which it occurred in so many ways. Industrialization caused or at the very least heavily participated in the shift from rural to urban our current society is a result of, it also changed the family structure as argued by many scholars, along with many other changes. I will first discuss the different views on the social impacts resulting of industrialization, before moving on to the economic ones. The most widely agreed upon social impact of industrialization is urbanization; urbanization is the increase (both in population and in size) in the urban area. It is caused by rural migration, which is itself caused by the increasing concentration of labor into factories. [4] I personally believe that industrialization is the direct cause or urbanization. Since most of pre-industrialization societies were only based on subsistence, where each country would produce what it needed to “survive”, and that was mainly food, which made most of these countries rural; based on their own agriculture to create their means of survival. This is what we call subsistence agriculture. But with industrialization, a lot more goods were able to be produced and traded, so less and less subsistence agriculture was needed, and more people to work on the factories were needed. [5] Those workers needed houses to live in with their families, shops to buy the goods needed for their well-being and that of their families, etc. These needs caused large towns to be created as the number of workers needed to operate factories kept on increasing as industrialization started setting its roots deeper and deeper within the societies it started in. Along with urbanization, industrialization caused the family structure to change heavily. In the pre-industrialization era, extended families used to live together in the same place for generations (uncles, grandparents, etc.), but with industrialization, men had to go work in the factories far away from home, so their nuclear families (parents with their growing children) eventually had to move depending on where work was available, making the extended family bonds less and less significant. [6] Talcott Parsons also argues that in the modern industrial society, individuals gain more by rejecting extended families relationships than by holding on to them, as an evidence of this, he shows how the only families maintaining kinship relationships are from the upper-class, where such connections have direct economic benefits, while in lower classes, nuclear families lived by themselves, as their extended families did not bring anything to them but obstacles. Another social impact of industrialization has to do with women’s place in the society. It is argued in the literature that industrialization is the “real” beginning of women’s participation in the labor force; however, women were always expected to work, some of them were working on farms in agricultural oriented societies, else they were either heavily involved in textile work, or they were working alongside with their husbands in their shops, this while giving birth, raising children, and running the house. These kind of jobs could be done from home, since they did not require any heavy kind of equipment. Maxine Berg quotes an observer in Scotland: “Here as in all semi-barbarous countries, is the woman seen to be regarded rather the drudge than the companion to the man. The husband turns up the land and sows it – the wife conveys the manure to it in a creel, tends the corn, reaps it, hoes the potatoes, digs them up, carries the whole home on her back, when bearing the creel she is also engaged with spinning with the distaff” [7] With industrialization, women were expected to work outside of their homes, with completely different conditions. With strict work hours, women could no longer pace themselves, and find that balance between running the house, raising the children and doing work. Plus, the conditions under which they worked were a lot tougher, even dangerous. But they were still earning less than men even working equal hours. Due to these new conditions, women were no longer able to raise their children, so they were sending them to be nursed in the countryside: “”close to one third of all babies born in Lyons (some 2,000 of 5,000-6000) were carted off to the countryside” to be nursed.” [8] Based on the different opinions in the literature, I came to the conclusion that women’s working conditions changed with industrialization, for the worst during the industrial revolution (considering the fact that women now work outside their homes for the “first” time, and the fact that they were working in terrible and dangerous conditions), but as conditions got better with time, industrialization’s effect on women’s work conditions definitely became positive. One might even argue that the only reason women are now working in the same condition as men is industrialization. Industrialization also had a direct impact on income and income distribution; a perfect example is the increase in income observed especially in Europe directly following the industrial revolution. The following graph describes those increases in income levels: The graph is showing the gross domestic product per capita starting from year 1500 till 1950. The unit used is 1990 International dollars. [9] We can clearly see that following the industrial revolution, which started during the second half of the 18th century, income levels skyrocketed to the roofs in the countries that took part in the industrialization process. Ronald Hsia and Larry Chau discuss in their journal article how industrialization in Hong Kong affected income and income distribution. Unsurprisingly, income levels rose as industrialization set foot in the country, but the authors argue that the increase was far more important for “the poorest” of the country, this is explained by the fact that a lot more jobs were created for those who were looking, and getting a job in a factory at that time only required to be physically capable to do the work. [10] With this disparity in the increase of income levels, income distribution got significantly narrowed as the poor are making “a lot” more money, while the rich are only making “a little bit” more. I believe this to be true in all countries affected by industrialization, while this might not hold for every single industrialized country; it is at least a direct consequence of a rapid industrialization. It is also heavily discussed how much industrialization impacted the economy of the societies it reached, and even the world economy. Pollard argues in his article that the major economic impact of industrialization is time-space compression, which is something I agree with. Time-space compression means that with industrialization, it now takes a lot less time to travel the same distance compared to the pre-industrialization era. [11] One might wonder how is travel time relevant to the economy, it is pretty simple, since it now requires less time to travel, it also takes less time to trade, which directly makes the global economy more active. With this reduced “trade time”, countries no longer have to be subsistent, they can produce what they excel at and sell what is left, while buying other goods they need and don’t produce. Another thing time-space compression allowed was the access to previously unavailable regions; some of these regions had many resources to be used to expand the economy, plus the population growth could be better managed with the increased available space. Industrialization impacted the society and the economy of the countries in which it set foot in so many ways. Industrialization caused the massive urbanization we can still witness today, it caused the family structure to be changed (dominance of nuclear families), it had to do with how women’s place in the society changed. Industrialization was also a catalyst for the income levels increase, and arguably for the decrease in the income level distribution, and it also, among other things, cause the time-space compression that now allows trade to be such an important part of the economy. To put it in a nutshell, industrialization had many impacts in the societies in which it was introduced, although some impacts seemed negative at first (like the working conditions in the factories along with the child labor with all the dangers involved in such conditions), it was all for the best in the end.
Today, most jobs require interaction and cooperation between the employees at the workplace, in order to achieve the goals set by their organisation fast and effectively. It is therefore extremely important for each member of a team to participate equally and offer their knowledge and skills according to their role, because this is the most efficient way to accomplish the assigned tasks and not to become a burden for their team. Since the workplace is the place where most of the day’s hours are being spent, it is wise to be open to the concept of working together as a team and behave cooperatively. A systems analyst’s job is to act as the binding ‘bridge’ between the business and the IT sector of a company. They are the people who contact the end-users of a system in order to gather and then analyze their requirements, and then translate them into highly technical specifications for the programmers, so that the latter be able to practically develop the required system. Moreover, the system analyst is responsible for designing, modifying, improving or even expanding existing systems to fit the necessary requirements. This means that the systems analyst needs to possess a critical mind in order to be able to judge each time the current status of work and decide on whether changes need to be made. This job, from its nature, requires a high level of interaction, since people are the focal point of this job. Working together with people from different departments however, is often a very challenging task, since departments constitute units whose activities are committed to serving specific purposes. This means that people who work in one department are often not of the same mindset as people who work in a different department. A systems analyst therefore needs to be flexible enough to understand this and come up with channels of communication that are effective enough to link the different mindsets within an organisation. As a result, analysts cannot rely on their individual effort, but mainly depend on the overall effort of all team-members within different units of the organization, in order to succeed their goal. In general, systems analysts have to deal with the analysis of complex systems and they usually work in teams with IT professionals, trying to implement successful solutions that meet the company’s needs within the given budget and deadlines. In Merriam – Webster encyclopedia, the term teamwork is defined as “the work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal prominence to the efficiency of the whole”. The combination of all individual efforts of the members of a group, in a harmonized way, can be more effective than each one separate, towards a common goal because each person is required to use their individual skills and talents. It is logical to claim that many skills provide better results that only one skill would, so considering that teams are managed successfully, the common goal may be achieved fast and effectively. Apart from the technical proficiency that is required for the job of a systems analyst, social skills are also enviable, and they need to possess the ability to function with ease within a team. Being a good listener and questioner, especially during interviews, meetings and workshops, is of great significance for a person of this job. It is vital to ask questions, interact and discuss in order to be able to shape a precise idea of what the teams are like and understand their needs and their potentials to meet the requirements of the different projects they undertake. They also need to show respect for the opinion of other people and be open-minded to the everyone’s ideas and input, keeping however in mind how these are going to assist with the fulfillment of their project. A systems analyst will often be required to help the members of a team, since the term teamwork is based on the concept of providing help to the others. Moreover, they need to have a sense of justice and share equally all responsibilities among the members of a team, in order to avoid cultivating negative feelings between colleagues on their workload and importance. Since a systems analyst needs to deal with different personalities, they need to be ready to encourage their team members in case they deem it necessary but they also have to achieve this without restraint, in order to create a positive environment of teamwork. Usually, the first task that systems analysts go through is the evaluation of the current business procedure or the current problem. This is being done by contacting the managers or relevant specialists to understand the nature of the problem in order to be able to break it down to pieces for further analysis. To achieve that, the analyst might have to conduct some interviews with the appropriate staff in order to gather all the necessary information, to reach a deeper understanding of the issue at stake. Interviews might be held either by an individual or by a team of analysts. Questioning, listening and respecting others are the most important skills that take place during this specific process, which as mentioned before, are skills that an analyst needs to possess. Analysts ought to listen carefully to information given by the interviewees as they express their opinion, they ought to be polite with them, and respect their ideas. Also they need to be able to ask the correct and relevant to the subject questions in order to have adequate and helpful answers for easy analysis afterwards, and they also need to be able to interact and discuss the objectives with the team, so as to reach the desirable goal of this process, which in this case is the collection of data. The analysis phase takes place after having collected all the necessary information. It is the point where all the collected data should be carefully examined by the members of the team. The proposals for the new system are then being produced and should be presented to the company to consult the managers and confirm the process. Analysts should also prepare a report that contains all the details of the proposed system as well as the reasons for their proposal, the cost benefits for the company and the time frame for its implementation, so as to reach an agreement with the company and proceed to the phase of the execution. For this phase, analysts need to work close to each other, and to the managers or to other relevant staff of the company. At this point it is worth mentioning that the ability of the analyst to persuade people is of great importance, since this is how they are going to be able to bring their tasks further. By gaining the agreement of others, regarding the ideas and the system that is being proposed, the analyst needs to be in the position to defend their work with arguments. Once the company accepts the proposed system, analysts should prepare the system specifications for the programmers. These specifications include activity diagrams, use cases and class diagrams, which are detailed descriptions of all the data analysis that has been done, and that describes the relationship of the users with the system as well as the data elements that need to be considered by the programmers. The system analysts may also determine the computer hardware and software that is going to be used for the setting up of the system or prepare the programmes. They may allocate work to programmers, designers, technicians, and understand that they are all members of the same team, each one offering their skills and working towards one goal; to deliver a finalized system, within the deadline provided and according to the requirements. One of the biggest advantages of teamwork is that that the work of analyst can be distributed among the members of a team, reducing therefore one person’s workload. As a result this may lead to a more optimized and efficient work. Moreover, by splitting the tasks the timely completion of the work can be easier achieved and this is something that increases the goodwill and reputation of a business, which in its own turn brings more clients to cooperate with the company, with a new project or contract. To sum up, the systems analyst needs to work with teams and bring people together to create something new for the common good of their organization. Teamwork is therefore of the greatest important to the systems analyst, since it is a job that from its nature functions within and through teams. Compare and contrast your results from the Self Perception Inventory (Belbin) and Temperament Sorter (Keirsey). Discuss those elements in the temperament/role descriptions with which you agree or disagree, providing supporting argument, examples etc. Conclude with remarks on the accuracy and validity of the tests. (Word counts: 1527) The results of the two tests, the Self Perception Inventory (Belbin) and the Temperament Sorter (Keirsey), gave a quite precise profile reflection of some aspects of my individual personality. The Self Perception Inventory test described me as a shaper and as an implementer member of a team whereas the Temperament Sorter test characterized me as an extrovert, sensing, thinker who prefers a judgmental life style (ESTJ, Extroversion – Sensing – Thinking – Judgment). A shaper, according to Belbins’ theory, is a challenging member of a team that is also honest, straightforward and open to others. He is the one that drives the team in order to ensure that focus or momentum is not lost, and assures that team members are achieving their goals. Shaper’s aim is to prevent disinterest and laziness in the team and has the tendency to thrive under pressure while maintaining the courage to overcome obstacles whenever encountered. However people having this profile are getting rather obsessed with chasing down the objectives and are self motivated by own emanated energy. They have the need to ascertain the that the team will achieve the best result, so they will find themselves in challenging, arguing or even disagreeing and displaying aggression to others during the pursuit of their goal achievement. Two or three Shapers in a team, according to Belbin, may lead to conflict, aggravation and in-fighting. Since they are prone to provocation in order to achieve their purpose it is very likely that they might offend people’s feelings. I believe that this type of member describes in an accurate way, as I always try to shape the team that I am member of, and try to encourage them do their best to achieve our goal. I must also admit that sometimes I become irritating and argue when someone does not cooperate or respect the teams’ goal, and might offend them. During my current studies I had to be a shaper in some teamwork course works, trying to encourage the team and keep the team spirit alive. An implementer, also known as company worker, is the member who transforms concepts into working procedures. People as such, tend to plan a practical, workable strategy and put all their effort in order to carry it out as efficiently as possible. They are open to their colleagues’ suggestions and ideas and have the ability to convert them into positive and practical pieces of action which will be the tasks of their team member. They are well-organized, moderate and reliable upon delivering on time. They are devoted to the team or company and often they are willing to deal with tasks that others would rather avoid. Nevertheless, implementer tends to be more close-minded and not flexible in accepting new ideas, especially if these conflict with their own well-thought-out plans or threaten well-established practices. And these are their weaknesses. I also agree being an implementer too, as I strive to deliver the best possible outcome for the whole team. I always try to plan and share equally the tasks, listen to all opinions of the members and find ways to turn them into efficient working procedures. I am also looking into details so as the deliverable to be as efficient and well structured as possible according to the requirements. However, I find it difficult to accept last minute changes in the predefined procedures or ideas that cannot be supported with objective arguments. According to the results of the four types of profile from Keirseys’ test, the corresponding temperament for the ESTJ, is the Guardian, and the specific role is the Supervisor. Guardians are considered to be observant and cooperative personalities. They seek for sense security and belonging and they are attached to responsibility and duty. Their greatest strength is logistics. They have supremacy at organizing, facilitating, checking, and supporting. They are concrete in communicating as well as cooperative when pursuing their goals. As the security-seeking temperament, Guardians are practical and austere types. They tend to be contractual and cooperative in their work, and be fair with all coworkers, following the rules and expect others as well to follow their path. Guardians value teamwork and are devoted to preserve established social institutions. They are cautious toward changes and want to ensure that all tangencies are being measured. This temperament is quite accurate describing me, as I’m considered to be cooperative, attracted to more practical tasks, and responsible in my work. Moreover, I want to achieve the team goals’ as efficient as possible, trying to organize all procedures and be reluctant to unexpected changes; characteristics which Belbins’ test mentioned them too, in the implementer type of member result of mine. Supervisor Guardians often take leadership positions in an organisation and in their careers, defending the groups in which they belong. Supervisors tend to follow rules and procedures, and prefer follow already tried methods than experimenting with new ones. Moreover, they can communicate easily and pass their opinions and expectations to others. They are hard-working, skillful and take on seriously their responsibilities. While they may seem rather formal, they are honest and open and can be easily approached. The supervisor role, as part of the guardians’ temperament, is indicating once more parts of my personality, and can also be combined with the Belbins’ implementer type of team member, as well as with the shaper one. Shapers as supervisors are open with others, but strict when concerning to work, an attribute that can characterize me well enough. More analytically, the four profiles that points out the supervisor role of mine are going to be described, according to Keirseys’s and Myers-Briggs theory. The first of the four profiles that is analyzed, according to Keirseys’ test, is about how a person is energized. An extrovert person, or sometimes referred as an observant, is more ‘down to earth’. Extrovert people operate more in the side of external world and behaviorism and draw energy from action. They tend to act, reflect on other responses, and then continue acting furthermore. Whenever they are inactive, their motivation tends to decline. In order to rebuild their energy, extroverts need some time spent in reflection. The extrovert’s streaming is routed from inward towards people and objects. The main characteristics of an extrovert person are acting orientation, seek of knowledge and influence, frequent interaction, and energy seeking from spending time with people. The sensing profile is related with those things that a person pays attention to. People who prefer the sensing way of attending, trust information that belongs the present, is tangible and concrete; information that can be understood by all five senses. They are likely to doubt instincts and information which seem to come “out of nowhere”, prefer to seek for details and facts, and the real meaning from them resides in real data. The next type of profile, the thinking profile, which is described in the results of Keirseys’ test, is about how a person makes a decision about something. Those who prefer thinking, tend to decide things from a more detached and distanced standpoint. They measure the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal and consistent, and try to match a given set of rules. They do not necessarily, in the everyday sense, “think better” than their everyday counterparts. And the last profile being examined is about the judgment life style that a person prefers. The judgment way of living is interpreted as having a preference for living in a planned and organised life. People who prefer this kind of life style show the world their preferred judging function. Comparing the results of the two tests, someone can notice that there are some similarities and that there is a connection between them. According to the profiles results, a shaper can be combined with the extrovert profile. Extrovert and shaper are characterized for their energy which is reinforced by interaction with other people. They depend on others actions and responses and act consequently, collaborating and influencing other people. Both can perform better when other people are around, formulating a team. The implementer has more common characteristics with the next three profiles: those of the sensing, the thinking and the judging profiles. Implementer and sensing are people that are rational based. They both tend to avert urging ideas, especially if those contradict with theirs, unless they have some stable and compact underlying argument. Again, Implementer and thinking are people that count and weight every aspect of the information given. Unless this information does not fit into their current knowledge or unless this information is proving itself correct. In this aspect they both lack the sense of daring into new ideas and concepts. Finally the Implementer and judging are very well organized so that people can rely on them in terms of fulfilling their duties. To conclude, I found that these two tests I gone through, shaped a profile of mine in a quite accurate way, pointing out many characteristics of my personality. Combining the results of both tests they formulate a more complete picture of the actual personal profile. Still there are other aspects that they cannot be included in the profiles, but this is rather expected since it would be difficult and surprising if the test could include all aspects of a subject.
Different nations have different cultures. Cultural practices make an individual to be identified with a certain group. However, cultural practices can result to racial segregation, ethnicity and all other forms of discriminations. This is because different cultures have different norms. So as to develop this topic, two interviewees, one from Sweden and the other from Australia were interviewed with an aim of exploring the different cultural practices and identifying how the two cultures compared. The following is a presentation of the findings from the interviews and a discussion on how the two cultures compared. Interviewee from Sweden Background Information The interviewee was born in Stockholm and had a good command of English, Swedish and Saami languages, since he was a businessman in the Northern regions of Sweden. He had a wife, four children and was a member of Lutheran church though his family rarely attended church service. Having been born and brought up in Sweden, he was well acquainted with egalitarianism culture. As a result he was humble and found boasting totally intolerable. During our conversation, he preferred to listen as I talked. In fact, he only spoke when answering me. Moreover, he spoke gently and calmly. In his business, he worked hard, though not too hard as he was not out to compete with any one. His last child was below eight years old, so he did not have to work much until the time when the child would go to school. A Description of Interviewee’s Perspective on Culture The interviewee recognized the role that culture plays in ensuring that there was harmony in the country. He explained that Sweden’s egalitarian culture builds on past circumstances that support a sense of cohesion. He also liked the fact that activities in Sweden are usually carried out in moderation, nothing is done in excess. Excess, ostentation and boasting are disregarded in Sweden and persons struggle towards the hub way (Pred, 2000). Impact of Culture on Life Experience and Belief System The interviewee explained that having been born in Sweden, where Lutheran is the main church, he followed the teachings of the Lutheran church. He further explained that the Lutheran church had state back up and cultural dominion, although it faced rivalry from rebel churches. It is important to note that the Church of Sweden came out as a state church at the time of the protestant reformation (Hannerz, 1996). On further interrogation, the interviewee explained that he faced lots of pressure to change his religion from the immigrants, mostly Muslims, but he had no plans to reconsider that. The interviewee explained that though he rarely attended church services, unless on special occasions. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Only five percent of the population frequently attended Sunday fellowship in Lutheran church (Stromberg, 1986). He also said that he was a Christian in his own way, thus he had less interest in following doctrines. He believed that earnest spiritual sentiments should be experienced when one is sole in nature. The interviewee agreed to having been much influenced by his church ideals, Lutheran, about social ethics and open attitude towards technical modernity (Stromberg, 1986). He further explained that current reforms have caused the Church of Sweden to be a more autonomous religious organization. As a result the Church personnel often merged pastoral labors with public engagement, mostly in support of immigrants and global aid. The interviewee confirmed his participatory in these public engagements severally. Three of his four children were baptized in the church and two were afterwards confirmed, as required by the church. His marriage was conducted by the church. Regarding death beliefs, the interviewee said that he was influenced by his church to belief that autopsy is important. He believed that death implicated losing one’s individual subsistence while becoming component of something superior. He said that English was the language of instruction that was used in schools where his children were. Impact of Culture on Interviewee’s Interaction with Others Culture impacts how one interacts with others. The interviewee mentioned several ways in which the Swedish culture has impacted his life. He said that he highly regards family life. He ensures that he adequately care for his wife and children. Whenever he has visitors, he prepares coffee as most Swedes love coffee. If he is invited to someone’s home, he takes with him a bouquet of flowers, as it is required by the culture. When dealing with foreigners, he tries to understand them and build trust in them as Sweden is a high trust society. In his business endeavors, he puts on high quality suits and silk ties (Hall, 1998). He avoids wearing showy clothes and expensive jewelry. Since business people in Sweden are normally somewhat reserved he ensures that all his dealings are official and serious unless it is deemed suitable by the particular client or consultant to let proceedings to become more relaxed. Whenever he wants to plan for a meeting, he informs the relevant persons two weeks earlier. He also ensures that he does not schedule his meetings during Christmas time and other months when Swedes are usually on holiday. He ensures that he observes punctuality in meetings. He explained that in Sweden, lateness is interpreted very negatively and if it happens, it mirrors very badly on a person. When he plans for meetings, he too has to clearly stipulate the agendas for the meeting. In his presentations, he ensures that he enormously focuses on detail and prepares presentations with precise, supporting and appropriate data. This is because Swedes like detailed information. Swedes seldom make decisions during first meetings and as such, he never expects much from first meetings. We will write a custom Essay on A Comparison between Swedish and Australian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whenever he communicates, he ensures that he is sure of his words. When selling his goods, he always tries to moderate the use of stress or superlatives as it is not common for Swedes to be adamant during a dialogue. Failure to hold to this could result to his business being regarded as insincere. When negotiating, he ensures that he remains calm, restricted and does not show any sentiments as this could be taken negatively. When addressing others, he always uses people’s surnames of professional titles. When out on his business dealings, he ensures that he gives others their personal space and restrains from contacting them physically. During weekends, he normally went out to party with his friends. Most of his friends were from childhood as Swedes make friendships gradually, with their friendships lasting forever. At such times, they take fish, wild meat and alcoholic drinks. His friends said that his standard of living was high since Swedish inhabitants normally gauge standard of living by considering outdoor experiences, time spent with family, and instances to do things either unaccompanied or with their folks. Interviewee’s Suggestions for Lessening the Impact of Cultural Divides The interviewee emphasized on the need for cultural studies being incorporated into the curriculum. For business people, he said that it’s important for one to learn the culture of a country before carrying out any enterprise in the new country. He also recommended that the immigrants who come to Sweden make efforts to learn the Swedes culture as by doing so, they will fully be integrated into the country, noting that Sweden is a high trust society. On the same note, he added that immigrants must first know that parting one’s resident country and relocating to a different country, particularly one that is culturally dissimilar, is forever going to have complicated issues that they will be required to conquer. Thus, they must be open -minded on how to handle situations and be ready to learn. Interviewee from Australia Background information The interviewee hailed from Sydney’s South-Western suburbs He could only converse in one language, English. He was an artist who had a sense of humor. He was also a student at Queensland University. At the University, he was in the school of nursing. On several occasions, he represented the school in cricket and rugby at national level. He was also a devout Christian who came from a family of four. A Description of Interviewee’s Perspective on Culture The interviewee expressed disregard to biculturalism, as practiced in his country. He argued that instead, foreign cultures should mix and blend with the mainstream culture. He felt that every Australian should be conversant with English language as their cultural identity was much Anglo-Saxon. He also felt ambivalent about calling himself an Australian because Australians are perceived to be jocular beer drinkers and square-jawed farmers. Impact of Culture on Life Experience and Belief System He was a Christian who fellowshipped at the Anglican Church previously called the Church of England. He highly regarded Christmas and Easter holidays. He believed in God and life after death. He also recognized the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, God’s own son. He frequently attended and participated in church services. Not sure if you can write a paper on A Comparison between Swedish and Australian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth noting that most Australians associate themselves with churches as they act as ethical guardians, offer public worship and a variety of other community services. The interviewee explained that during lunch hours at the hospital, they were usually offered light meals. Impact of Culture on Interviewee’s Interaction with Others Being a nurse in Australia, the culture greatly impacted his interaction with others, especially patients. He said prior to making any clinical decision he always considers a patient’s beliefs and cultural background. For instance, when dealing with the Aborigines’, he had to identify the patient’s spokesman as he was not supposed to directly talk to the sick Aborigines (Horton, 2007). Furthermore, if the Aborigine patient had to be referred to a different hospital, he has to organize how to ferry all the relatives of the sick patient to the hospital referred to, since Aborigines’ believe in close family ties (Bennett, 2001). He also said that culture impacts the way he conducts pain assessment. Noting that patients come from different cultures, he said that there might be disagreement between care and cure and conflicting opinions about the role and position of nurses regarding provision of pain relief. Even in circumstances when he is completely pissed off by a patient’s behavior, he said that he always keeps this to himself. When he was not on duty, he normally listened to music or went out to party with friends, an act common with Australians (McDonald, 2002). He had many and different kind of friends since Australians form acquaintances more rapidly, though these acquaintances are usually temporary (Kleinert

argument essay assignment

argument essay assignment. I don’t understand this English question and need help to study.

Argument Essay Assignment Word count: 550-750 words/
Topic: Electronic Cigarettes and Vapors are Harmful to Your Health
Once you decide on a thesis statement, begin outlining your ideas. For this type of paper, you are basically providing reasons to support your position. Do some prewriting to generate ideas. If you already know your reasons, list as many as you can, and then choose the three strongest reasons to use in your essay.
Your paper should begin with an introductory paragraph that ends with your thesis statement. Follow your introductory paragraph with at least three body paragraphs that develop your thesis statement (central idea), and end with a concluding paragraph that brings closure to your paper. For this assignment, one of your body paragraphs must be a “refutation” paragraph.
In a refutation paragraph, you address the “naysayers,” or those who disagree with your position. Choose two or three of the strongest objections to your position and answer these objections. In a refutation paragraph, you are basically poking holes in the opposing point of view.
You might place it after your introductory paragraph so that you can address the opposing points of view as a springboard to your argument. However, if your refutation is your last body paragraph (before your concluding paragraph), then you can address the opposing point of view after you have made your own position clear. The placement of your refutation paragraph depends upon how you are developing your argument.
argument essay assignment

Executive Summary

programming assignment help Executive Summary. Paper details Many potential employers and managers considering employees for promotion will ask you to reflect back on your educational accomplishments. Prepare a summary of the work you completed as a student in your BA/BS program at APUS/AMU. Your Executive Summary should be a “teaser” for the reader. Entice the reader to want to read more about you and your experiences. A well developed, easy to read and interesting portfolio is just one more way to separate yourself from your job-seeking competitors. In this section of your portfolio, tell the reader how you have organized your portfolio and how they can navigate the various sections. In the introduction, explain why you chose the program and concentration. Include a brief description of your courses, the program objectives that you achieved, as well as an overview of the important concepts learned in class. Conclude with your assessment of how the overall program met your professional and personal goals and how your degree will enhance your career path. The Summary should be 1-2 pages in APA format. Submit your file in doc or docx format.Executive Summary

CSUB Reactions and Feelings Towards Execution of Wanda Jean Discussion Questions

CSUB Reactions and Feelings Towards Execution of Wanda Jean Discussion Questions.

Link to video: (please watch full movie to answer the questions below Questions:Initial Reactions and Feelings• “The Execution of Wanda Jean” is a very powerful documentary film. What feelings and/or reactions did you have while viewing it? • What scenes and images in the film stand out for you? What meanings do these have for you? • How did the film affect you? About the Film • What changes did you see taking place in Wanda Jean during the film? What brought about these changes? • What new information about the death penalty did you learn from viewing this film? • What new understandings about the experiences and needs of murder victims’ families did you gain from viewing the film? • What new understandings about the experiences and needs of the families of those on death row did you gain from viewing the film? How can serving those on death row or their families benefit your community of faith? About the Issues Raised • How were your own beliefs regarding capital punishment affected by watching this film? • Did you find yourself supporting Wanda Jean’s execution, or hoping that his life would be spared? • We are not told of alternatives to the death penalty in Oklahoma, but if you knew that the alternative punishment was life imprisonment with no possibility of parole, would you support the death penalty for Wanda Jean or the alternative? Why? • Do you believe victims’ families should have a role or a voice in determining the sentence in a capital case? Should they have a role in the clemency process? Why or why not? • How does healing come to families grieving the loss of a murdered child? How can faith communities help promote healing? • How does healing occur for the family members of someone convicted of a capital crime, or executed by the state? What is our role in assisting with their healing? • Many death penalty abolitionists believe that capital punishment denies the humanity of the individual and the possibility of rehabilitation. How do you feel about a convicted murderer’s capacity for rehabilitation?
CSUB Reactions and Feelings Towards Execution of Wanda Jean Discussion Questions


***PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE ATTACHMENT LABLED DOCUMENT 8. I HAVE PROVIDED ALL NEED INFORMATION TO DO Essay. ***PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE ATTACHMENT LABLED DOCUMENT 8. I HAVE PROVIDED ALL NEED INFORMATION TO DO THIS ASSIGNMENT PROPERLY. IN THE RUBRIC ATTACHMENT YOU WILL FIND THE TWO NEEDED TEMPLATES TO COMPLETE THIOS ASSIGNMENT. Requirements Description of the Assignment This assignment has two major parts. The first part is the development of a written summative evaluation using the required template for a learner who is successful, but still needs improvement in one of the identified competencies. The second part is the development of a written summative evaluation for a learner who is unsuccessful and must repeat the content. For both parts of this assignment, the following three competencies are to be used. Demonstration of quality nursing care Demonstration of professional behavior Demonstration of information from evidence-based practice literature The MSN student may select ONE of the following practice settings based upon career goals. The practice settings are noted to be the following. For the MSN student who is focusing on nurse professional development, the learner’s clinical competencies are being evaluated as part of a performance improvement plan. For the MSN student who is focusing on an academic setting, the learner is a student in a fundamental nursing class who requires successful completion of the didactic and clinical components. For the selected practice setting, the MSN student is required to complete this assignment for one learner who has successfully demonstrated all required competencies, but has one competency that needs improvement AND one learner who has not successfully demonstrated all required competencies. Each competency must be evaluated regarding the knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to professional nursing practice of the competency. Criteria for Content This assignment consists of two required parts: Part 1: Completion of the written Final Performance Evaluation for one learner who is successfully demonstrating TWO of the required competencies but needs improvement in the third required competency. Part 2: Completion of the written Final Performance Evaluation for one learner who is unsuccessful in all two of the required competencies. Note: The practice setting is based upon the MSN student’s future practice setting as a nurse educator. For each of the two learners, the written summative evaluation is completed using the Final Performance Evaluation Form noted below. Specific fictional examples of learners’ expected behavior or absence of behavior are to be provided in the Educator’s Summative Assessment column in order to support the decision regarding satisfactory, improvement needed, or unsatisfactory. A comprehensive concluding statement must be provided that summarizes the decision. A separate Final Performance Evaluation form must be completed for the satisfactory learner and for the unsatisfactory learner. Part 1: Written Performance Evaluation for the Successful Learner: The required content for the written summative evaluation is the following. Identify the practice setting Provide a fictional example identifying the behaviors of the successful learner in the clinical setting Identify the evaluation score for each competency Identify the competency that needs improvement Objective wording present in the Educator’s Summative Assessment that supports the Evaluation Score Specific fictional examples of learner’s behavior for knowledge, skills, and attitudes for each competency Comprehensive concluding statement regarding the summative evaluation Part 2: Written Performance Evaluation for the Unsuccessful Learner: The required content for the written summative evaluation is the following. Identify the practice setting Provide a fictional example identifying the behaviors of the unsuccessful learner in the clinical setting Identify the evaluation score for each competency Identify the two competencies that are unsatisfactory Objective wording present in the Educator’s Summative Assessment that supports the Evaluation Score Specific fictional examples of learner’s behavior for knowledge, skills, and attitudes for each competency Comprehensive concluding statement regarding the summative evaluation Preparing the Assignment Criteria for Format and Special Instructions Part 1 requires the use of the Final Performance Evaluation Form: Successful Learner’s Summative Evaluation, noted below. Part 2 requires the use of the Final Performance Evaluation Form: Unsuccessful Learner’s Summative Evaluation, noted below. Title page must follow APA guidelines as found in the current edition of the manual. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal, scientific writing.***PLEASE READ THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE ATTACHMENT LABLED DOCUMENT 8. I HAVE PROVIDED ALL NEED INFORMATION TO DO Essay