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Individual Student Journal on 2 News Articles

Individual Student Journal on 2 News Articles. I need help with a Social Science question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Choose two articles (hard copy or digital) pertaining to current business ethics related issues. Use reliable, vetted sources only – no blogs. Make sure your articles focus on ethical issues regarding business and society or business and government and write about them. ARTICLES MUST FOCUS ON BUSINESS ETHICS/ACTION/RESPONSIBILITY. Your selected article(s) may have a Florida, US or international focus. Please choose two of those three areas. (For example, do not use two national articles.) All articles must be published after the date of the first day of class (16th of January 27, 2020). (Note: Current updates and developments of events that pre-date the first day of your class may be used. When in doubt- ask!)
Your written comments should contain the following:

A brief summary of the article;
A thorough stakeholder analysis. You should list and underline the 4-6 most important stakeholders pertaining to the article situation, and describe how each is impacted.
Your opinion as to solution/resolution of the business ethical issues.

Label all sections and underline each individual stakeholder in your stakeholder section.
Writing and proofing errors will be penalized at one point per error.
FORMAT (12 pt. font/single spaced):
Assemble your Journal as follows:
Title page with you (your) Name, Date, Section #, Article titles, active hyperlink or APA citation. You do not need to include the original article or APA citation for each article providing you insert a live hyperlink on your title page so that the article can be accessed when reviewing your journal.
Article #1

Stakeholder Analysis (usually four to six stakeholders)

(stakeholder name): explain how the stakeholder is impacted
(Repeat for each stakeholder)


Article #2

Stakeholder Analysis: (usually four to six stakeholders)

(stakeholder name): explain how the stakeholder is impacted
(Repeat for each stakeholder)


To understand the breadth of this subject area and to get ideas as to what types of articles you could look for, familiarize yourself with the text’s table of contents and case study topics, along with this syllabus, for cues regarding article relevancy. Articles about predominantly social criminal issues that lack a business focus, such as the death penalty should not be used. While the ethical importance of such issues cannot be overstated, this class focuses on areas with strong business involvement. Think in terms of BUSINESS ethics/action/responsibility.
Individual Student Journal on 2 News Articles

Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help. This is a paper that focuses on the importance of viewing the HRIS from data and process perspective. The paper also provides further instructions to use in writing the paper.,Importance of viewing the HRIS from data and process perspective,You must use book as main source at least 3 to 4 times:, Book: Human Resource Information Systems 4th edition but Michael Kavanagh & Richard Johnson,Now that you assessed the business, identified some of the inefficient HR related processes plaguing Larson Property Management Company, and pinpointed a few possible solutions, it is time to choose an HRIS application that will best suit the business. In this assignment, you will provide a blueprint for the new system, and select a vendor that provides the type of HRIS you believe is most efficient and effective., To prepare for this assignment, review the Larson Property Management Company case scenario, and then research logical process modeling with data flow diagrams and HRIS vendors that may suit the needs for Larson Property Management.,Importance of viewing the HRIS from data and process perspective,Instructions:, Write a three to four-page proposal, in which you:, Two Ways to View an HRIS: Data Versus Process, 1. Firstly, explain the importance of viewing the HRIS from both a data and process perspective. Next, explain how the change team will use this information to address identified needs from Phase II: Analysis., Logical Process Modeling with ,Data Flow Diagrams, and Physical Design Choice, 2. Secondly, based on your research of logical process modeling with data flow diagrams, explain the key business activities and processes in the HR system, and how the data will flow. Then, determine the physical design and explain your reasoning for the design. Defend your decisions with theory and findings from past readings and class activities., Choose HRIS Vendor,3. Thirdly, now that you know the type of HRIS you will be implementing, it is time to choose an HRIS vendor. Compare and also contrast three vendors, including a description of the cost, capabilities, and HR functions that the HRIS caters to. Based on your comparison, choose the HRIS vendor that you will recommend to your client, and explain the main reason why you decided to choose this vendor over the others., Resources, 4. Fourthly, use at least three quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar websites do not qualify as academic resources., Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:,Typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides., Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, your name, your professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required page length., Lastly, include a reference page. Citations and references must follow APA format. The reference page is not included in the required page length., ,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help
ASCC Federal Trade Commission & Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Research Paper.

I’m working on a law project and need a sample draft to help me study.

Research “THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION” and “THE CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU”Address, at a minimum, the following:The legal protections afforded to consumers by these bodiesThe rules/laws/regulations that these bodies apply/enforce to provide those protectionsThe steps that are taken to investigate/enforce violations of consumer rightsThe penalties that may be imposed for violating these rules/laws/regulationsThe “real” impact and significance of their activities on U.S. commerceCite 3-5 cases along with brief, case summaries to present examples of how at least one of these bodies (and their rules/laws/regulations) has protected a consumer.Anything else that you can addGuidelines for Submission:Follow the appropriate rules for citation as they apply to your disciplineAPA for business studentsUniform Bluebook of Citations for paralegal and legal studies studentsTo fully address the main points of this Act, at least five pages would be required (not including cover page or reference page)At least five credible sources are required (i.e. scholarly or professional, not wiki sites)Submit as a Word Document, Double-Spaced, Times New Roman, 12 Point Font with 1″ Margins
ASCC Federal Trade Commission & Consumer Financial Protection Bureau Research Paper

Computer Science homework help. This is an assignment that investigates the California assembly bill 485 analysis on pets sales and acquisition. The bill deals with obtaining of pets from shelters or rescue groups.,California assembly bill 485 analysis on pets sales and acquisition,Firstly, students will have to have a familiarization of bills and the fundamentals that are associated with the topic. Additionally, they will have to conduct a research specifically on the Carlifornia bill that is associated with pet sales. The bill is California Assembly bill 485. Ensure that you follow the provided guidelines as given by the instructor in terms of submission of the paper., Secondly, student will analyze the policy process that led to new laws adopted in California. California Assembly Bill 485: Pet Sales Requires acquisition of all dogs, cats and rabbits in California pet stores to be from animal shelters or rescue groups. Each student will select a policy model(s) from the list below to use in this analysis. Approved policy models for this analysis are: • Rational Model • Incrementalism • Group Theory • Public Choice • Kingdon multiple streams • Advocacy coalitions,Secondly, you are to use the following components for the project Policy Analysis Format 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction and Problem Statement • What is the policy issue being addressed in the legislation? Why is it a problem? 3. Background • What was the law before the new bill and what is it after enactment of the bill? • Legislative intent of the bill that enacted the new law (see ,, ) 4. Key Stakeholders • Identify Stakeholders and summarize issues raised by stakeholders during the legislative process 5. Policy Model • Discussion of the policy model(s) that best describes the process that occurred related to the new law. 6. Evaluation of outcomes since enactment. 7. Recommendations for next steps. • What further change is needed? • What is your rationale for the recommendation? 8. References,Lastly, use the APA format and style for formatting and citation.Computer Science homework help

Understanding of Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment)

Understanding of Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment). Introduction Every product has to be marketed to help businesses increase their revenue as well as widen their market base. For that reason, researchers have come to a conclusion that there is need for respective departments to have a full understanding of the different stages of product life cycle to develop the right marketing strategies for a product or service (KotlerUnderstanding of Marketing Strategy Report (Assessment)

research & summary company: Because intelligence

help me with my homework research & summary company: Because intelligence. I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

“This will be a summary document of your findings from your primary and secondary research. Research summary must include specific numbers and specific findings.”
basically finding resources that will help this startup company thrive in their business

the attached document are notes I took explaining more about the business because there is not much in the web
research & summary company: Because intelligence

Central Piedmont Community College Price Gouging Higher Prices Case Study

Central Piedmont Community College Price Gouging Higher Prices Case Study.

Points Possible100Please submit a two- page paper, double spaced with proper APA citations. Students are encouraged to use the library resources (linked below) to research their papers.Please review the The Case Study Grading Rubric to learn how grade will be calculated. Case Study Assignment: Submit a paper answering the following question:Is Price gouging criminal or is it the free market working efficiently? CASE STUDY UNIT 1Price Increases after Disasters, In the News – Page 84When a disaster such as a hurricane strikes a region, many goods experience an increase in demand or a decrease in supply, putting upward pressure on prices. Policymakers often object to these price hikes, but this opinion piece endorses the market’s natural response.Is Price Gouging Reverse Looting? By John CarneyFour dollars for a can of coke. Five hundred dollars a night for a hotel in downtown Brooklyn. A pair of D- batteries for $6.99.These are just a few of the examples of price hikes I or friends of mine have personally come across in the run-up and aftermath of hurricane Sandy. Price gouging, as this is often called, is a common occurrence during emergencies.Price gouging around natural disasters is one of the things politicians on the left and right agree is a terrible, no good, very bad thing. New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman sent out a press release warning “against price inflation of necessary goods and services during hurricane Sandy.” New Jersey Governor Chris Christie issued a “forceful reminder” that price gouging “will result in significant penalties.” Hotlines have been established to allow consumers to report gouging.New Jersey’s law is very specific. Price increases of more than 10 percent during a declared state of emergency are considered excessive. A New Jersey gas station paid a $50,000 fine last year for hiking gasoline prices by 16 percent during tropical storm Irene.New York’s law may be even stricter. According to AG Schneiderman’s release, all price increases on “necessary goods and items” count as gouging.“General Business Law prohibits such increase in costs of essential items like food, water, gas, generators, batteries and flashlights, and services like transportation, during natural disasters or other events that disrupt the market,” the NY AG release said.These laws are built on the quite conventional view that it is unethical for a business to take advantage of a disaster in pursuit of profits. It just seems wrong for business owners to make money on the misery of their neighbors. Merchants earning larger profits because of a disaster seem to be rewarded for doing nothing more than raising their prices.“It’s reverse looting,” a neighbor of mine in Brooklyn said about the price of batteries at a local electronic store.Unfortunately, ethics runs into economics in a way that can make these laws positively harmful. Price gouging can occur only when there is a shortage of the goods in demand. If there were no shortage, normal market processes would prevent sudden price spikes. A deli owner charging $4 for a can of Pepsi would discover he was just driving customers to the deli a block away, which charges a buck.But when everyone starts suddenly buying batteries or bottles of water for fear of a blackout, shortages can arise. Sometimes there simply is not enough of a particular good to satisfy a sharp spike in demand.And so the question arises: how do we decide which customers get the batteries, the groceries, the gasoline?We could hold a lottery. Perhaps people could receive a ticket at the grocery store. Winners would get to shop at the usual prices. Losers would just go hungry. Or, more likely, they would be forced to buy the food away from the lottery winners—at elevated prices no doubt, since no one would buy food just to sell it at the same price. So the gouging would just pass from merchant to lottery winning customer.We could have some sort of rationing program. Each person could be assigned a portion of the necessary goods according to their household need. This is something the U.S. resorted to during World War II. The problem is that rationing requires an immense amount of planning—and an impossible level of knowledge. The rationing bureaucrat would have to know precisely how much of each good was available in a given area and how many people would need it. Good luck getting that in place as a hurricane bears down on your city.We could simply sell goods on a first come, first serve basis. This is, in fact, what anti-gouging laws encourage. The result is all too familiar. People hoard goods. Store shelves are emptied. And you have to wonder, why is a first to the register race a fairer system than the alternative of market prices? Speed seems a poor proxy for justice.Allowing prices to rise at times of extreme demand discourages overconsumption. People consider their purchases more carefully. Instead of buying a dozen batteries (or bottles of water or gallons of gas), perhaps they buy half that. The result is that goods under extreme demand are available to more customers. The market process actually results in a more equitable distribution than the anti-gouging laws.Once we understand this, it’s easy to see that merchants aren’t really profiting from disaster. They are profiting from managing their prices, which has the socially beneficial effect of broadening distribution and discouraging hoarding. In short, they are being justly rewarded for performing an important public service.One objection is that a system of free-floating, legal gouging would allow the wealthy to buy everything and leave the poor out altogether. But this concern is overrated. For the most part, price hikes during disasters do not actually put necessary goods and services out of reach of even the poorest people. They just put the budgets of the poor under additional strain. This is a problem better resolved through transfer payments to alleviate the household budgetary effects of the prices after the fact, rather than trying to control the price in the first place….Instead of cracking down on price gougers, we should be using our experience of shortages during this time of crisis to spark a reform of our counter-productive laws. Next time disaster strikes, we should hope for a bit more gouging and a lot fewer empty store shelves.ReferencesCarney, J. (2017). Is price gouging reverse looting? In N.G. Mankiw, Principles of macroeconomics (p. 84). Boston, MA: Cengage.Case Study Grading RubricStudent is required to submit a two- page paper, double spaced with proper APA citations.Item 1. Evidence of preparation: clear and logical organization, effective introduction, body and conclusion.Each item is rated on the following rubric. 1= Very poor 2 = Poor 3 = Adequate 4 = Good 5 = ExcellentItem 2. Content: accurate & relevant information, knowledgeable about the case study assigned and offeres strategies for dealing with the problems identified in the case study.Each item is rated on the following rubric. 1= Very poor 2 = Poor 3 = Adequate 4 = Good 5 = ExcellentItem 3. Quality of critical thinking: Student must exhibit college level critical thinking skills of both problems identified in the case study and proposed solution.Each item is rated on the following rubric. 1= Very poor 2 = Poor 3 = Adequate 4 = Good 5 = ExcellentItem 4. Creativity: Students are encouraged to use the Course Info Guide, linked in the assignment, to research the topic and offer analysis and proposed solutions that are both unique and innovative. Be sure to cite your references.Each item is rated on the following rubric. 1= Very poor 2 = Poor 3 = Adequate 4 = Good 5 = ExcellentTotal Score: _________ X 5 = _________ based out of 100 points.Points Possible100Please submit a three to four page paper, double spaced with proper APA citations. Please review the The Signature Assessment Grading Rubric (below) to learn how grade will be calculated. Students are encouraged to use the library resources (linked below) to research their papers.Case Study Assignment: Submit a paper supporting either demand side or supply side policy to combat illegal drug use. CASE STUDY UNIT 2.pdfBy submitting this paper, you agree: (1) that you are submitting your paper to be used and stored as part of the SafeAssign™ services in accordance with the Blackboard Privacy Policy; (2) that your institution may use your paper in accordance with your institution’s policies; and (3) that your use of SafeAssign will be without recourse against Blackboard Inc. and its affiliates.Institution Release StatementThe issue of digital plagiarism has raised concerns about ethics, student writing experiences, and academic integrity. Central Piedmont Community College subscribes to Blackboard which makes available a digital plagiarism detection program called SafeAssign, which may be used to check papers submitted in this course. You may be asked to submit your papers in a digital format (e-mail attachment, Blackboard(tm) assignment, digital drop box or on disk) so that your writing can be checked against web content and databases of existing papers. Although you may never have engaged in intentional plagiarism, many students do inadvertently incorporate sources without appropriate citations. By using SafeAssign, I can be alerted to your academic needs in terms of proper writing techniques and good practices.
Central Piedmont Community College Price Gouging Higher Prices Case Study

Analysis of the Liberian Conflict

Background to this Conflict Analysis The Liberian conflict began in 1979 with civil unrest and ended in 2003 with the forced exile of the then president Charles Taylor. During this 24years period, Liberia has had a number of significant turning points: two regime-changing coups (1980 and 1990) and with them the assassination of 2 presidents, two civil wars, the first in 1989 – 90, the second from 1997 – 2003, and two elections, 1985 and 1997. The period was marred with systemic violence and human rights violations which resulted in the death of 150 – 250,000 people and 1.5 million people displaced (FRTRCLDP, 2009: 3) this is startling given a pre-war population of 2.8 million. However, if we examine the period from the rice riots of 1979 and the 1980 coup we find a steady escalation in direct violence starting from that period. Furthermore there is substantial evidence of structural violence in pre-79 Liberia. The means of financing the regimes of Charles Taylor, Samuel Doe and the True Whig Party, from 1979 to 2003 were very different during reign (Reno 1999,pp102 103 ), but nevertheless the political, hierarchical structures endured throughout this time, albeit with different leaders. This continued to allow a ruling elite to exploit the subjugated masses as it had done for the previous century. Furthermore, the lack of loyalty towards Taylor, by the wealthy elite, is comparable to the lack of support for Doe’s administration, by the same elite, during Doe’s final years in office. The similarities between Taylor’s reign, the Doe era and the period of rule prior to 1979 demonstrate a cyclical nature to the conflict. Therefore, unless the period under review in this conflict analysis is based around one of the turning points noted above, the selection of a time is almost arbitrary if chosen during this period. Furthermore, if one tries to analyse the conflict at the time of the first civil war or post 1990, the discourse leads to an examination of the conflict and structures during Doe’s rule, and ultimately, this leads to an analysis of the societal structures and conflict potential prior to the 1979/80 uprising. In order to provide a time frame for evaluation, this analysis will focus on the period of 1979 – 1989 because what comes thereafter is very much a product of what came before. Conflict Analyses The aim of a conflict analysis is to provide a better understanding of the causes and drivers of a given conflict. Several leading development agencies have designed conflict analysis tools to help them to better target their development work and to ensure that they do not aggravate a conflict situation through that development. A summary of few prominent conflict analyses can be found at Appendix 2 Methodology The aim of this conflict analysis is to gain an understanding of the root causes and manifestations of violence in Liberia over the period 1979 – 1990, in particular focusing at the country level. The analysis will also identify and analyse sub-national, regional and international actors that affected the conflict. The DfID Strategic Conflict Assessment consists of three parts: Conflict Analysis; Analysis of responses to the conflict; Strategies and options for dealing with the situation; The Conflict Analysis Framework of the assessment examines the following areas: Table 1 – DfID Conflict Analysis Framework Conflict Analysis (i) Structures (ii) Actors (iii) Dynamics Analysis of long term factors underlying conflict: Security Economic Political Social Analysis of conflict actors: Interests Relations Capacities Peace agendas Incentives Analysis of: Long term trends of conflict Triggers for increased violence Capacities for managing conflict Likely future conflict scenarios (Great Britain, DfID, p10, Table 1). The DfID framework provides a tool which is easily transferable to analyse the Liberian conflict within the parameters set. A secondary aim of this analysis is to see whether we can shed any light on the greed versus grievance debate and to help assess the predominance of one set of motivating factors over the other in the case of the Liberian conflict. Greed and grievance The principle greed arguments focus on the economic benefit that might motivate an individual, or group, to fight and then continue fighting (Mac Ginty 2006: 69) Three pre-conditions, have been identified, by Collier, as conflict catalysts in greed based theories. These are access to primary commodities, the proportion of young men in society and the amount of education available (Collier 2000, 93). Collier goes so far as to rank the importance of these factors but does not suggest that all three need to be present at the same time. Grievance theories of conflict emphasise arguments of ideology, ethnicity, human needs and inter-group competition (Mac Ginty 2006: 71). Idoelogy and ethnicity are often used by the layperson in explaining conflict causation, but a fuller analysis often identifies these as sustaining a conflict rather than initiating it, leaders might use ethno-religious calls to ‘rally the troops’, but this is often not the underlying cause (Barash and Webel, 2002: 15) . Based on statistical research, Collier argues (2000: 96) that grievance theories of conflict causation “are so unimportant” compared to the prevalence of greed based motives, that, “grievance based explanations of civil war are so seriously wrong”. However, he does admit that that under the right circumstances (such as following and economic slump) grievances motives can be explained. Structures Societies that are socially fractionalised along ethnic or religious divides are significantly less prone to conflict (Collier, 2000: 98). Social division in Liberia lay between 17 groups (FRTRCLDP 2009: 51). The first group consists of the original settlers from the US – freed slaves who arrived in Liberia in 1822, this group were known as the Americo-Liberians; together with the Caribbean freed slaves they constituted 5% of the population. The remaining groups were formed from 16 separate indigenous tribal groups. There were further splits along religious lines. The US settlers brought with them Christianity which spread amongst the population. Liberia also had an Islamic population from the African-Arabic slavers of the 16th and 17th centuries. By 1980, this provided a blend of approximately 40% Christian, 20% Muslim, 20% indigenous religions (and a number of individuals practicing some form of hybrid religion). According to the hypothesis, Liberia would be very unlikely to collapse into civil war due to its non-homogeneous nature. This was in fact the case rprio to the arrival of the Americo-liberians; A study by Olukujo (as cited in the FRTRCLDP 2009: 51) notes that for hundreds of years the 16 tribes had lived in relative peace with “intermarriage, modern education and westernised Christianity, Islam and other foreign influences” blurring tribal ethnicity. Furthermore, each family had a family head and each village a council of elders who would resolve conflicts. However, when analysing the Liberian political and economic structures prior to 1980, we find that it is difficult to untangle the two strands; this is because the Liberian system was very hierarchical with a ruling elite and a proletariat; there was limited, if any middle class. The establishment of the Liberian political system, in the 18th century, was based on a US constitutional model (Outram, 1999: 164) with a Senate and a House of representatives. However, only the Americo-Liberians were allowed to vote. The political elite passed laws which kept the indigenous people subjugated, both politically and economically, Evidence of this self-perpetuation can be seen in the fact that the True Whig Party was the only political party that held officer from 1877 until the coup in 1980, even the previous President, President Tubman, remained in office for an unbroken period of 37 years. It is very unlikely that the True Whig Party would have been voted out prior to the coup, as the indigenous population did not have the right to vote, until a constitutional change in 1984. Therefore those who had political positions were also either economically power or financially well connected. Those without money or power were subjugated by this ruling elite known as a patron-client relationship (Outram, 1999: 165). The President had a significant amount of power vested in him, as both the Chief of State and Head of Government. President Tubman consolidated power in his position, just as Doe did 10 years later, and both following unsuccessful coups. So the evidence suggests that the ruling elite in society were able to exploit self interest and so were motivated by greed. We shall now turn our attention to the motives of the subjugated. When a rebel organisation has the potential to gain sufficient size that the prospect of a conflict has a realistic chance of success, then individuals will be more likely to bond together for grievance based reasons (Collier, 2000: 99). So, if Liberia is viewed through the lens of the masses, then the society is much less divided; with split of 95% indigenous population to 5% ruling elite (FRTRCLDP 2009: 5). This allows us to evaluate the grievance theory model due to Liberia’s homogenous nature and therefore its propensity to civil war for grievance reasons. The following lists examples of laws that were passed that demonstrate the lack of rights tahts wereexperienceed by the indigenous people REFERNCES!!!! Examples of the laws passed by the government included: the 1864 Ports of Entry Act, which restricted foreign trade with indigenous people, the indigenous weren’t granted citizenship until 1904. In 1926 the government leased 1 million acres of land to the firestone company, land which was inhabited, they then conscripted local labour for the company and other neighbouring countries. In 1931the Government of Liberia was requested to defend its position over allegations from the League of Nations of svaling the indigenous population. . Economic 1864 passed laws baning trade Political US constitiional arrangement Single party from1877, Political eltie Social Access to education forced adoption referred to as barbarians no tribal problems Unification attempts – but more for popular support – context of the regional issues at the time. Indeed when Samuel Doe rose to power in the 1980 coup he did so onthe back of a wave of local grievances. Dynamics Manifestation of Violence Defintion of direct and structural Violence, definition of peace and conflict Comparison or 1985 Vs 1955 Structural: no right to vote, land taken away, human salvery and conscript labour, not even citizens til 1904 Quotes form TRC Ref topdown and bottom up Mac ginty p 77, 3rd feature of conflict….. Corruption Issues regarding money and support for wealthy elite Issues of 23 million to release Ellen and the 400m in aid. Table 2 – Comparison of Violence Pre 1980 Post 1980 • Ruling Elite (Americo Liberian) • No right to vote for masses • Power vested in the President • President is Chief of State and Head of Government • Army used as security • Suppression of uprising 1955 • Huge personal financial incentives to stay in power – foreign investment • NO Ethnic tensions (Olukoju 2006) • Ruling Elite (Krahn tribe) • No Right to vote for the masses Voting overturned • Political structure remains the same • Power vested in the President • Army used as security • Harsh suppression of coup by Gen Quiwonkpa 2985 • Huge financial incentives to stay in power • Escalation of Structural violence and direct violence • Inter-ethnic fighting • Corruption increases as a survival mechanism Conclusion Violence escalation table The following table summarises the level of violence during the period and notes the factors that sustain or escalate the violence. Table 3 – Violence Manifestation Violence Manifestation and Explanation Initiation • ‘Colonial’ structures and exploitation in Liberia lead to → Localised grievances and structural violence, Create opportunities for Sustainment • Individual actor’s greed → nepotism to galvanise own support → fractionalisation leads to ethno-tribalism • No structural change takes place → continued marginalisation / HR violations Which creates: Escalation • Further grievances which fuel the conflict → Direct Violence as a survival mechanism ‘Poverty and lack of opportunity, intensified by the war have helped promote the attractiveness of fighting as a means of survival’ (Atkinson, 1997) The story of Liberia between 1979 and 1990 is one of action, inaction and reaction: action by the proletariat and ruling governments (pre and post 1979), inaction by the international community and reaction by regional actors to the. The violence during this period escalated from societal structural violence in 1979 to overt direct violence against the civilian population and opposition groups in 1990. This resulted in an increase of displaced persons, frustrating neighbouring countries threatening to de-stabilised the region. The actions by regional countries coupled with the frustrations of the masses provided the circumstances which could lead to a second coup, and the first civil war in 1989. The DfID Conflict Analysis Framework provides a useful tool with which to analyse a protracted conflict such as Liberia. By examining the structures and dynamics in play at both national and local levels it has been possible to see that the Liberian conflict shows signs of greed and grievance motivations with each playing off the other. The ruling elite motivated by the prospects of substantial wealth and pursuing a desperate attempt to hold onto power, and grievance by the oppressed masses with little prospect of anything better unless they rise up and rebel against the elite. Epilogue The greed and grievance cycle, as discussed in the background to this analysis continued to play out during Charles Taylor’s reign. Taylor has suggested that his motives for staging a coup had been to force regime change of a brutal dictatorship (Ref). That might have been his altruistic outward cry, indeed “narratives of grievance play much better with this [the international] community than narratives of greed.” (Collier, 2000: 92). It is clear now that Taylor’s coup was heavily supported internationally, and regionally (Ref). What is also evident now is that within the first 6 months of Taylor’s charge for Monrovia, he had not only gained control of 90% of the country, but had also amassed a personal wealth of USD 3.6million. It is also estimated that during the period 1991 – 1994, Taylor had a personal income of USD 420 – 450 million per year (REF). In this context it of difficult to see how greed rather than grievance was not his motivating factor. The economics of a war torn society, (particularly one which has an abundance of extremely profitable primary commodities) has an ability to sustain conflict. Once the shackles of a oppressive regime are unable to control the population, the rise of strongmen and warlords is possible . Then, fuelled, by the potential of substantial wealth, they will strive to keep the inferno of conflict burning. Conflict Analyses The World Bank Conflict Analysis Framework. This uses 6 variables (social and ethnic relations, governance and political institutions, human rights/security, economic structure and performance, environmental and natural resources and external factors) which are analysed against given criteria. These are graded and then linked to their impact on the conflict and on the country’s poverty level. This framework allows for the extraction of underlying causes and the opportunities for conflict. The US AID Conflict Assessment Framework focuses on Means, Motives and Opportunities and also includes regional and international factors. The framework therefore allows for a holistic approach and also provides an understanding of the prevalence of greed or grievance agendas in conflict zones. Like the World Bank conflict analysis it highlights causes and opportunities for conflict. The Department For International Development (DfID) Strategic Conflict Assessment (Great Britain, DfID) is a tool that was developed by DfID to assess: risks of negative effects of conflict on programmes; risks of programmes or policies exacerbating conflict; opportunities to improve the effectiveness of development interventions in contributing to conflict prevention and reduction. The assessment criteria allow the assessment to focus on programmes or projects, or at a strategic level on a country or region (Great Britain, DfID, p6).