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India’s Rise in Economics and the Challenges it Faces

India is not, by a long way a regional power, let alone a global power. That it is necessary to state this obvious fact is a testament to the power of public indoctrination. There is a huge gap between India and the developed world. According to the World Bank, India’s Gross National Income (GNI) in 2009 was $793 billion, compared to the US’s $12.95 trillion. India, with 17 per cent of the world’s population, accounts for less than 1.7 per cent of the world’s income. Thus India’s per capita GNI was $1180, compared to the US’s nearly $47,240. Even South Korea’s per capita GNI was over $19,880. India’s situation is slightly better in terms of ‘Purchasing Power Parity’ (PPP) but even India’s PPP per capita income is ranked 154th in the world [1] . For all the rosy projections of rapid growth by India and other Asian countries by 2020, the US’s National Intelligence Council admits that “per capita income in most (Asian) countries will not compare to those of Western nations.” Human Development The situation is far worse in terms of ‘human development’. In the UN’s Human Development Index, this claims to be a composite of various factors, such as health, education and income, India ranks 119th among 175 countries. India’s under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births is 69, that is, one in fourteen children die before the age of five. Its maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births is 230, compared to 38 for China [2] . We are constantly told that poverty in India is declining, and a great industry has sprung up of academic treatises to show how fast poverty is declining. However, these treatises have reduced poverty by defining the term so that it no longer relates to whether or not people get their minimum requirements of calories. The official National Sample Survey of 2005 revealed that three-fourths of India’s rural population and half the urban population did not get the minimum recommended calories. This is confirmed by nutritional and health surveys, which reveal the following: more than two-fifths of the adult population suffer from chronic energy deficiency, and a large percentage are at the border of this condition; half India’s women are anaemic; half its children can be clinically defined as malnourished (stunted, wasting, or both). Within India – half of our rural population or over 350 million people are below the average food energy intake of SSA (Sub-Saharan Africa) countries. [3] Poverty as such is not directly observed: the National Sample Survey (NSS) gathers responses to a questionnaire regarding consumption, and the poverty estimates are then derived (after making various assumptions) from this data. But the same NSS directly observes that employment growth plummeted between the last two surveys (1993-94 and 1999-2000). Now, it is virtually impossible for poverty to have declined if unemployment grew sharply, and the methodology of any study that claims poverty has fallen should be questioned. The sector of the country’s economy has seen breakneck growth in the past decade: the provision of software services and business process outsourcing services to foreign (principally US) firms. However, that sector accounts for 0.25 per cent of the labour force. Where are the rest? Nearly half of India’s total working-age population (15-59 years of age) is unemployed, most of it not even counted as part of the labour force. While agriculture continues to employ the majority of those considered employed, it accounts for less than a quarter of the national income, and that share continues to shrink. No Industrial Transformation National income is conventionally divided into three sectors- agriculture, industry and services. All the countries in the developed world passed from being predominantly agricultural economies to being predominantly industrial economies. It was only after industry had brought these entire economies (including their agriculture) under its sway, commodities became vastly more plentiful than in the past, and the economic surplus grew massively, that these economies could sustain growth in the share of services. Today, industry accounts for the largest share of GDP in the economies of China, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, as much as 56 per cent in the case of China. In India’s case, however, the share of industry is low — just 28.2 per cent in 2009 [4] . Industry has never been the dominant sector of the Indian economy. Moreover, its share of GDP has not been increasing, but is stagnant or shrinking. And Indian industry’s share of employment is just 17.6 per cent. Indeed, in the two commodity-producing sectors – agriculture and industry – one cannot find any miraculous takeoff in growth during the period of ‘reform’. But one should beware of drawing sweeping conclusions on the basis of two or even three years’ figures. And while the services sector has led growth over the past two decades, so that it now accounts for 54.6 per cent of GDP, much of the services sector (e.g. growth of police and armed forces, the explosion of financial sector and real estate activity) has no tangible benefit for the people at large. It is true that certain Indian firms (or Indian units of foreign firms) have attained ‘world standards’ in quality of output, and with their lower labour costs may become highly competitive exporters. Glowing press reports of such units convey the sense that the Indian economy has undergone a ‘take-off’. However, these firms are generally dependent on imported capital goods and are strongly linked to export markets; they have few linkages to the rest of the Indian economy. They remain islands in the large sea of underdeveloped India. Contrast this with the transformation of the economy that would take place with the rapid development of industries catering to domestic demand for items of mass consumption. That would create demand for raw materials and indigenous capital goods, in the entire process generating huge employment and promoting indigenous technological know-how. At any rate, India accounts for less than one per cent of world exports. ‘High technology’ goods constitute just five per cent of its exports. India’s rapid increase in oil imports (and India’s high-profile efforts to secure long-term oil and gas supplies from abroad) is being held up as a sign of its rapid economic growth. It actually is a sign of the absence of national planning. Much of the growth in oil consumption is on account of the great boom in private automobiles. This is in turn the result of the failure of public transport, growing income inequalities, and the massive expansion of cheap credit for car purchases. Moreover, rapid growth of oil imports signifies not the growing strength but the growing vulnerability of the Indian economy. Genuine national planning would have ensured instead (i) restraint on consumption (through the expansion of railways for goods and passenger transport, expansion of public transport in cities, and a variety of energy conservation investments), and (ii) a programme of investment to develop and use the country’s oil, gas and plentiful coal resources effectively and economically. A combination of such measures could have greatly reduced the country’s dependence on oil imports. Instead, the share of oil in India’s energy is growing, and the share of imports in its total oil consumption is on course to reach 90 per cent or more in some years. In the last few years, large foreign capital inflows and the booming foreign exchange earnings of the IT sector have resulted in the rapid growth of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. As a result, the Government has liberalised foreign investment by Indian firms. Thus a number of Indian firms have been investing abroad, in many cases acquiring foreign firms. This phenomenon has generated considerable excitement in the business press, which point to it as further evidence of India’s new global status: now, they claim, Indian firms too are multinational corporations. Indeed, for two years, 2003-04 and 2004-05, India ran a current account surplus, which means that it was a net capital exporter. However, much as this may be good business sense for the firms which are making them; but in general they run contrary to the requirements of national economic development. India is not a capital-surplus economy, but an underdeveloped, capital-starved one, with large resources lying idle for lack of investment. It makes no economic sense to export capital from such a country. Indian capitalists may earn financial returns from their investments abroad, but such returns will give paltry stimulus to the Indian economy, whereas investment in manufacturing within the country stimulates demand, productive activity and employment in a number of sectors, with far-reaching benefits for the whole economy. India- A Knowledge Economy As part of the propaganda about India’s ’emerging’ as a ‘global power’, we are told ad nauseam that India is a ‘knowledge economy’, an ‘information technology (IT) superpower’, and the like. The truth is that adult literacy in India is just 61 per cent; on this score, it ranks 146th out of 177 countries in the UN’s Human Development Index (that is, many countries with much lower per capita income had much higher literacy levels than India – for example, much of desperately poor sub-Saharan Africa). In recent years, on the recommendation of the World Bank, the Indian government has focussed its meagre education expenditures increasingly on primary education, largely abandoning secondary and higher education (as if they were a luxury). Yet official data tell us that 42 per cent of children enrolled drop out before completing primary education (I-V). Another 19 per cent, according to official data, drop out before completing upper primary education (VI-VIII). And according to Census data, 43.5 per cent of the children between the ages of five and nine are not in school. More perturbing is the quality of education that is being imparted in government schools. It is so dismal that half the children in Class IV in government schools in Mumbai cannot do the arithmetic calculations required of a Class I student. When put to the test, 18 per cent of students attending Classes II to V in Andhra Pradesh couldn’t do single-digit additions while only 12 per cent managed single-digit subtractions. Higher education, which the Government has increasingly abandoned to a rapacious private sector, is out of the reach of all but a small section. At any rate, the infrastructure and staff of many of the new private institutions are appalling, and thus the degrees imparted to a large percentage of graduates may not be worth the paper they are printed on. Research And Development According to the official publication Research and Development Statistics (2004-05, the latest edition), India’s expenditure on R

MT 482 BIBT Sigma and Datatech Companies Ratio & Credit Analysis Presentation

MT 482 BIBT Sigma and Datatech Companies Ratio & Credit Analysis Presentation.

In this Assignment, you will be assessed based on the following outcome: MT 482-1: Examine the financial performance of a company using its financial statements. This Assignment will firmly plant your feet in the world of Financial Statement Analysis, setting the stage for much of what you will do going forward. It is challenging, but will set you up with tools to make better business decisions going forward, in this class and in the real world. Locate the Case 1-3: Comparative Analysis, Credit and Equity on page 61 of your text. Be sure to submit thoughtful and substantial answers to the questions following the case regarding the two companies analyzed. Provide the following information in a Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation to the management team deciding on which bank stock toselect: 1. Compute the current ratio, acid test ratio, accounts receivable turnover, inventory turnover, days’ sales in inventory, and days’ sales in receivables ratios for both companies. 2. Identify by this analysis the company that you consider the better short-term credit risk and explain why. 3. Compute the net profit margin, total asset turnover, return on total assets, and return on common stockholders’ equity for both companies. 4. Assume each company paid a cash dividend of $1.50 per share and that each company’s stock can be purchased at $25 a share. Compute each company’s price- earnings ratio and dividend yield. 5. Identify which company’s stock you would recommend as the better investment and explain why. This is a challenging activity. You should prepare to spend a substantial time working on your response. Assignment Instructions This Assignment is to be submitted using PowerPoint. It should include a title slide with your name, course number, your instructor’s name, date, and the subject of the presentation. Follow this with a brief statement that you (and you alone) produced the Assignment. The Assignment should include the following elements: • Introduction bullet point slide summarizing the project and thecompanies • A slide summarizing the ratio analysis of the two companies • A slide summarizing the credit risk analysis and decision Unit 2 [MT482] Page 2 of 2 • A slide summarizing the asset and equity performance of both companies • A slide summarizing stock performance and your investment advice • A slide if needed for In-text citations and reference • Each slide should include your speaker notes or audio notes. Directions for Submitting your Assignment: Compose your Assignment in a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation and save it as Username- MT482 Assignment-Unit 2.pptx (Example: TAllen- MT482 Assignment Unit 2.pptx). Submit your file by selecting the Unit 2 Assignment Dropbox by the end of the unit. Unit 2 Assignment: Comparative Analysis Case 1-3 Possible Points Points Earned Content, Analysis, and Effective Writing Skills Response successfully answers Assignment questions for this case. Correctly calculates: Current Ratio, Acid Test, A/R, Turnover, Inventory Turnover, and DSO. 15 Correctly computes: Net Profit Margin, Asset Turnover, ROS, and ROE. 10 Response to questions exhibit strong critical thinking and appropriate analysis. Better credit risk and why. 6 Better investment and why. 6 Sentences are clear, concise, and direct. Tone is appropriate. Grammatical skills are strong with almost no errors per slid
MT 482 BIBT Sigma and Datatech Companies Ratio & Credit Analysis Presentation

Affixation In English And Vietnamese English Language Essay

online homework help A purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols is defined as language (Sapir, Language, P.7). Therefore, every language itself provides attentive learners with a wide knowledge of the primary function, social nature as well as the important characteristic which is the system of symbols consisting of different levels from sound systems to meaning, such as phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Only the unity of these four systems can form what is so-called language. Correspondingly, with a purpose of researching on this field that is to bring you, Vietnamese learners of English, an in- depth look at how minimal meaningful English morphemes can be used again and again as building blocks to form different words and some relevance to the constitution of Vietnamese words, I hope this can be a useful material for you to approach English reading comprehension and bilingual translation work from a more efficient and interesting angle. Literary review According to Eugene A Nida, “morphemes are the minimal meaningful units which may constitute words or parts of words” (Nida, 1946:1) and are defined as units of semantic content or grammatical function. Morphemes are of two kinds: free morphemes, ones that can be uttered alone with meaning and bound morphemes, ones that cannot be uttered alone with meaning. Based on this definition, affixes are defined as bound morphemes because they occur before or behind roots or cores of all words and somewhat modify the basic meaning of the roots. e.g. Verb – able ƒ Adj: enjoy – able Verb – er ƒ Noun: wait – er, act – or un Adj ƒ Adj: un – productive, un – easy Adj – en ƒ Verb: deep – en, thick – en Besides, like bound morphemes, affixes may also be derivational or inflectional, which means that affixes can create new words by deriving new words from other words or making minor grammatical changes necessary for agreement with other words without changing meanings or parts of words. From that point, affixation is assumed as the linguistic process speakers use to form new words by adding bound morphemes at the beginning, the middle or the end of words. Correlatively, affixes are divided into prefixes, suffixes, infixes, suprafixes or suprasegmental and so on. Some categories of affixes: Prefix un-do prefix -stem Appears at the front of a stem Suffix look-ing stem-suffix Appears at the back of a stem Infix Minne‹flippin’›sota st-infix-em Appears within a stem – common in Borneo-Philippines languages Circumfix a-scatter-ed circumfix-stem-circumfix One portion appears at the front of a stem, and the other at the rear Interfix speed-o-meter stema-interfix-stemb Links two stems together in a compound Duplifix teeny-weeny stem-duplifix Incorporates a reduplicated portion of a stem (may occur in front, at the rear, or within the stem) Transfix Maltese: k-i-t-e-b = “he wrote” (compare root ktb = “write”) s-transfix-te-transfix›m A discontinuous affix that interleaves within a discontinuous stem Simulfix mouse → mice Changes a segment of a stem Suprafix produce (noun) produce (verb) Changes a suprasegmental phoneme of a stem Disfix Alabama: tipli = “break up” (compare root tipasli = “break”) stm The elision of a portion of a stem Those kinds of affixes are categorized, depending on their position with reference to the stem. In general, there are three types of affixes: – Positional categories of affixes. In this category, prefix and suffix are extremely common whereas the other terms are uncommon as they are not important in European languages. – Lexical affixes or semantic affixes. These are relatively rare bound elements that appear as affixes. In other words, they are similar to word roots/stems in function but similar to affixes in form. Although similar to incorporated nouns, lexical affixes differ in that they never occur as freestanding nouns, i.e. they always appear as affixes. – Orthographic affixes. Here, the terms for affixes may be used for the smaller elements of conjunct characters. These are called prefixes, superfixes, postfixes, and subfixes according to their position to the left, on top, to the right, or at the bottom of the main glyph. A small glyph placed inside another is called an infix. For example, the Tibetan alphabet uses prefix, suffix, superfix, and subfix consonant letters. Affixation in English English prefixes are bound morphemes providing lexical meaning and added before either simple roots or complex bases consisting of a root and other affixes, multiple roots, or multiple roots and other affixes. e.g. undo = prefix un- root do untouchable = prefix un- root touch suffix -able non-childproof = prefix non- root child root proof non-childproofable = prefix non- root child root proof suffix -able English words may consist of multiple prefixes: anti-pseudo-classicism (containing an anti- prefix and a pseudo- prefix). In English, all prefixes are derivational. This contrasts with English suffixes, which may be either derivational or inflectional. That is why many English prefixes can only be added to bases of particular lexical categories. For example, the prefix re- meaning “again, back” is only added to verb bases as in rebuild, reuse, resell, re-evaluate, resettle. It cannot be added to bases of other lexical categories. These restrictions can be used to distinguish between identical-sounding prefixes. For instance, there are two different un- prefixes in English: one meaning “not, opposite of”, the other meaning “reverse action, deprive of, release from”. The first prefix un- “not” is attached to adjective and participle bases while the second prefix un- “reverse action” is attached to either verb or noun bases. Thus, English can have two words that are pronounced and spelled the same and have the same lexical category but have different meanings, different prefixes, a different internal morphological structure, and different internal bases that the prefixes are attached to: unlockable = [ un [ [ lock ]verb able ]adj ]adj = “not able to be locked” unlockable = [ [ un [ lock ]verb ]verb able ]adj = “able to be unlocked” Only certain verbs or nouns can be used to form a new verb having the opposite meaning. In particular, using verbs describing an irreversible action produces words often considered nonsense, e.g. unkill, unspend, unlose, unring. These words may nevertheless be in occasional use for humorous or other effect. Unlike derivational suffixes, English prefixes typically do not change the lexical category of the base. Thus, the word do consisting of a single morpheme is a verb as is the word redo, which consists of the prefix re- and the base root do. However, there are a few prefixes in English that are class-changing in that the word. The reason is that the prefix belongs to a lexical category that is different from the lexical category of the base. Examples of this type include a-, be-, and en-. a- typically creates adjectives from noun and verb bases: blaze (noun/verb) ƒ ablaze (adj). The relatively unproductive be- creates transitive verbs from noun bases: witch (noun) ƒ bewitch (verb). en- creates transitive verbs from noun bases: slave (noun) ƒ enslave (verb) Several English words are easily analyzed as a combination of a dependent affix and an independent base, such as in the words boy-hood or un-just. Following Marchand (1969), these types of words are referred to as words formed by native word-formation processes. Other words in English are formed by foreign word-formation processes, particularly Greek and Latin word-formation processes. These word types are often known as neo-classical or neo-Latin words. Words of this nature are borrowed from either Greek or Latin or have been newly coined based upon Greek and Latin word-formation processes. On these days, however, some foreign elements have become a part of productive English word-formation processes. An example of such a now native English prefix is co- as in co-worker, which is ultimately derived from the Latin prefix com- (with its allomorphs co-, con-, col-, and cor-). Affixation in Vietnamese Before discussing affixation in Vietnamese, we should mention the characteristics of its morphemes. The noticeable feature of Vietnamese morphemes is that there is no difference between them and the syllables. Almost every morphemes in Vietnamese is considered as “forms of syllables”, e.g. nhà, ăn , ở, người, về, e, u, etc. The number of morphemes containing two or three syllables is very low and they have exotic origin, e.g. xà phòng, ô tô, etc. In Vietnamese, there are many morphemes that also function as potential monosyllables meanwhile, unlike inflectional languages, the pattern of morpheme form for polysyllables is a compounding one. Accordingly, it is easier to recognize a monosyllable than a word. This difference reflects contradictory characteristics of the so-called morpheme in both languages. Besides, we can find that there are more morphemes defined as single words in Vietnamese than in English in terms of speech articulation. The definition of morpheme is quite general as well as universal. It is, however, proposed in a particular way, based on the characteristics of word formation and distribution of linguistic units ruled by each language. Most Vietnamese morphemes are defined owing to word sense which may be meaningful or meaningless. While articulating morphemes, we can see some function as parts of words though the others are morphemes of collocation. The first group is very common in English. The second one is usually found in Vietnamese, e.g. nhà, đất, nÆ°á»›c, sá»±, cuá»™c, diá»…n, Ä‘ã, Ä‘ang, sẽ, về, etc. Back to the term affixation, as discussed above, we can prove that affixation still exists in Vietnamese although it is limited. Only prefixation and suffixation are attested. A few affixes are used along with reduplication. Many affixes come from the Sino-Vietnamese and learned part of the lexicon. Here are some examples, Examples bán- “half” bán nguyệt “semicircular, semi-monthly” (bán- -nguyệt “moon”), bán đảo “peninsula” (bán- đảo “island”) khả- “ability” khả kính “respectable” (khả- kính “to respect”), khả quan “satisfactory” (khả- quan “to behold”) lão- familiar (added to surnames) lão Thinh “old” Thinh, good old Thinh” (lão- Thinh surname) phản- “counter to, against” phản cách mạng “counter-revolutionary” (phản- cách mạng “revolution”), phản chiến “anti-war” (phản- -chiến “to fight”) phi- “not” phi nghÄ©a “unethical” (phi- nghÄ©a “righteousness”), phi chính phá» “non-governmental” (phi- chính phá» “government”) siêu- “above, better” siêu thị “supermarket” (siêu- thị “market”), siêu đẳng “outstanding” (siêu- đẳng “level”) tăng- “over, high” tăng a xit “hyperacidity” (tăng- a xit “acid”), tăng can xi “hypercalcernia” (tăng- can xi “calcium”) thứ- ordinal (added to numerals) thứ mười “tenth” (thứ- mười “ten”), thứ bốn mÆ°Æ¡i ba “forty-third” (thứ- bốn mÆ°Æ¡i ba “forty-three”) Suffixes Examples -gia “profession” chính trị gia “politician” (chính trị “politics” -gia), khoa học gia “scientist” (khoa học “science” -gia) -giả agentive tác giả “author” (tác “to create” -giả), học giả “scholar” (học “to learn” -giả) -hóa forms causative verb a xít hóa “to acidify” (a xit “acid” -hóa), mỹ hóa “to americanize” (Mỹ “USA” -hóa) -học “field of study” ngôn ngữ học “linguistics” (ngôn ngữ “language” -học), Ä‘á»™ng vật học “zoology” (Ä‘á»™ng vật “animal” -học) -kế “measuring device” nhiệt kế “thermometer” (nhiệt- “warm” -kế), áp kế “manometer” (áp “get close, approach” -kế) -khoa “field of study” nha khoa “dentistry” (nha- “tooth” -khoa), dược khoa “pharmacy” (dược- “drug” -khoa) -sÄ© “expert” hoạ sÄ© “artist” (hoạ “to draw” -sÄ©), văn sÄ© “writer” (văn “literature” -sÄ©) -sÆ° “master” giáo sÆ° “professor” (giáo “to teach” -sÆ°), luật sÆ° “lawyer” (luật “law” -sÆ°) -viên agentive quan sát viên “observer” (quan sát “to observe” -viên), phối trí viên “coordinator” (phối trí “to coordinate” -viên) A contrastive analysis of affixation in English and Vietnamese As we all know, English is an inflectional language categorized into the group of analytic ones, which means English word formation becomes less fusional and it is added manner of syncategoremantic words, word order, etc. On the contrast, Vietnamese is defined as an isolating language so it has no inflectional phenomenon, but only the roots. In terms of word formation, thus, we can easily find that there is a similarity between English and Vietnamese that is about manner of syncategoremantic words and word order. In his presenting the components that constitute words, Professor Nguyá»…n Thiện Giáp gives the concept of semi-affixes, which is defined as “the factors that do not completely lose their own sense of things, but have the nature of an affix and are found repeatedly in many words. The basic criteria of semi-affixes is their auxiliary nature, reflected in the characteristics of the meaning, distribution and function. While completing the function of forming words, they retain the relationship of meaning and form with independent roots so they do not really change into affixes” (Dẫn luận ngôn ngữ học. Giáo dục Publishing House, 1998, P.67). When Vietnamese is brought into comparison, Professor Giáp states that the factors, like viên, giả, sÄ©, hóa and so on, also have the nature of a semi-affix (sÄ‘l, P.68). For this reason, morphemes which have grammatical values and Chinese-Vietnamese origin, but full independence are the ones that have the nature of semi-affixes. Here are some examples: e.g. – sÄ© : nghệ sÄ©, hoạ sÄ©, nhạc sÄ©, viện sÄ©, nha sÄ© – học : dân tá»™c học, tâm lí học, xã há»™i học, sinh học tiền – : tiền đề, tiền lệ, tiền sá»­, tiền tố, tiền nhiệm bất – : bất biến, bất cẩn, bất chính, bất công, bất định, bất nhân, bất nghÄ©a, bất ngờ From these example, we can see that each word is constituted of two factors: one contains meaning of the whole word and the other has a tendency toward grammatical meaning. Here, the second factor is considered as the morphemes that have the properties of semi-affixes. Putting this into comparison with some English equivalences, we find that there is certain correspondence between Vietnamese “semi-affixes” with English affixes about the role of forming words. e.g. artist, painter, musician, academician, dentist ethnology, psychology, sociology, biology premise, precedent, prehistoric, prefix, predecessor invariable, careless, illegal, injustice, indeterminate, ungrateful, unexpected Therefore, it is clear that there was a correspondence in the role of forming words between Vietnamese “semi-affixes” and English affixes. However, it is not an entirely one-to-one correspondence, which means not every Vietnamese “semi-affix” has an English suffix as an equivalence. For example, sÄ© in Vietnamese has its equivalences which are -ist,-er,-an, etc. in English or bất in Vietnamese has its English equivalences like in-, -less, il-, un- and so on. Conversely, suffix -er in English which functions as a constituent of word formation, such as -er in painter, teacher, worker, driver, etc. has the “semi-affixes” Vietnamese like -sÄ© (hoạ sÄ©), -viên (giáo viên), -nhân (công nhân), etc. as its equivalences. We easily find a similarity between English and Vietnamese in word formation, which is that they follow a formula of constituting words, root affix/semi-affix. However, the frequency of use and properties of this formula change in different languages. In English, this formula becomes very common because English belongs to inflectional group. Although there is no one-to-one correspondence as what we have discussed in the way of forming words, there are still some specific morphemes as language equivalences in semantic category. For example, a. Category of negation In English, dis- : dishonest, disorganize, dislike, disappear, disadvantage il ( l)- : illegal, illiberal im ( m or p)- : imposible, impolite in- : indirect, invisible, injustice ir ( r)- : irregular, irrelevant non- : non-alcohobic, non-stop, non-profit un- : uncomfortable, unusual, undated, uncertain, unpack, unzip -less : hopeless, powerless In Vietnamese, bất- : bất định, bấn đồng, bất biến, bất tận… phi- : phi lí, phi nghÄ©a… vô- : vô vi, vô đạo, vô tình, vô hình… b. Category of ability In English, – able : writeable, unable, comfortable… – ible : visible, possible, comprehensible… In Vietnamese, khả- : khả dụng, khả năng, khả biến… – được : viết được, ăn được, nhìn (thấy) được… c. Category of denomination In English, – er/ or : driver, editor – ist : tourist, scientist – ant/ ent : assistant, student – an/ ian : republican, electrician – ee : employee, examinee In Vietnamese, – sÄ© : nhạc sÄ©, hoạ sÄ©, giáo sÄ©, nha sÄ©, bác sÄ©, viện sĩ… – viên : giáo viên, sinh viên, nhân viên, diá»…n viên… – giả : học giả, tác giả, kí giả… – nhân : thi nhân, quân nhân, công nhân, nạn nhân, bệnh nhân… nhà – : nhà văn, nhà thÆ¡, nhà báo, nhà giáo… In brief, these examples help learners easily associate English affixes with the so-called Vietnamese meaningful morphemes including semi-affixes which are not entirely independent. This kind of morphemes in Vietnamese has a high productivity of words because the semantic content of each morpheme is of a category, but a single notion. Consequently, the existence of groups of affixes and “semi-affixes” as equivalences between English and Vietnamese is a considerable advantage to translation work. Some implications for English Teaching and Learning Studying affixation can provide learners with receptive and productive skills. As for receptive skill, learners can easily make guesses about the meaning of unknown vocabulary because of their being well-equipped with a wide knowledge of word building in terms of affixation. For instance, to complete a task of reading comprehension, the learners may deduce correctly the meaning of some new items found in the given texts, based on their own understanding of affixes (see appendix). In additional, learners’ ability of expression is strongly enhanced if they can apply what are taught at school about basic principles of word formation, as for productive skill. On the other hand, teachers should pay more attention to teaching affixation in the classroom. As Matthews (1974) put it : “How does one plunge into syntax when one cannot identify and understand the elements whose role and distribution is in question ? It is only in favoured cases , where the morphology is simple or is already thoroughly explored , that a beginner can plunge into syntax .” So beside teaching the grammatical syllabuses, teachers may adjust the lessons to arrange an appropriate amount of time used to give the students some practice of affixation, based on teaching situation. Moreover, teachers can cleverly put an emphasis on how word structures are formed by giving students different tasks designed on the strategy: to help learners get general rules of some affixes in terms of semantic category so that they can make their own system of affixes and enrich their vocabulary. For Vietnamese learners, it is also necessary to give them an association between certain prefixes and suffixes in English with the equivalences of the mother tongue because of the existence of similarities discussed above. By learning about it, learners can avoid some mistakes in translation work. Besides, this makes the lesson much more interesting and easier to be memorized. Dik (1967) states : “To learn a language is not so much to memorize a set of sentences ; rather , it is to familiarize oneself with a linguistic system in such a way and to such extent that one is able to construct sentences and other linguistic structures on one’s own .” In general, it is essential to suggest that at least the process of how words are constituted should be presented in EFL course books and either teaching or learning it should be carefully focused on in order to meet the absolute requirements of language teaching . Conclusion In short, this paper shows you a detailed contrastive analysis of affixation concerning Vietnamese and English with the purpose of emphasizing how important and useful word structure should not be ignored at school to help learners acquire the target language much comfortably and thoroughly. Yet, to some extent, the paper has not extended all the vast knowledge in this field because I just try to focus on some very basic concepts and primary theories in comparing and contrasting affixation in Vietnamese and English to express my viewpoints to readers. On the whole, I do hope that it will be a useful material for teachers and students who share the same interest with me in how to improve the way we study our target language efficiently. References Nguyen, H.L. (2000). An outline of morphology. Ho Chi Minh: NXB TP Ho Chi Minh. Bui, T.T., Nguyen, V.B., Hoang, X.T., Nguyen, T.Q., Hoang, D.M. (1997). Giao trinh Tieng Viet. Ha Noi: NXB Giao duc. Nguyen, T.G. (1998). Dan luan ngon ngu hoc. Ho Chi Minh: NXB Giao duc. Mai, N.C. (2005). Co so ngon ngu hoc va tieng Viet. Ho Chi Minh: NXB Giao duc. Le, Q.T. (2004). Nghien cuu doi chieu cac ngon ngu. Ha Noi: NXB Dai hoc quoc gia Ha Noi. Cao, X.H., Hoang, D. (2005). Tu dien thuat ngu ngon ngu hoc doi chieu Anh-Viet Viet-Anh. Ho Chi Minh: NXB Khoa hoc xa hoi. Eastwood, J. (1997). Oxford Guide to English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Quinion, M. (2008). Affixes: the building blocks of English. Retrieved from British Council, BBC W. S. Teaching English. Retrieved from Teaching word formation and its pedagogical implications for EFL. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from Megginson, D. (2007). Word formation. Retrieved from

System Integration Architecture and Implementation Framework

System Integration Architecture and Implementation Framework. I’m working on a Computer Science question and need guidance to help me study.

Assignment Guidelines
For this week’s assignment, you will provide detail on the overall system integration architecture and the implementation framework.
New Content (Week 4)

Research and apply system integration frameworks

Considering Mule ESB, Pervasive, Apache Camel, and Spring Integration frameworks, select one framework and discuss how it could be used to represent an integration of your system components.

Proposed System Integration Components Architecture

Thoroughly describe the architecture of the proposed integrated system, including all interfaces and components for the system integration deployment.
Represent this architecture diagrammatically.
Discuss which components and interfaces could be acquired and those that need to be developed from scratch.

Implementation Framework

Select and describe in detail the framework that you used to define and implement the system integration project.
Define the project in terms of the selected framework.
Discuss advantages for using the selected framework.
Discuss integration challenges that were highlighted by defining the framework.
*Please see attached file for Week 4 Assignment Sample

System Integration Architecture and Implementation Framework

Fully understand Copy, VO, SOT, VO / SOT, PKG in journalism.

Fully understand Copy, VO, SOT, VO / SOT, PKG in journalism..

You are going to produce the first block of a newscast from the opening (or preshow tease) all the way through the first commercial break.It must have a minimum of 5 stories It must include at least one script for each of the following 5 story types: Copy, VO, SOT, VO/SOT, PKG.Your total time must be between 7:30 – 9minutes. When timing out you scripts each line of anchor text is 2.5 seconds. (2 lines is = 5 seconds)Be sure to add the package and SOT times to your Total Story Times.(upper right of each script) VO times are needed for the director but do NOT need to be calculated into the Total Story Time.At least 3 of your stories must have a twitter messageThe animated show open is 20 seconds long be sure to include that in your rundownInclude a preshow tease and a 1st break tease:You will write scripts for each story, including a preshow tease and a (2 part) tease before commercial break (tease a sports story and a national story) that ends the A block.Your Anchors are “Aaron Fredrick” and “Anna Cecil”You will submit through Canvas a PDF or Word Document (DOC, DOCX) of your rundown and scripts. All other formats will be rejected. (pages, Open Office). If you do use something other than Word to submit your work then save it as a PDF. You can submit your exercise as many times as you need to. The last one uploaded in will be graded. Tools:A running Time Calculator to help you out. character counter for tweets www.charactercountonline.comScript Template: (STORY NAME HERE)(ANCHOR NAME HERE)<INSERT STORY TEXT HERE>===(TAKE <STORY TYPE HERE>)======(TAKE TAG)===(ANCHOR NAME HERE)<INSERT TAG TEXT HERE>Director’s Notes: TAKE:PKG/SOT/VOTIME:0:00SIGOUT/OUTCUE:”…”News Stories are available at the in modules under “Producing Exercise Story Bank,pdf”
Fully understand Copy, VO, SOT, VO / SOT, PKG in journalism.