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Indian Child Welfare Act

Indian Child Welfare Act. Paper details 1. Could the problems that the ICWA was meant to address have been cured through individual state action? Did the federal law cure the issues of Indian Child removal by the state? 2. Should non-cultural Indians be prevented from using the Indian Child Welfare Act? 3. The federal regulations will change the way the states address ICWA cases. What is the most significant change the regulations bring? What may be the most significant problem? minimum of 300 words; All posts need to be substantive and refer to the required unit’s readings, lecture videos, cases, and statutes. Use in-text citations and include a reference list in your discussion response. Be sure to cite all legal sources (such as cases and statutes)you discuss and add each case to the reference list in the legal format. All references should be included in at least one citation in the body of your post. Each post must have a minimum of three in-text citations. Include the 1) ICWA book, 2) video lectures, and 3) cases and/or statutes discussed in the video lectures. Generally, more than one case needs to be included in your discussionIndian Child Welfare Act
The play “All My Sons” written by Arthur Miller, is a play in which the male characters are prominent. The main aspects of that are the main war efforts, in which set the male domination higher, money and business, these are in which set the male characters in the play. However, in the play Arthur Miller represents the male domination quickly, but he also, at the beginning of the play introduces the idea that men have only got the same amount of power as women. Miller depicts something visually, that emotions of women, female characters and as of this, this leads to the suicide of Joe Keller. Miller’s presentation of women in “All My Sons” is shown through the relationship between Kate and Ann. Kate’s, controlling, has power over Ann, manipulates Ann; “Don’t let them tell you what you think. Listen to your heart. Only, your heart.” Also a very opinionated women, however shows fragility, unlikely to withstand any strains. Moreover she wants to hold onto the past, because her fear of forgetting Larry. However, Ann the younger generation and the future. Page 93, “couple of years go by, she’s a regular woman.” She also a very opinionated women, but moreover wants to move forward and forget the past. Aspects in which divides these two, Kate has a strong relationship with George whereas Ann sees him as an outsider. George’s behaviour once he arrives into “The Keller’s” household, Ann wants him to leave, because of her views on him as an outsider. Moreover, the past and the future divide’s both Kate and Ann. The past, Larry has died yet Kate believes and still lives like he’s alive. Then the future is that Ann needs to move on to marry Chris. However, Kate and Ann are the victims of the disastrous event, of the Keller family. Moreover, they’re seeking to survive in a world characterised by the battles between men, and their views on the perfect family and the American dream. Ann, like Kate, is presented as a very opinionated, however shows no outer feelings of devious, but also no inner feelings fragility. “You made Chris feel guilty with me. Whether you wanted to or not you’ve crippled him in front of me.” Ann here is suggested as an outsider, and is trying to help provide a cushion to move the family on as of the past was bad, and try making their future brighter by destroying it physically through the power of her character as a female in this play. Kate shows full control over Ann ever since the beginning of the play, this may prove she’s a stronger character with a greater personality; also Ann is the younger of the two and may be venerable, and feel like she has to follow the instructions, this may show that Kate’s using an as a scapegoat, and a utility to connect with Larry. Kate’s and Ann’s relationship begins to become tense as their personalities and emotions contrast, as the truth about Joe begins to come out. Moreover, there characters begin to show how strong they actually are, as they are very strong minded and extremely strong minded, in which brings tension and friction between their personalities. Miller is clever in an aspect, as he’s presenting to very strong, crossed minded individuals, at a time in which a women would be very unstable about as of the aspects of the war. Many of things divide both Kate and Ann in which case causes many of disagreements. George arrives in scene…………………………..!!!!!! Kate shows that she is a strong person, with a strong personal bond between them towards him: “Mother (Cups his face in her hands.) They have made an old man out of you. (Touches his hair.) In this, it causes slight friction between Kate and Ann: “… I packed your bag. All you’ve to do is close it. Ann: I’m not closing anything. He asked me here and I’m staying till he tells me to go.” The behaviour of George comes as a surprise. In which case Kate begins to start seeing Ann as her rival, and gradually discovering how my collisions they have, and the way Miller makes the link between Ann as an outsider and George also, “she doesn’t belong here.” But although Miller introduces Ann as an outsider, she she’s been accepted into the Keller household. Friction in personalities between Ann and Kate increase as the play goes on. Miller presents this as of Chris’s male domination, power and the control in which he has over them, especially Kate: “how dare you pack her bag? Mother: she doesn’t belong here.” This moreover shows even more tension within the Keller household. “Chris: then I don’t belong here.” This is powerful, as Kate is yet again the scapegoat, in which has to bring the Keller family back on track, from the past, to the present. Chris’ brutality towards his mother needs to destroy Kate’s faith in Larry in order to win Larry over”… I’m his brother and he’s dead, and I’m marrying his girl.” At this point in the play the tension is huge. The main question in which is asked: Why do Chris and Ann need Kate’s approval? However, if they got it alone then they’d cut themselves off from the Keller family, and the perfect American family, and the American dream. The truth begins to be revealed about how Keller feels about Kate and that he should be forgetting Larry, as Chris loved his brother, yet he feels that if he has any chance of moving on a forgiving and forgetting, he needs to take onto consideration that Larry won’t be coming back with Ann. The fight in characteristics between Ann and Kate are the basis in which Miller is creating within the play. This is all in which builds up to the main part of the play, in where Joe takes his life. So the way in which he presents this is by showing the dimensions in the family that are down falling, are by showing the disagreements in which the women have on this play. Although the play is about male powers and the way the perfect family also the American dream takes over. The wealth in which one family thinks about causes many distractions, in which case Miller directs the crisis onto many of the characters especially Ann and Kate, as they have the biggest disagreements. Dear George, this is a very promising draft. Please do not feel in anyway dismayed by the number of comments I have made. This is only to ensure that you will achieve the best possible mark, suited to target grade. I’ve noted below a few comments to help ensure that your coursework meets all of the criteria… You do not answer the question – how the relationship IS RELATED TO THE CENTRAL TRAGEDY OF THE PLAY? Contexts – have you contextualised your study within social, historical, political, biographical and literary contexts? This is one of the key assessment criterias. Genre – are you aware of the genre and refer to the devices and terminology associated with it, for example dramatic and staging devices for plays? Interpretation – have you debate the title and considered how far you agree with it? You could easily meet the word count if you Paraphrase – without focus on close textual analysis and techniques.

UCLA Stolen Children Residential School Survivors and Mountain Takaki Discussion

UCLA Stolen Children Residential School Survivors and Mountain Takaki Discussion.

Stolen Children Residential School SurvivorsThis is an open discussion.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdR9HcmiXLA&list=PLEqf8pU7tcmaitCwLSJ-F-Por7nnxdZUDThe educational system has been a vital tool used to promote assimilation. Well, let’s look at impact assimilation had on these Native American people. You are all welcome to share how you felt about the process of assimilation via the educational system. You can relate your experience to the video or elaborate on what you saw. 1. What was the impact of assimilation on the youth?2. Why did the U.S. target the youth in their quest to assimilate the natives? Toward the Stoney Mountain: TakakiMaterial: Pdf Chapter 4 Answer the following questionsDo you think Andrew Jackson was a war criminal?Do you think the US government intentionally misled the Indians? Why?What would American life be like now if the US government had different policies toward native peoples?How could the US government get away with breaking its treaties with native peoples?How did the railroad impact Native Americans?
UCLA Stolen Children Residential School Survivors and Mountain Takaki Discussion

African American Soldiers During The Civil War History Essay

online homework help I would like to begin my project with the famous quotation that will direct my research into a proper way. Captain M. M. Miller said that “I never more wish to hear the expression, ‘The niggers wont fight.’ Come with me 100 yards from where I sit and I can show you the wounds that cover the bodies of 16 as brave, loyal, and patriotic soldiers as ever drew bead on a rebel. The American Civil War (1861 – 1865) also known as the War between States was the important step on the way to American independence and prosperity that we can see today. Many people paid with their lives. Not only white people took part in the Civil War. From the very first step the new open country became a motherland and home for people of different nations, origins and colors. For this reason, there were not just white people who were fighting in the war. There were also many black people called African Americans. It was President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation that allowed African Americans to become soldiers of the Union Army. It happened in the year 1862. Before that date, many colored people wanted to become a part of the Union Army but they were prohibited form it by the federal law. This law dated back to the year 1792 and was lasting for 70 years. The same President Lincoln was afraid that if he would authorize black people recruitment, then many of Border States could start separating themselves from the Union. By the time when Civil War finished almost 180,000 African American soldiers became a part of the Union Army and fought together with white people. It is natural that during any war people are facing many problems and difficulties. All soldiers faced a lot of various problems during the American Civil War but African American soldiers were struggling additional problems that were created by racial prejudice. Racial discrimination of black American soldiers was especially prevalent also in the North of the country. The saddest fact is that all those discriminatory practices took its place also among United States Military. There were even segregates units that consisted of black soldiers. Typically those units were commanded white officers and some of black officers that were non-commissioned. For example, well known 54-th Massachusetts was commanded by Robert Shaw; 1-st South Carolina was commanded by Thomas Wentworth Higginson. Both of those people were white Americans. In the year 1863 the Confederate congress wanted to give punishment to some officers of black troops and turn black American soldiers in to slavers. This incident resulted in to the General Order 233 (issued by President Abraham Lincoln. The Order proclaimed reprisal on Confederate prisoners of war (POWs) for any kind of mistreatment of black troops. Moreover, that threat subdued the Confederates. Typically, black soldiers that became captives were treated much more sharply than the white ones. The history of the Civil War remembers the most depraved know example of abuse for black soldiers: at the Fort Pillow (T N) Confederate soldiers were shooting to death black American Union soldiers that were captured by them. Confederate General Nathan B. Forrest was present at that bloody game and he did not do anything to stop the action. However, many of black people were serving in the infantry and artillery there were a great deal of discriminatory practice. This fact cause a numbers of African American soldiers being assigned to perform non-combat and serve in duties, cooks, teamsters instead. The fact of discrimination was showing in the salary differences between white people and African Americans. Black soldiers were paid $ 10 per month. $ 3 was removed from that fee for clothing. How much were white soldiers paid? Their salary made $ 13 per month and no clothing allowance was deducted from it. Nevertheless, African American soldiers who were captured by the Confederate Army were treated much better than white people captured by the same Army. During the War many good and outstanding qualities of black people were shown; so, in June, year 1864 congress finally granted the equal payment for the United States Colored Troops. The action was made retroactive. Since that time, African American soldiers started receiving the same rations and supplies with white soldiers of the United Army. Moreover, black American military citizens started getting comparable medical care. Black American citizens served in infantry and artillery; they fulfilled all non-combat support functions that uphold the Union Army. There were many black chaplains, nurses, carpenters, guards, laborers, surgeons, spies, scouts, steamboat pilots, teamsters. They contributed a lot to the war cause too. The Unite Army had around 80 African American commissioned officers. African American women could not officially join the Union Army. Nevertheless, those women found the way to serve the Army: they worked as nurses, scouts and spies. Harriet Tubman was one of the most famous girl – scout who served for the 2-nd South Carolina Volunteers. Black American were great and brave soldiers. They served the Union Army well and took an outstanding part in many battles in site of great difficulties they were facing. I want to give a quote of Frederic Douglass’ words that he said about black people’s service to the American Nation: “Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letters U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pockets, and there is no power on earth which can deny that he has earned the right of citizenship in the United States.” [2] Black American fighters made about 10 % of the Union Army. Probably one-third of all black American soldiers that enlisted are died in battles. The whole number of those black people who died during the Civil War is around 40,000 and almost 30,000 of them were died because of different diseases and infections. It is pity but the prejudice against African Americans did not let black people to serve in combat as extensively as they wish to; but anyway they made their serve with distinction in a great number of battles. Black American infantrymen were fighting gallantly at Port Hudson (L A), Petersburg (V A), Milliken’s Bend (L A) and Nashville (T N). In July year 1863, Fort Wagner (S C) was assaulted. During those battle one-third officers of the 54-th Requirement of Massachusetts Volunteers’; also the half of their troops was lost. Those sad events were memorably dramatized in the well-known film “Glory”. By the time when The Civil War was finished future United States of America had 16 African American soldiers who were awarded the Medal of Honor for the outstanding bravery and valor they showed during the War fighting. Let us come back to the beginning of the American Civil War and see how colored troops started having place in the Union Army. Historians know that the very first methodical attempts to organize colored troops since the War of rebellion started were so called “Hunter Regiment”. Sergeant C. T. Trowbridge was the officer of the New York Volunteer Engineers (Colonel Serrell) who originally detailed the recruiting for that purpose. The detail is dated by May 7, year 1862 (special order 84 Department of the South) We can see that African American citizens became brilliant soldiers who fought for their new motherland. In spite of abusive, unjust and often even cruel narrow mindedness and discrimination they served the Union Army well. Nowadays, passing over numerous equally shaking events that mark the outstanding career of the regiment, we can review for a minute the attack on the Black River Bridge that for the heroic bravery stays incomparable in the war history. According to Major-General Camby, we see that: “The Major-General commanding the District of West Tennessee and Vicksburg, styles this affair as one of the most daring and heroic of the war”. [3] Two previous operations failed to displace the enemy and the bridge. Those missions were well organized. “That these assaults had been desperately maintained and that the bridge had been heroically defended, its blackened and bullet-torn timbers attested”. [4] This story happened at the time when the rioter General Hood was focusing his army to make an attack on the army of General Thomas at Nashville. His ways of organizing supports and reinforcements should be cut off and the rail road bridge over the Big Black should be broken at any price. There were some previous unavailing attempts to displace the enemy from its strong position at the bridge. The attempt is well know to the District Commander. Those times the bridge can be only taking because of outstanding bravery and it coasted the army a lot of lives. This case should be taken as a highest compliment to the commanders and officers of the 3-rd United States Colored Cavalry. It was the African American soldiers who were selected especially to lead the attack. The target of fighting – the bridge – was situated in a very much impassable swamp. The only accessible place was situated near the restricted rail road bed. In addition, that only place was broken at some intervals by trestle work. The soldiers of the insurgents’ infantry secured the bridge. The forces of the rebels were posted in very invulnerable positions. The army of the enemy was well protected with the strong stockade that was placed on the opposite side of the river. From those sides they were able to concentrate a mortal fire on the bridge without putting themselves in danger. Into the flaming jaws of this battle, the army sent the regiment. In November 27, year 1864, that regiment won the inviolable and outstanding fame. It was complimented in the highest terms from the War Office in Washington and also Department Commander marked the regiment as a brilliant and valuable for the Army. One officer told about it: “You who passed through that crucial test can never forget the experience. It is so indelibly impressed on our minds that looking back even from this distance, we shudder at the picture memory retains”. [5] He remembers black troops in Mississippi swamp. Black American soldiers played a really great role in that operation. The same officer saying again: “In the hard-set faces and stern commands of the officers, we read a determination that foreshadowed victory. It was understood by all that when the bugle sounded the charge, there must be no faltering, no matter what might betide” [6] . Many of historians agreed that that battle was the supreme moment for the 3-rd Cavalry. It is even right to say that it was crucial test for African American soldiers. It was the opportunity to change the attitude toward to all black soldiers and all black people in future for ever; and we can see that black soldiers used that chance in a right way. Black troops showed us the great results. They understood that much depended on the results of that battle. Much was expected of the black troops that time. We can read the remembrances and see the way they sustained and see the performance of their high reputation and gallantry. “Into the flaming crucible they plunged. The swamp resounds with the rattle of musketry and as they meet volley upon volley, their lines tremble and sway like a young forest swept by a cyclone”. [7] They did not feel doubts; they were not confused; they were not scared. Those yesterday slaves, those people who were abused by white people for many times turned to be noble enough to forget all bad treatment and injustice and start fighting for the prosperity of their new born country. They were fighting abreast with white soldiers. They were fighting not just for the United Army victory. There was one more thing they were fighting for. Black people were slavers before. They became Americans just recently and they wanted to stop all prejudice and all superstition. They wanted to show that they are also Americans and they are ready to give their lives for the country and for its citizens no matter if they black or white. We can see that African American soldiers won many things for themselves. As I was writing above, they started being paid the same salary with white soldiers; they had many different awards; they were believed to be a brave and important part of the United Army. Returning to the results of the battle for the bridge we can see that “the enemy, in terror, flees to the shelter of the swamp. The victory is complete. The Third Cavalry has written its name high up on the roll of fame. It has passed through the crucial test emerging as tempered steel”. [8] During most fights great part of the black infantry was not trained good before the battle (like for example during the cruelest and hot battle of the Civil War that was happened in Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana, between black soldiers of the Union Army and Confederate troops). In addition to minimal training black soldiers were outnumbered by enemy and also they were ill-equipped. In spite of all that suffering African Americans routed the enemy in close hand – to – hand battle. Due to their bravery, they won respect of those people who previously denied black people. It was white people from both sides of conflagration. By their numerous victories over Confederate soldiers (and especially by the battle at Milliken’s Bend) African American soldiers proved the President Abraham Lincoln that they are he would never be disappointed in the new citizens of United States of America. Afterward, a great deal of barriers to effective deployment and to the enlistment of African American recruits were removed in pursuit of the last Union victory. It is an interesting fact that among more than 180,000 African Americas (including 163 units) who served in the Union Army were not just only free black soldiers. Both free and much more African runaway slaves joined the battles. Let us in the end of the project look briefly through the most important fights of the Civil War and see the great achievements of African Americans. After July 17, year 1862 when Congress passed two acts of the law that allowed enlisting African Americans to the Union Army; official enrollment came by September of the same year. In October of the same year 1-st Kansas Colored Volunteers was formed. The bravery, firmness and fearless of the black soldiers that was showed at the battle of Island Mound (Missouri) silenced all their critics. By August, year 1863, 14 Negro Regiments were in the action and ready to take part in battles. On May 27, the same year, the black American soldiers bravely moved over open ground in front of mortal artillery fire. However the battle failed, black Americans showed their ability to withstand the heat of the attack. Later, on July 17,year 1863, the 1-st Kansas Colored were fighting with outstanding brave again at Honey Spring (Indian Territory that is presently Oklahoma). The troops of the Union Army under General James Blunt ran in to a strong force of the Confederate Army that was under General Douglas Cooper. The bloody engagement was lasting for the two hours and finally the soldiers of Douglas Cooper retreated. The 1-st Kansas Colored was holding the center of the Union Army line. The African American soldiers of that troop moved forward within fifty steps of the Confederate Army’s line and had been exchanging fire for the almost twenty minutes when the Confederate soldiers ran. Let us see what General Blunt who was impressed with the bravery of the African Americans wrote after the battle: “I never saw such fighting as was done by the Negro regiment….The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command.” [9] And the last battle I want to mention here is the most widely known attack that was fought by African America soldiers. This battle happened on Fort Wagner (South Carolina). The 54-th Massachusetts took part in this battle on July 18, year 1863. The 54-th volunteered to lead the battle on the fortified Confederate placements. The African American soldiers of the 54-th scaled the fort’s parapet. They draw back after brutal hand – to – hand battle only. The battles I mentioned here are just few battles from among the great number of battles in which black Americans took their outstanding part: Fort Pillow (April 12, 1864), New Market Heights (Virginia, September 29, 1864) etc. In January of the year 1864 General Patrick Cleburne with some other officers of the Confederate Army suggested to use black slavers as soldiers because the Union Army using African Americans. However the suggestion was refused the conception have been discussing for some time after. Finally on March 13 of the next year Confederate Congress passed General Order14. The order was outlet on March 23 of the same year. Taking into consideration above stated information we can conclude that all those people who saw African Americans in action were impressed very much. The United States of America of the present day remembers the great deed of the black soldiers and appreciates them as the respectable citizens of the country that they were protecting with the price of their lives.

Analysing Jamaican Creole Through English Language Essay

Creoles can be generally defined as genuinely mixed languages, which emerged from the blending together of two or more different languages and became the mother tongue of a new generation of speakers, acquiring “the full range of communicative functions that a native language needs” (Svartvik 2006: p.183). Most creoles developed as a result of colonialism and lived side by side with the dominant language. As a consequence, these contact varieties were reduced to lower functions and seen as “deviant” or “broken” forms of the language from which they derived. Nevertheless, since postcolonial times, there has been a shift towards the recognition and acceptance of national languages and identities, which has given rise to a new status and opportunities for those stigmatised varieties (Schneider 2007). Jamaican Creole, generally known as “Patwa”, can be considered as a good example of English-based creole which has begun to overcome stigma around its use and be recognised as a fully developed language, as well as a symbol of Jamaican identity ( Schneider 2010: p.102). Jamaican Creole has its origins in the late 17th century, when British colonised the territory (1655) and imported slaves from West Africa to work in the plantations. Those Africans soon started to outnumber white population and became the linguistic models of the new slaves, contributing with this to spread the creole (Schneider 2007). During the decades of colonialism, Jamaica´s language and culture were dominated by the British norms. In this sense, Standard English was considered as the “highest” variety, acquired through formal education and used in public and formal context (Devonish and Harry 2008: p. 256); for its part, Jamaican Creole was stigmatised as a ” bastardized distortion of English, to be avoided at all costs in public discourse” (Schneider 2010: p.102). After independence in 1962, a sense of nationalism emerged and led to new attitudes towards Jamaica´s national culture and language. However, this way for acceptance was not easy and Jamaicans had to fight against prejudices and an exonormative orientation which favoured the Standard variety without taking into account realities of language use and the Jamaicans´ identity (Schneider 2007: p.234). The figure of Louise Bennett may be used to represent the spirit of this period and can help us to understand the current linguistic situation in Jamaica. Therefore, taking one of the Bennett´s most famous poems “Back to Africa” (1966), we are going to analyse the features of Jamaican Creole, as well as the reason that led the poet to use this variety and the ideas she wanted to transmit. The poem deals with a girl, called “Miss Mattie”, who wants to go back to Africa because she thinks that her homeland is there. The poetic voice develops a group of arguments to try to persuade the girl not to emigrate to that continent and, at the same time, offers the reader a good description of Jamaica´s essence. Firstly, Bennett presents Jamaica´s population as a combination of different cultures: (…) you great great great/ Granma was African/ But Mattie, doan you great great great/ Granpa was Englishman? (…)/ You whole generation (…)/ oonoo all is Jamaican! According to Holm (2000: p.93): “Ethnic origin of the population in the 1960 census was 76% African, 15% Afro-European, 3.5% East Indian, 1% European, 1% Chinese and 3% other”. Nowadays, it is estimated that “over 90% of Jamaica´s population are of African origin” (Schneider 2008: p.610). Secondly, the poet alludes to Jamaicans´ facial features and colour, which reflect their African heritage and distinguish them from English people: oh, you view the countenance/ and between you an de Africans/is great resemblance!. Therefore, Bennett introduces in this poem the defining characteristics of the Jamaican population: their cultural melting pot and their strong African roots. Finally, the poetic voice claims that the girl does not need to look for her homeland because Jamaica is already her home: you dah go fe seek you homelan/ for a right deh so you deh!. In this sense, the poet considers that the real homeland is the place where one is born, rather than the country of ancestral origins. In the same vein, Bennett also seems to encourage Jamaicans to accept their African heritage and make the island their own home, as it is the only way to achieve self-identification: do Sure a whe you come from so you got/ somewhe fe come back to! Regarding the language, the poem is entirely written in basilectal creole. Jamaican Creole has West African languages as its substrate (Startvik 2006: p. 183); which means that languages from Akan, Kwa and Buntu families are likely to have influenced part of Jamaican basic grammar and pronunciation (Patrick 2008: p.610). In this sense, as it can be seen in the poem, Jamaican Creole shares several characteristics with the rest of Atlantic Creoles and differs in some aspects from the English grammar. Firstly, in Jamaican Creole, tense and aspect are not marked by inflectional morphology, but by context. Therefore, neither the third person singular -s nor the past form of the verb come were found in the poem: Ef the whole worl start [`starts´] fe go back/ whe dem great granpa come [`came´] from!. In the same vein, progressive aspect is only signalled by pre-verbal dah (you no know wha you dah seh?) and the base form of the verb is used to express participle function in do/Sure a whe you come [`have come´] from (…); however, non-concord was appears in the poem to express the past form of the verb to be: (…) you great great great/ Granma was Africa. Secondly, auxiliary verbs were not found in interrogative or negative sentences. Negation is marked by means of the preverbal negator no, both in negative declaratives sentences and in imperative ones. The use of no is a “distinctly creole” feature (Scheneider 2010: p.106), which is also very common in other languages, such as Spanish, and can be seen in the early stages of the grammar of second language learners, as well as in child language acquisition. Other negative structures are the use of doan in negative tags (But Mattie, doan you great great great/ Granpa was Englisman?) and the presence of double negations (But no tell nobody say); which is a feature that appears not only in other creoles, but also in other non-standard English varieties (Schneider 2010: p.106). Regarding pronouns, first and second personal forms were found: Me, you, oonoo (`unu´) and also interrogative pronouns; such as weh/whe (`where´), as well as the possessive form who-fa (`whose´). Furthermore, as Patrick (2008: p.633) claims, bare personal pronouns sometimes fulfil possessive functions; in this sense, “you” can refer to the personal pronoun you or to the possessive you: Ef a hard time you dah run from/Tek you (`your´) chance!. In the same manner, a single preposition can also cover a range of functions (Schneider 2010: p.106): Mus go back a (`to´) Englan, de balance a (`of´) you family. The use of a single form playing several roles is a characteristic that all the linguistic systems possess as a result of applying one of the most fundamental principles of the language: economy. Another feature of Jamaican Creole is the lack of grammatical suffixes (Schneider 2010: p.106). In this sense, possessive -s is avoided and, as Patrick (2008: p.633) says, possession can be expressed by juxtaposition (possessor possessed), as in great granmader fader, or by the use of the preposition a (`of´), as in de balance a you family. In the same vein, plural of nouns are generally not marked or they are expressed by means of the morpheme dem, although it was not found in this poem; rather, Louise Bennett alternates zero-marking of plural (American), very common in basilectal speech, with the plural allomorph -s (Africans), which is closed to mesolectal and acrolectal forms. Finally, it is necessary to point out the use of passive meanings in active form (as in oonoo all barn dung a Bun Grung), as well as the use of fe (`to´) as the infinitive marker and the presence of “say and seh as the complementizer (correspoding to that) to introduce a finit object clause after verbs of thinking or talking” (Schneider 2010: p. 106): Me know say dat [`I know that´] (…) Apart from the grammar, the manner in which some words were written contributes to reflect locally pronunciation features. In this sense, it was found that the diphthong /ei/, as in `take´, is monophthongized, giving rise to the form tek. In the same manner, fricatives [θ], [ð] and [Ê’] do not exist in Jamaican creole (Devonish and Harry 2008: p. 285); therefore, they are substituted by stops (Schneider 2010: p.105), as in the case of dat (`that´), fader/mader (`father´/`mother´) or den (`then´). Finally, as in other varieties, word-final or syllable-final consonant clusters are usually omitted (Schneider 2010: p.105); this can be seen in words as granpa/granma (`grandpa´/ `grandma´), an (`and´), mus (`must´) or homelan (`homeland´). Writing her poems in Jamaican Creole and talking about a national identity, Louise Bennett shows her commitment to a language and a culture that have been undervalue and marginalised throughout time. In this sense, she demonstrates that Jamaican Creole is neither a broken or deficient variety, but, as it was analysed, one “fully developed language with its own grammar and vocabulary (Svartvik 2006: p. 176) and; consequently, as able as the Standard English to express the whole range of human experiences, thoughts and emotions. Figures as Louise Bennett contributed to instil pride in Jamaican´s national language and culture; that is why, nowadays the linguistic situation in this country is totally different from past decades. Although, Standard English is expected to be the variety used in official contexts and by educated speakers (Schneider 2007), most Jamaicans speak a kind of mesolect, a variety which is “midway on the continuum between creole and the standard language” (Svartvik 2006: p.181) and they moved towards acrolectal or basilectal forms depending on several factors, such as the formality of the context or the social relationship between the interlocutors (Schneider 2007). This lack of correspondence between expectations and reality has led to more tolerant attitudes which have result in new education policies, more presence of creole in political and literary contexts, as well as in the media. Furthermore, attempts to codify the variety with the elaboration of grammars (Cassidy) and dictionaries (Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage) reflect the efforts to make Jamaican Creole an official language (Schneider 2007). However, fifty years after the political independence, some prejudices and debates about the use of Creole still remain and it is only in the power of Jamaicans to make creole a stronger language and a symbol of their identity. Modal verbs, such as mus (`must´), and the infinite marker fe (`to´) were also found in the poem, both fulfilling the same function as in Standard English.

Impacts of Environmental Pollution on the Acipenser Sinensis

Impacts of Environmental Pollution on the Acipenser Sinensis. Introduction: Acipenser Sinensis is a large-scale upstream fish that is unique to ancient China. We says Acipenser is a “living fossil” because “One of the most primitive species of fish in the world. In the Zhou Dynasty, which was more than 1,000 years before BC”(Wang Wei, 2014). The Chinese sturgeon is type of bony fish and they are living in the Yangtze River valley of China. Recent year, due to the environmental pollution, overfishing, and construction are of large-scale water conservancy projects in the Yangtze River Basin, the migration routes and breeding sites of the Chinese sturgeon have been seriously affected. These factors are resulting in a sharp decline in the population the danger of extinction of the Chinese sturgeon. In this Biodiversity Literature article I am going to introduce this endangered species and discuss the relationship between current situations and human activities for the Acipenser Sinensis. Feeding habits: The benthic species that feed the Chinese sturgeon include mollusks, crustaceans, annelids, small fish, and most of the group of benthic fauna near the Yangtze River estuary. These aquatic species and aquatic insects provided a reliable food source for the juveniles of Chinese sturgeon to grow. Although under the impact of human activities, the species of plankton and benthic organisms in the estuary area and the dilute water area of the Yangtze river have been greatly reduced. Because the benthic biomass has been reducing significantly, this area’s community structure also become fragile and biodiversity also declining. But the changing of the food chain doesn’t really affect the estuary area’s juvenile Chinese sturgeons’ food intake. And the biology researchers found that “It may be because the Chinese sturgeon juvenile fish has a wide range of recipes and is highly adaptable to the bait environment. The main bait organisms are widely distributed in the Yangtze River estuary habitat and have a high density.” (Wu Chuan, 2018) So the juveniles of Chinese sturgeon grew rapidly when they stay in the Yangtze River estuary. For another view, large amounts of food and energy accumulation is the sturgeon instinct because the Chinese sturgeon is a migratory fish that not only needs to meet its growth needs but also meets its feeding habits and the need to swim back into the sea. The importance of sensory organs in the feeding behavior of juveniles of Chinese sturgeon was studied by blocking the different sensory organs of juveniles of Chinese sturgeon. Human effect: Chinese sturgeon is a typical large river-sea spawning migratory fish. Under the natural ecological conditions, adult sturgeon enters the river from the ocean in April to June every year, and reaches the breeding area within four months. Sturgeon spawns at gezhou dam from early October to mid-november. After spawning, adult sturgeon return to the ocean along the Yangtze river. Hatchling and young fish are stranded and foraging in the shallow water area of the river from the spawning ground to the river, and migrate 2 000~3 000 km to the river migration until June ~ July of the second year, when they enter the river area and enter the ocean fattening with the flow, and return to the spawning ground to reproduce after sexual maturity. The whole process of migration from the Yangtze estuary to the inland is the living habit of sturgeon。 However, when the Gezhou Dam was established, the migratory route of the squid had to be destroyed. After the dam was built, it provided sufficient electricity for the surrounding residents and provided protection for the downstream flood prevention. However, when the people began to build the dam, they ignored the Chinese sturgeon need to return to the upper reaches of the Yangtze River to lay eggs. Now, it is very difficult for the Chinese sturgeon to cross the dam and continue swim to the upstream, also people wonder if the dam is opened, the amount of water will flood the lower plains. Scientists have found that many Chinese sturgeon have not reached sexual maturity when they arrive nearby Gezhou Dam, therefore, premature mating will cause a sharp decline in the quality and quantity of fertilized eggs, resulting in a lower hatching success rate of juvenile fish and poor development. So the influence is very serious, from 1981 to 1999, the total amount of Chinese sturgeons decreased by about 80%. Fortunately, Scientists quickly realized the seriousness of the situation. If people did not take measures to protect the Chinese sturgeon, the special species would disappear soon. After the call of the animal protection organization and the support of the government, many Chinese sturgeon research and protection centers were established along the Yangtze River. For biologists, simulated the environment of the Chinese sturgeon is not a problem, but the timing of controlling is difficult to grasp. Since 1984, scientists began to artificially breed Chinese sturgeon, and it was not a success until 2009 that the artificial reproduction of Chinese sturgeon was successfully achieved. This biological research result allows the Conservation Center to release about 6 million carp every year into the Yangtze River to supplement the number of wild Chinese carp. However, the release scale and specifications of the Chinese sturgeon still too small, and the actual effect of the spread and release of the Chinese sturgeon is not obvious. Fortunately, the Chinese sturgeon that are reared and reproduced also retains the habits of migration. In order to reduce human consumption of rare aquatic species, the government has also invested in supporting the construction of fisheries management stations along the Yangtze River in Hubei Province and Sichuan Province to help fishermen change the jobs. Chemical pollution: The fact that chemical substances pollute water quality has led to a sharp decline in the number of Chinese sturgeons is also an important topic. Since China did not pay much attention to the treatment of sewage in the early years, many communities’ domestic sewage and a small amount of industrial wastewater are now discharged into the Yangtze River. Heavy metal pollution is difficult to be filtered out in the ecosystem, so heavy metal pollution at the Yangtze River has a tendency to increase. At the same time, due to the high nutritional level of Chinese sturgeon, heavy metal pollution has become the primary threat to Chinese sturgeon. Although the concentration of toxic pollutants in the Yangtze River is very low and within acceptable limits, the enrichment reaction produced by the food chain causes heavy metals to accumulate in fish eggs, fat and liver, resulting in less metabolism of Chinese sturgeon. “Due to differences in tissue composition such as fat between male and female Chinese sturgeon, the accumulation of contaminant species may be different. Lipophilic substances such as musk ketone, xylene musk metabolite, pesticide DDT ((p, p-DDE, p, p) -DDD), etc., easy to accumulate in fish eggs, fat and liver, and accumulate significantly in female Chinese sturgeons with increasing age” () Summary; At present, there are many reports on the breeding of Chinese sturgeon and the suitability of spawning grounds. The research on the culture, discharge, and migration of juveniles of Chinese sturgeon has attracted much attention. Fish swimming behavior plays an important role in the life history of fish, such as migration, feeding, escaping from predators, the stress response to polluted environment, etc., and physiological and ecological behaviors during the swimming process of Chinese sturgeon, especially Chinese sturgeon. Aspect research is relatively scarce. Through the study of physiological and ecological behaviors during the swimming process of juvenile Chinese sturgeon, it is important to explore the adaptive mechanism of Chinese sturgeon to environmental changes. Zhang, Wei, and Kang. 2014. Measurement of Swimming Pattern and Body Length of Cultured Chinese Sturgeon by Use of Imaging Sonar. Aquaculture 434 (2014): 184-87. YUAN Xi, HUANG Ying-ping, JIANG Qing, JING Jin-jie, GAO Yong, TU Zhi-ying. 2016. ADVANCES OF STUDIES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF JUVENILE CHINESE STURGEON[J]. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 25(03): 429-438 Wu, Chuan, Lei Chen, Yong Gao, and Wei Jiang. 2018. Seaward Migration Behavior of Juvenile Second Filial Generation Chinese Sturgeon Acipenser Sinensis in the Yangtze River, China. Fisheries Science 84.1: 71-78. Web. Zhang H, Wei Q.W, Li C, Du H, and Liao W.G. 2012. Effects of High Water Level on the River Residence Period of Juvenile Chinese Sturgeon Acipenser Sinensis in the Yangtze River. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 405: 02. Web. Impacts of Environmental Pollution on the Acipenser Sinensis