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Increasing Antibiotic Yield for the Method of Dispersed Growth of Streptomyces in Liquid Culture

Increasing Antibiotic Yield for the Method of Dispersed Growth of Streptomyces in Liquid Culture. Introduction Streptomyces is a genus of filamentous bacteria. It is in the family Streptomycetaceae, they include over 500 species, which occur in both soil and water (Hodgson, 2000). A lot of the species are important in the process of decomposition of organic matter in soil, these species contribute to the earthy odour of soil and also of decaying leaves, it also contributes to the fertility of soil (Hodgson, 2000). Some of the species are notable for their production of broad-spectrum antibiotics (Blaskovich et al., 2017), chemicals that the bacteria are able to naturally produce to kill or are able to inhibit the growth certain microorganisms (Hodgson, 2000). The antibiotic producers include: S. aureofaciens (yielding chlortetracycline), S. rimosis (oxytetracycline; see tetracycline), S. griseus (streptomycin), S. erythraeus (erythromycin), and S. venezuelae (chloramphenicol) (Hodgson, 2000). Streptomyces is categorised as gram-positive aerobic bacteria and they are of a complex form (Hodgson, 2000). Streptomyces is one of the most vital group of industrial microorganisms as a producer of bioactive compounds and are the main bacteria used for the production of antibiotics (Blaskovich et al., 2017). Within liquid culture, Streptomyces grows in the form of a pellet (Vecht-Lifshitz et al., 1990). The pellets will have limitations due to mass transfer, this produces a solute gradient through the sphere (Feeney, 2015). In the centre of the pellets the cells will be nutrient limited (Hobbs et al., 1989). This growth method means that problems arise for the physiology of the microbial (Feeney, 2015). Due to cells containing Streptomyces to have a variety of physiological states. It isn’t clear whether dispersed growth happens at a phenotypic level or a genotypic level (Hobbs et al., 1989). Whichever one it is the instability genetically means that there’s a very high chance that changes will happen if there is prolonged continuous growth (Hobbs et al., 1989). Pellet formation is not exclusive to Streptomyces, its seen in liquid cultures of fungi (Vecht-Lifshitz, Magdassi and Braun, 1990). In a number of fungal species, the incorporation of high weight molecular weight polyanions into the growth media has solved the problem of pellet formation in liquid cultures (Hobbs et al., 1989. The polymeric compounds are thought to act by inducing electrostatic repulsion between the spores or the cells, this prevents initial aggregation of spores in the inocula as well as clumping of mycelia that is in the growth culture (Guthrie et al., 1998). The production of oxytetracycline increased after immobilization of Streptomyces rimosus cells in calcium alginate gels in comparison with free cells in a study by Enshasy et al. (1996). Studies have shown that the use of immobilized cells that adhered on glass wool for both rifamycins and oxytetracycline production for 5 repeated batches had been looked in to (Feeney, 2015). The aim of the paper by Enshasy et al. (1996) was to describe the optimal conditions for repeated batch production of oxytetracycline by immobilized cells, and the productivity of immobilized cells for 10 repeated batches in comparison with free cells (Enshasy et al., 1996). The use of culture systems where plant cells are immobilized on a stationary support is acknowledged as a way by which the cell environment can be manipulated, and therefore the yields of specific secondary metabolites increased the cells suspended in liquid (Dervakos and Webb, 1991). So that microbial contamination is kept to a minimum, the number of steps in the immobilised procedure have to be kept to a minimum (Doleyres and Lacroix, 2005). Using immobilised cells rather than free cells has many advantages such as enhanced biological stability, high biomass concentration, improved mass transfer, advantageous partition effects Increased product yields, increased product stability, integration with downstream processing Advantages due to cell proximity Increased reaction selectivity and versatility in the selection of the reactor (Lindsey et al., 1983). There are a number of different methods that has been used for immobilising bacteria, these include physical entrapment in polymeric networks, attachment / adsorption to a preformed carrier, membrane entrapment and microencapsulation (Doleyres and Lacroix, 2005). Immobilisation offer a number of advantages for biomass and metabolite production (Leenen et al., 1996) this is compared to free-cell systems which include high cell density, reuse of biocatalysts, improved resistance to contamination and bacteriophage attack, enhancement of plasmid stability, prevention from washing-out during continuous cultures, and physical and chemical protection of cells (Lindsey et al., 1983). Immobilised cells have the advantage of being alive but not necessarily replicating. This is the perfect state for antibiotic producing cells (Leenen et al., 1996). living, non-reproducing cells, retained by a membrane or fixed to a carrier, are used (Wandrey, 1996). Biotechnological processes based on immobilized whole cells have developed quickly over the last few decades, mainly using viable, metabolically active microorganisms (Chaumeil, 2015). Natural immobilized cell (IC) structures, ie, biofilms, are being increasingly investigated at the cellular level owing to their importance for human health and various areas of industrial and environmental relevance (Junter and Jouenne, 2017). A number of immobilisation techniques have been described over the last 40 years, in mainly in books and journals (Kandimalla, 2008). Immobilising cell systems can be separated into either artificial or naturally occurring (Jauron and Granstrom, 1989). In the artificial category, microbial/eukaryotic cells will be artificially entrapped inside of or attached to numerous matrices or supports where they are kept in or not kept in a viable state, this depend on the amount of harmfulness of the immobilisation procedure itself (Jauron and Granstrom, 1989). Polysaccharide gel matrices, such as Ca-alginate hydrogels, are one of the most regularly used materials for harmless cell entrapment (Kandimalla, 2008). Cell attachment to an organic or inorganic substratum may be attained by forming covalent bonds between cells and the support using cross-linking agents (Junter and Jouenne, 2017). This immobilisation method is commonly incompatible with cell viability. The unstructured adsorption of the microbial cells to the different forms of carrier gives natural immobilised cell systems in which cells are attached to their support by non-covalent bonds, generally not specific interactions for example electrostatic interactions (Junter and Jouenne, 2017). In appropriate environmental conditions, this initial adsorption step may be followed by colonisation of the support, leading to the formation of a biofilm in which microorganisms are entrapped within a matrix of extracellular polymers secreted by themselves (Junter and Jouenne, 2017). Biofilms are securely attached to their substratum rather than purely adsorbed cells. therefore, they offer more practical as an immobilised cell system. Surface colonisation to procedure biofilms is a universal bacterial strategy for survival, and undesirable biofilms may occur on inert or living supports that may be in natural or in biological surroundings and also in industrial systems (Junter and Jouenne, 2017). Aim of the Project This research will build on the methods discussed in the paper written by Hobbs et al. (1989). The aim will be to use dispersed growth of Streptomyces in a liquid culture but will also aim to increase the antibiotic yield from this research by using immobilised cells. Coke (a form of coal) will be used to immobilise the cells, and will be used and looked at to determine whether the once the cells were immobilised will they grow to gain a higher yield of antibiotics. The cells will be immobilised but they will not be dead, they will not necessarily be able to replicate in this state which is the perfect state and condition for the antibiotic producing cells. Objectives of the Project Determine if antibiotic yield can be increased. Optimise previous method. Apply method of increasing antibiotic yield. Determine whether immobilisation will increase the yield of antibiotic. Method Methods taken from paper written by Hobbs et al. (1989) this method will be built upon by using the principle of immobilising the cells with the use of coke to determine whether or not antibiotic yields will be improved and increase (Lebeau, 1996). Whilst using the method from the study by Hobbs et al. (1989) before growth conditions are set the carrier (coke) will be prepared and then the Streptomyces will be fixed to the carrier, then the method will continue to be carried out (El-Enshasy et al., 1996).*** . Work plan Below is a table of a proposed schedule and work plan for the research. It is imperative that all the work is carried out carefully and that there is plenty of time for all the work to be carried out to the best standard. Resources Equipment and/or Resources Costing (approximate number) Laboratory equipment £10,000 Consumables £4,000 Computer hardware and software £2,000 Travelling expenses £1,000 Laboratory Technician x2 £15,000 Biologist x2 £30,000 Total £62,000 Impact statement The use of polyanions and immobilised cells will be used to reduce the problems associated with the growth in pellet form will be studied and the research will increase the biomass yield and also it will give an increased yield of actinorhodin which is an antibiotic that is blue pigmented and is a secondary metabolite. This research will look to increase the yield of the antibiotic (actinorhodin/OD unit). Increasing the antibiotic yield using dispersed growth of Streptomyces in a liquid culture will mean that as well as the benefits of dispersed growth of Streptomyces in a liquid culture there will also be more antibiotics produces whereas in the initial method there was no increase in antibiotic yield. This will also open up the capability of immobilised cells and may be beneficial in the scientific field as a method that can be applied to similar microorganisms. An increase in the understanding of Streptomyces, a microorganism group, will be a benefit of this study by using a method of growing it that allows to understand the physiology of the cell and to look at how immobilised cells optimise this and allow further understanding of how the antibiotic grows and why the yield would increase when cells were immobilised. References AMR (2016). THE REVIEW ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE. [online] HM Government. Available at: paper_with cover.pdf. (AMR, 2016) Blaskovich, M., Butler, M. and Cooper, M. (2017). Polishing the tarnished silver bullet: the quest for new antibiotics. Essays In Biochemistry, 61(1), pp.103-114.(Blaskovich et al., 2017) Chaumeil, M., Najac, C. and Ronen, S. (2015). Studies of Metabolism Using 13C MRS of Hyperpolarized Probes. Methods in Enzymology, pp.1-71. (Chaumeil, 2015) Dervakos, G. and Webb, C. (1991). On the merits of viable-cell immobilisation. Biotechnology Advances, 9(4), pp.559-612. (Dervakos and Webb, 1991) Doleyres, Y. and Lacroix, C. (2005). Technologies with free and immobilised cells for probiotic bifidobacteria production and protection. International Dairy Journal, 15(10), pp.973-988. (Doleyres and Lacroix, 2005) El-Enshasy, H., Farid, M. and El-Diwany, A. (1996). Oxytetracycline production by free and immobilized cells of Streptomyces rimosus in batch and repeated batch cultures. Immobilized Cells – Basics and Applications, Proceedings of an International Symposium organized under auspices of The Working Party on Applied Biocatalysis of the European Federation of Biotechnology Noordwijkerhout, pp.437-443.(El-Enshasy et al., 1996) Feeney, M. (2015). How does one culture streptomyces?. [online] Quora. Available at: [Accessed 3 Dec. 2018]. (Feeney, 2015) Guthrie, E., Flaxman, C., White, J., Hodgson, D., Bibb, M. and Chater, K. (1998). A response-regulator-like activator of antibiotic synthesis from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) with an amino-terminal domain that lacks a phosphorylation pocket. Microbiology, 144(3), pp.727-738.(Guthrie et al., 1998) Hobbs, G., Frazer, C., Gardner, D., Cullum, J. and Oliver, S. (1989). Dispersed growth of Streptomyces in liquid culture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31(3). (Hobbs et al., 1989) Hodgson, D. (2000). Primary metabolism and its control in streptomycetes: A most unusual group of bacteria. Advances in Microbial Physiology, pp.47-238.(Hodgson, 2000) Jaurin, B. and Granstrom, M. (1989). ?-Glucosidase genes of naturally occurring and cellulolytic Streptomyces species: characterization of two such genes in Streptomyces lividans. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30(5).(Jauron and Granstrom, 1989) Junter, G. and Jouenne, T. (2017). Immobilized Viable Cell Biocatalysts: A Paradoxical Development ☆. Reference Module in Life Sciences. (Junter and Jouenne, 2017) Kandimalla, V., Tripathi, V. and Ju, H. (2008). Biosensors based on immobilization of biomolecules in sol-gel matrices. Electrochemical Sensors, Biosensors and their Biomedical Applications, pp.503-529. (Kandimalla, 2008) Lebeau, T., Jouenne, T., Mignot, L. and Junter, G. (1996). Double-chambered bioreactors based on plane immobilized-cell membrane structures. Immobilized Cells – Basics and Applications, Proceedings of an International Symposium organized under auspices of The Working Party on Applied Biocatalysis of the European Federation of Biotechnology Noordwijkerhout, pp.532-537.(Lebeau, 1996) Leenen, E., Dos Santos, V., Tramper, J. and Wijffels, R. (1996). Characteristics and selection criteria of support materials for immobilization of nitrifying bacteria. Immobilized Cells – Basics and Applications, Proceedings of an International Symposium organized under auspices of The Working Party on Applied Biocatalysis of the European Federation of Biotechnology Noordwijkerhout, pp.205-212.(Leenen et al., 1996) Lindsey, K., Yeoman, M., Black, G. and Mavituna, F. (1983). A novel method for the immobilisation and culture of plant cells. FEBS Letters, 155(1), pp.143-149. (Lindsey et al., 1983) Vecht-Lifshitz, S., Magdassi, S. and Braun, S. (1990). Pellet formation and cellular aggregation inStreptomyces tendae. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 35(9), pp.890-896.(Vecht-Lifshitz et al., 1990) Wandrey, C. (1996). Why immobilize?. Immobilized Cells – Basics and Applications, Proceedings of an International Symposium organized under auspices of The Working Party on Applied Biocatalysis of the European Federation of Biotechnology Noordwijkerhout, pp.3-16. (Wandrey, 1996) Increasing Antibiotic Yield for the Method of Dispersed Growth of Streptomyces in Liquid Culture
CHECK POINT 4, draft and the final draft.

Im expecting three documents the first one is the check point #4 in 24hrs!the draft (due in 5days) is basically an incomplete version of the final draft (due 10days)Checkpoint #4 – Theory/Method ComponentFor this checkpoint, you should choose one of the theoretical approaches you have read about for analyzing rhetoric in the Foss book. Additionally, you should read at least ONE additional scholarly article about this method of analysis. In an approximately 2-3 page paper, you should summarize the theory, highlighting the key theoretical assumptions and explain how you use them as a method of analysis. Your summary should include references to both the course text AND this article. Then you should explain how you are going to use this method to analyze your text. You SHOULD NOT include your actual analysis here. Please see the following sample generic criticism method section (attached) to guide your writing.HINT: Check the end of your chapter for potential articles.For your paper, you should:a) summarize the key components of the theory/method (properly citing all sources), ANDb) discuss how you plan to (or already have) analyzed your text for your final project (you may want to draw on Checkpoint #1 for this part of the assignment).PreviousNext=======================================================Final paperFollowing the format outlined in the Final Paper Assignment (attached), write the first draft of your final paper using what you have written in Checkpoints 1-4. You should also consult the sample analysis sections and/or sample final papers I have posted on Canvas for you (I have other examples you can request as needed):Sample Final Paper – Authenticity of Friday Night Lights.docx (attached)Sample Ideological (Feminist) Criticism – Alice in Wonderland.docx (attached)For this paper, you will need to:a) Revise your analysis to report the “results of your analysis” according to the instructions provided in the Final Paper Assignment.b) Revise checkpoints according to the feedback you received from me previously.c) Construct a complete introduction.d) Add a conclusion that includes all the required elements.e) Check spelling, grammar, citations, and typing to make sure that it is as close to a final draft as possible. There is no page minimum or maximum for this assignment. To earn full credit, you must have all five sections of your paper, even if they are not in final draft form. Please keep in mind that the closer your paper is to final draft form, the more useful my feedback will be to you.====================================================I have also attached my own previous check point and based on them you will do the the final paper and the check point 4(zipped file)please note that I don’t need the draft now but I need the check point in 24 hrs
CHECK POINT 4, draft and the final draft

Assessment 2 Patient care plan.

Complete an interactive simulation in which you will interview a patient, family members, and experienced health care workers to gather information to support a care coordination strategy and develop a care plan for the patient.Note: Each assessment in this course builds on your work in the preceding assessment; therefore, complete the assessments in the order in which they are presented.Show LessWhether designing care plans directed by patients’ needs and preferences, educating patients and their families at discharge, or doing their best to facilitate continuity of care for patients across settings and among providers, registered nurses use accredited health care standards to realize coordinated care. This assessment provides an opportunity for you to explore health care standards with respect to the quality of care, investigate opportunities and challenges in care coordination, and develop a proactive, patient-centered care plan.By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
Competency 1: Determine the influence of current health care legislation, policy, and research on evidence-based practice in assessment by care coordinators.

Assess a patient’s condition from a coordinated-care perspective.
Develop nursing diagnoses that align with patient assessment data.

Competency 3: Determine appropriate care coordination performance measures for driving high-quality patient outcomes, based on current accrediting standards and benchmarks.

Evaluate care coordination outcomes.

Competency 4: Apply relevant evidence-based practices that reflect a shift toward a broader population health focus on patient outcomes.

Determine appropriate nursing or collaborative interventions.
Explain why a particular nursing intervention is indicated or therapeutic.

Competency 5: Communicate effectively with diverse audiences, in an appropriate form and style, consistent with applicable organizational, professional, and scholarly standards.

Write clearly and concisely, using correct grammar and mechanics.
Support main points, claims, and conclusions with credible evidence, correctly formatting citations and references using APA style.Assessment Instructions
Note: Complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.PreparationTo prepare for this assessment, complete the Vila Health: Care Coordination Scenario 1 simulation (linked in the Required Resources) to obtain the information you will need to:
Develop a care coordination strategy for Mrs. Snyder and her family.
Apply current accrediting standards and benchmarks as you determine the best way to develop this strategy.
Develop a patient care plan.
Note: Remember that you can submit all—or a portion of—your draft to Smarthinking for feedback before you submit the final version for this assessment. If you plan on using this free service, be mindful of the turnaround time of 24–48 hours for receiving feedback.RequirementsDevelop a proactive, patient-centered care plan for the patient, using the information gained from your simulated interviews. Focus on care coordination and national care coordination initiatives.Care Plan FormatUse the Patient Care Plan Template linked in the Required Resources.Supporting EvidenceCite 3–5 sources of scholarly or professional evidence to support your plan.Developing the Care PlanNote: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. Be sure that your care plan addresses each point, at a minimum. Read the Patient Care Plan Scoring Guide to better understand how each criterion will be assessed.
Assess the patient’s condition from a coordinated-care perspective.

Consider the full scope of the patient’s needs.
Include 3–5 pieces of data (subjective, objective, or a combination) that led to a nursing diagnosis.

Develop nursing diagnoses that align with the patient assessment data.

Write two goal statements for each diagnosis.
Ensure goals are patient- and family-focused, measurable, attainable, reasonable, and time-specific.
Consider the psychosociocultural aspect of care.

Determine appropriate nursing or collaborative interventions.

List at least three nursing or collaborative interventions.
Provide the rationale for each goal or outcome.

Explain why each intervention is indicated or therapeutic.

Cite applicable references that support each intervention.

Evaluate care coordination outcomes.

Indicate if the goals were met. If they were not met, explain why.
Describe how you would revise the plan of care based on the patient’s response to the current plan.

Write clearly and concisely, using correct grammar and mechanics.
Express your main points and conclusions coherently.
Proofread your writing to minimize errors that could distract readers and make it difficult to focus on the substance of your plan.
Support main points, claims, and conclusions with credible evidence, correctly formatting citations and references using APA style.
Portfolio Prompt: You may choose to save your patient care plan to your ePortfolio.Name: Date: Patient Identifier: Patient Medical Diagnosis: Nursing Diagnosis Assessment Data Goals and Outcome Nursing Interventions Rationale Outcome Evaluation and Re-Planning Include 3–5 subjective and/or objective pieces of data that lead to the nursing diagnosis. Two statements are required for each nursing diagnosis. Must be patient- and/or family-focused, measurable, time-specific, and reasonable. List at least three nursing or collaborative interventions with rationale for each goal and outcome. Provide a reason why an intervention is indicated or therapeutic; provide references. Were the goals met? How would you revise the plan of care according the patient’s response to the current plan of care?
Assessment 2 Patient care plan

Decreasing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Decreasing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Implementing a Two-Nurse Insertion Protocol Abstract Background: Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a preventable complication afflicting many patients within the healthcare system. Adhering to evidence-based recommendations of sterile urinary catheter insertion practices can minimize the risk of CAUTIs. Significance: CAUTIs cause unnecessary patient harm and significant financial losses for healthcare institutions. This research proposal has the potential to enhance the culture of safety and accountability in nursing practice through the creation of a new gold standard of care. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate innovate methods to promote adherence to evidence-based guidelines that suggest sterile technique for insertion. The research question under investigation is: In hospitalized patients that require a urinary catheter, what effect does the implementation of two-nurse urinary catheter insertion protocol, in comparison to the standard one-nurse insertion protocol, have on decreased catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Theoretical Framework: The American Association of Critical Care Nurse’s synergy model for patient care suggests that patient outcomes are influenced by nursing practices and will serve as the conceptual guide for this research project. Keywords: catheter-associated urinary tract infection; sterile; evidence-based protocols; two-nurse insertion protocol Decreasing Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Implementing a Two-Nurse Insertion Protocol Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are responsible for nearly half of all healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) in the United States (Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC), 2017). The consequences of CAUTIs are numerous and include increased patient mortality and morbidity and significant financial losses for healthcare institutions (Galiczewski

BUS 3061 Capella University Important Steps in the Accounting Cycle Questions

write my term paper BUS 3061 Capella University Important Steps in the Accounting Cycle Questions.

I’m working on a accounting question and need an explanation to help me study.

Assessment 3 Instructions: Completing the Accounting CycleAnswer questions related to the accounting cycle.IntroductionA company may be profitable but cash poor, or generating millions of dollars in revenue but still not profitable. How the business transactions are reported in books is very important for regulators as well as investors. Accurate reporting of business transactions is essential for transparency.This course has introduced the accounting process of analyzing, classifying, and summarizing business transactions into accounts. Now, you begin to examine things in more detail, including:The difference between the cash basis and accrual basis of accounting.The classes and types of adjusting entries (prepared at the end of an accounting time frame).Use of a worksheet to summarize the work completed during the accounting period.The preparation of an organization’s closing entries.How to report financial data using a classified balance sheet.OverviewThis assessment focuses on the need for adjusting entries, including:The difference between the cash and accrual bases of accounting.The concept of adjusting entries and how they are prepared.How to classify adjusting entries.The concept of asset depreciation and its effect on book values.PreparationComplete the Assessment 3 Template [DOCX].Review all suggested readings.Note: Accuracy in accounting is paramount so take your time and double-check your work for errors or omissions.InstructionsAnswer questions correctly. When you are satisfied with your responses, save and submit your template in the courseroom.Step 1: Compare and contrast how revenues and expenses are reported under the cash basis of accounting and the accrual basis of accounting.Step 2: Explain why adjusting entries are necessary at the end of an accounting period.Step 3: Identify examples of an adjusting journal entry for various types of transactions.Step 4: Explain accumulated depreciation.Step 5: Identify which account balances are extended to the Income Statement columns, the Statement of Retained Earnings columns, and the Balance Sheet columns.Step 6: Determine the current ratio between assets and liabilities for a given year.Step 7: List the accounting cycle steps in proper order.Competencies MeasuredBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:Competency 1: Define accounting terminology and its application to accounting principles.Compare and contrast how revenues and expenses are reported under the cash basis of accounting and the accrual basis of accounting.Explain accumulated depreciation.List the accounting cycle steps in proper order.Competency 2: Apply accounting cycle strategies to manage business financial events.Explain why adjusting entries are necessary at the end of an accounting period.Identify examples of an adjusting journal entry for various types of transactions.Identify which account balances are extended to the Income Statement columns, the Statement of Retained Earnings columns, and the Balance Sheet columns.Determine the current ratio between assets and liabilities for a given year.Competency 4: Convey purpose, in an appropriate tone and style, incorporating supporting evidence and adhering to organizational, professional, and scholarly writing standards.Convey clear meaning through appropriate word choice and usage.
BUS 3061 Capella University Important Steps in the Accounting Cycle Questions

JUS 337 Northern Arizona University Contemporary Justice Issues Discussion

JUS 337 Northern Arizona University Contemporary Justice Issues Discussion.

Discuss the issues listed below:Was Ted Foss wrong to make the decision he did as discussed in the TED Talk video?When parents are arrested, does our society owe protections to their children?When it comes to sex offenders adjudicated as guilty, which becomes the more important issues? Their rights as individuals that have served their time, or the rights to security and safety of the American society? Indeed, do we even need to fear sex offenders?Does Megan’s Law, the Lyncher Act and the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act still need to exist? I mean, aren’t we overdoing it? (Textbook Chapter 11)…Post Answers: For full credit you must reference the course readings (when applicable) and offer your personal opinions (i.e., apply the material by using examples). Cite your sources. For the discussion board, you do not have to write in a “formal” manner, but you do need to use proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. This ensures your classmates can discern the content of your posting.
JUS 337 Northern Arizona University Contemporary Justice Issues Discussion

Challenges ASEAN Will Face In Establishing A Community

ASEAN nations have signed the Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN community by 2015 on the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu. This ASEAN community comprises of 3 main pillars, the ASEAN economic community, ASEAN political security community and ASEAN socio-cultural community. It is aimed at being a concert of Southeast Asian nations, displaying the outward looking nations that are living in peace, stability and prosperity as a whole region which is bonded strongly together in a dynamic and wide development and in a community of caring societies. However, it seems that due to the many differences between the countries, there would be many challenges in fulfilling its 2015 vision of establishing an ASEAN community by 2015. Background of ASEAN ASEAN was established on 8th of August 1967 when the Bangkok declaration was signed by Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia , Singapore and Indonesia. Brunei Darussalam joined the ASEAN community on January 1984 and Myanmar joined in 1997. Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia became members in 1995, 1997 and 2004 respectively. ASEAN was established to strengthen self-reliance and regional cohesion, while emphasizing social, cultural and economic cooperation and development。Another reason why ASEAN was formed was because back then, countries like China were getting too powerful and the only way the smaller countries could prosper was to group together. Thus, ASEAN was established. Now the main purpose of ASEAN is to help its members increase its economic growth and social development, and to establish peace between the ASEAN countries. Map of ASEAN countries Overview of challenges In this project we will study the ASEAN community and their commitment towards their goals, the problems they might face, and find the possible impact of it. The security and religious issues continue to be a barrier for ASEAN, with the many ethno-religious movements that will likely affect the coherence and stability within a nation and possibly ASEAN as a whole. The issue of more transparent boundaries that will be established will also cause the security to be less tight and will affect the peace of all. The different rate of economic development between the ASEAN nations is a huge challenge for ASEAN members in establishing a stable ASEAN economic community as the economy is a very important area and it will affect everyone in the ASEAN community. The differences in political systems of ASEAN members also poses a challenge as it would be difficult for so many different countries to work together cohesively with the nations operating differently. Challenge 1:Religious and security issues One of ASEAN’s greatest challenges in creating an ASEAN community is the security issues caused by ethno-religious movements and the more transparent boundaries that might greatly disrupt the peaceful coexistence that the ASEAN nations have tried established with one another. The ASEAN community will create more transparent boundaries so that it is more accessible for the people but that will also lead into a security that is not that tight and making it more unsafe for the people. The ASEAN countries remain vulnerable to threats from ethno-religious movements of the people who are hungry for self-governance. Ethno-religious movements have been a huge block for ASEAN in establishing a fully fledged ASEAN Community as there would be issues arising regarding the coherence of the country or the entire region. Southeast Asia has housed Islamic militant groups for the past few decades. After the World War II, Southeast Asian countries mostly became independent as the colonial powers that once ruled then departed. The countries were governed by undemocratic and brutal governments and affected the Muslim identities and values. This stirred up a sense of antagonism and animosity towards their various central governments, causing a great impact on the stability and security of ASEAN as a whole. Take for example, the Abu Sayyaf and Moro Islamic Liberation Front, both guerrilla organisations in the Philippines, are using political violence in attempt to pursue an autonomous Islamic state in Mindanao in the midst of the mostly Christian country and is said to have links to Malaysian and Indonesian jihadist forces. They have kidnapped foreign tourists from Malaysia, bombed a Philippines Airlines plane, assassinated and kidnapped priests and businessmen. Abu Sayyaf is said to have received arms and munitions from Afghanistan. It aims to evict Christians. As stated in the 2003 Declaration of Asean Concord II, Asean “shall urgently and effectively address the challenge of translating Asean cultural diversities and different economic levels into equitable development opportunity and prosperity, in an environment of solidarity, regional resilience and harmony.” Also, as ASEAN builds up its ASEAN Community, it also makes boundaries between the countries more transparent and this will result in a simpler way for terrorists groups to gather more members with the same beliefs as there is a larger number of people and the influence coming from so many areas will cause one to be daring enough to stand up for what they think that it is unfair to them as there are others backing them. This also makes it easier for terrorist’s movements to move about within the region as there is a widespread of members throughout the whole ASEAN and resources will be easier to get and access resources within the region. Even though ASEAN recognises that the region is divided into many ethno-cultural groups, efforts can only be taken to try to preserve the diversity in cultural heritage and to promote regional identity and it will be very challenging for ASEAN to overcome such issues to achieve a harmonious community. Along with the issue of more transparent borders, ASEAN can try their best to understand and accommodate the different religions and the reasons being such movement, however, ASEAN must also remember that even though the boundaries are more transparent, security must always remain tight and must always be alert and looking out for terrorist threats that will be constantly heading towards every country. Challenge 2: Differences in each countries development rates Different rates of development between ASEAN countries makes it difficult for all of them to work together cohesively on the large scale. Many ASEAN countries have widely different economic states, making fulfilling the goal of establishing the ASEAN community by 2015 rather challenging. GDP per capita of ASEAN countries as of 2005 in USD One example of counties with vastly and Cambodia. Although Cambodia is more than 250 times the size of Singapore and has 30 times the population, Singapore has a much better economy. In Cambodia, as of 2004, the percentage of the population below poverty line is a whopping 31%, while comparatively, in Singapore, the amount of citizens below poverty line is almost 0%. The currency and GDP per capita of Singapore is also much higher than that of Cambodia, at 1.4 per USD and $50,300 compared to 4221 per USD and $1,900 respectively. Singapore also has a lot of well developed infrastructure while Cambodia has barely any infrastructure in the rural areas. With the huge differences in these statistics, it is easy to tell that the Singapore economy is doing much better than the Cambodia economy. Another pair of countries with different development rates is Cambodia and Thailand, these two countries are right next to each other and both are relatively unstable. Both countries have gone through many economic and political troubles, but the economic situation in Thailand has generally been better than that in Cambodia, and the GDP of Thailand has constantly remained above that of Cambodia. In the countryside, Cambodia does not really have even the more basic infrastructure and the majority of Cambodia’s population is in fact younger than 21 years old and many of these youths lack the skill and education required to help push forward Cambodia’s economy. While on the other hand, Thailand has relatively well developed infrastructure and the countries people generally better educated. The GDP per capita of Thailand and Cambodia as of 2009 was $8,100 and $1,900 respectively. Although Thailand has slightly over four times the population of Cambodia, it has around twenty times the GDP. The death rate and infant mortality rate is also higher in Cambodia, and the life expectancy in Thailand is 73 years while in Cambodia it is 62 years. All these information shows that Thailand is a more economically developed country than Cambodia. All these information shows that the countries in ASEAN all have vastly different economic development rates, this would pose a problem when attempting to fulfil the 2015 vision. Statistics on ASEAN countries Challenge 3: differences in each countries political system Differences in government systems between ASEAN countries make it rather difficult for the countries to cooperate, as actions taken by different countries to tackle a similar issue may vary and there might be conflicts between the countries. The type of government greatly affects the domestic stability of a country and many other aspects, such as the economy, security and welfare of the citizens. Differences in government system in ASEAN can be seen through the case study of Myanmar and Thailand. Myanmar has a military government, in which military officers took up the majority of the ministries and cabinet posts which control the country. Though major political parties, such as the National League for Democracy and the Shan Nationalities league for Democracy and parties representing other ethnic groups are present in the country, their activities are greatly suppressed and controlled by the military government. Little room is given for the political organisations while many parties and underground student organisations are prohibited by the military. Despite pressure from ASEAN nations to release all the political prisoners and the request for greater progress towards democracy and a harmonious country, human rights in Myanmar remained poor. ASEAN nations had failed to come to an agreement on Myanmar’s lack of political reform during the 12th ASEAN summit, as each country has their own opinions and concerns. While some countries do not wish to interfere with Myanmar’s internal issues, others regard democracy and human rights issues as a possible obstacle for ASEAN to be integrated in terms of politics, which is part of the 2015 vision. Furthermore, Myanmar ranks 178 positions out of 180 countries for the level of corruption in the country, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. This also affects the military’s efficiency and their practice of good governance in the country. On the other hand, Thailand is under a constitutional monarchy government, led by a king, a Prime Minister and has a parliamentary democratic system with multiple political parties. In Thailand,their King is more of a symbol of national identity and unity rather than having direct power under Thailand’s constitution. Thailand was similar to Myanmar in the way that Thailand was under the rule of a succession of military leaders with relatively weak democratic system. In the recent years, Thailand’s political landscape has been constantly plagued with issues such as persisting and significant difference between the urban and rural political orientation and focus, and democratically elected leaders abusing their power and their conflict of interest. Currently, the ongoing political unrest in Thailand began due to a coup d’état staged by the military in 2006 that overthrown Thaksin, the former Prime Minister, for corruption and abuse of power. Thaksin’ supporters, who are mostly working class constituency and people from poor rural areas, accuse Thailand’s urban elites for coordinating the coup. These poorer citizens liked his ideas of more affordable medical care and debt relief, which can greatly improve their living standard. This is one of the key reasons for the overwhelming support from the “red-shirt” protestors even when he was on self-imposed exile. Not only was Thailand’s national economy crippled by its political instability. Thaksin’s supporters had disrupted the 14th ASEAN summit that was held in Thailand last year, and brought embarrassment to the ASEAN community. All of these issues makes it difficult for the ASEAN countries to work together, and much things need to be done to dampen these problems. Conclusion ASEAN countries face quite a number of challenges towards achieving their goal of setting up an ASEAN community as there are always some problems in cooperation faced by the member countries. Security issues, political and government issues make it hard for countries to cooperate together to form the community. These problems faced will not allow the member countries to make decisions and agree with one another easily. To fulfil its dream of the 2015 ASEAN community, ASEAN has to put in much effort into rectifying these problems, even though much has already been done towards establishing the ASEAN community.

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