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“Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” by Harriet Jacobs Essay (Critical Writing)

“Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” by Harriet Jacobs Essay (Critical Writing). Introduction In her narrative “Incidents in the life of a Slave Girl,” Harriet Jacobs attempts to describe the role of ‘the home’ in the lives of black slaves, their children and white masters in the American South. While it is evident that the major themes are slavery, gender inequality, and domesticity, it is imperative to determine the roles that a home has in the narrative, especially because it acts as a symbol for other themes. Essentially, one of the most powerful ways in which the author documents her experience as a slave is through a comprehensive description of “a home” as space where relations to slavery are shaped. Nevertheless, an in-depth analysis of the narrative shows that the home is also the position at which these power relations can be challenged or manipulated positively. Arguably, the home is a vital space in which slavery takes place under the influence of race and gender, yet it is the most important space where slaves can fight for their rights. Jacobs’ Description of the Home The symbol of the home is used to describe a place or space that facilitates slavery through negative perceptions of gender and race. In Jacobs’ narrative, Dr. Flint’s home portrays a good example of a home, where black people are seen as objects or possessions of the master. Also, black women are perceived as sexual objects that can be used for sexual pleasure at the will of their owners (Jacobs 23). The relationships between Flint and his slaves, especially black women, are the example of the power relations of enslavement. To Dr. Flint, black women are the asset that he can sell or buy when he wishes. For instance, when living in their home, female slaves must face hard moments because they are forced to satisfy their sexual desires. According to the author, Dr. Flint has about 12 children with his black slaves (Jacobs 124). Also, Dr. Flint deprives male slaves the freedom and right to enter into relationships with the females of their choice. Because of his jealousy, Dr. Flint is ready to sell any black male suspected in forming an intimate relationship with the black women. How Does Race and Gender Shape Relations in ‘The Home’? Within the two types of the home described above, it is evident that race and gender are the important themes that emerge in the narrative. Dr. Flint’s home is an example of the common social system in the American South during American slavery. First, the author describes racial differences between whites and blacks in their homes and provides an example of how being black subjected African Americans to slavery. The narrative attempts to describe blacks as being born ‘naturally slaves’ for the whites. To society, being black subjects a person to slavery and poverty. In Dr. Flint’s home, the power to own and control subjects determine the relationships between individuals. For instance, Dr. Flint believes that his power over black slaves gives him the right to sleep with any black woman at his farm. He believes that it is his right to demand respect from black people, which includes free sexual rights. For example, he demands sex from Linda, even though she is only 15 years and immature. On the other hand, the home also provides some relief or solutions to the problems facing the black people and their women. For instance, it appears that the whites have mutual respect and fear for each other, especially in cases where two white people have assets or important positions in society. This gives relief to slaves because a master cannot force them to take orders if they are in a relationship with another master. For instance, Linda obtains some freedom from the advances and influence of Dr. Flint when she enters into a sexual relationship with Mr. Sands. To her, Mr. Sands’ home is a space in which she can challenge the evils of slavery, especially because she uses it as a protective shield from the acts of such white masters as Dr. Flint. Here, she is assured of her children’s safety because the other whites respect Mr. Sands’ home, which makes the enslavement of her children impossible. In such a way, Linda provides her children with support and safety from the enslavement by Dr. Flint. It is also worth noting that Mr. Sands’ home protects Linda from being arrested and jailed for escaping from Dr. Flint’s farm. Mr. Sands’ home is an example of the white people’s homes that were sometimes a haven for some slaves. Such homes made it possible for the black people to manipulate, challenge, and context the power relations of enslavement. Conclusion In addition to these themes, it is worth noting that the home is a symbol of domesticity. In the 18th century, most American women dreamt of a good home. Both black and white women desired to have a family and a good house, where they can raise their children and obtain freedom from the evils of society. The desire for a comfortable and safe home is seen throughout the narrative. Linda desires to have a good husband, home, and raise children. Like other women in the society, Linda desired to lead a domestic life. However, domesticity, or being confined to the house because one is a woman, is considered as a paradise and a prison. Domesticity provides black women, especially those married or under the care of white males, with freedom and safety from enslavement. On the other hand, these homes are like prisons because women are not allowed to leave or enjoy the freedom of movement. An attempt to leave their homes is likely to lead them into slavery and sexual harassment. The issue of domesticity as a paradise and prison is also portrayed, in a similar way, in other feminist books in America. For instance, in her article, Angela Davis argues that the home was a prison for enslaved women because they were supposed to perform all domestic chores of cooking, child keeping and to care for their husbands, yet they were also expected to work as slaves in the farms alongside their male counterparts (Davis 84). Similarly, for those in relationship with white males, the home turned to be a space for enjoying their rights and manipulating their fate, yet such changes were minimal. Similarly, Jennifer Morgan argues that the increase in the number of African women in Americas led to women being subjected to harsh labor in the farms, yet they were supposed to give birth, rear children, take care of their homes and perform all other duties of a wife (Morgan 144). Domesticity was combined with farm labor, which dominated the relations of power within the context of racial and gender-based segregation in the South. Works Cited Davis, Angela. “Reflections on the black woman’s role in the community of slaves”. Massachusetts Review 13.1/2 (1972), 81-100. Print Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the life of a slave girl. New York, NY: Penguin books, 2005. Print. Morgan, Jeniffer L. Laboring women: Reproduction and gender in the new world slavery. Pennsylvania, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Print. “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” by Harriet Jacobs Essay (Critical Writing)
BIO 201 The Skeletal System Lab Report.

Here are some ways to avoid inadvertently plagiarizing your responses:Be sure you fully understand the question that is being asked.If you do not know how to answer, read through your source materials until you have a solid grasp of how to respond.Close out of your source materials and wait at least one hour before drafting your response.Do not refer to your sources as you write your response. This will help ensure that your answer reflects your own original voice and style.2) Use complete sentencesProper grammar and sentence structure isn’t only for English courses. Please remember that this lab is a college-level course, so your answers to the lab worksheet questions should be written in complete sentences.3) Put your name in the background of every picture you takeAlmost every lab worksheet you complete will require you to insert a photo of your dissection or experiment, so please plan ahead and write your name on a piece of paper before starting. Seeing your name in the background of your photo allows our graders to verify that you’re actually completing the required lab experiments. Failure to adequately demonstrate that you’ve completed these experiments yourself will prevent you from successfully completing this course.
BIO 201 The Skeletal System Lab Report

Diablo Valley College Career Informational Interview Write Up.

I’m working on a english writing question and need guidance to help me learn.

For this assignment, choose 1-2 individuals who work in a career that you are interested in and conduct informational interviews with them. This doesn’t have to be your perfect career, just something you might consider. Use your network, the networking activity from class, or reach out to individuals that you find through the various career search engines that have been discussed. The individuals can be from the same occupation (nursing), similar occupations (nursing & radiation therapy), or completely different occupations (nursing & environmental engineering). You would be surprised how these contacts have the potential to lead to internships, better career insight, and possible mentors in a field that you are interested in learning more about.Consider reaching out to friends, friends of friends, emailing individuals at companies, LinkedIn, former teachers, etc. Use your creativity & initiative to step out of your comfort zone. Ideally, this assignment encourages you to reach out & talk to professionals who have jobs in areas that you might be interested in. Many professionals remember what it was like to be uncertain about venturing into the professional world and are open to discussing it with other motivated young people. I am always upfront with my students that this whole assignment could be completely made up and contrived. I won’t know if you actually do the informational interview. I would encourage you though, to think about the opportunity that you may be missing as I have seen these lead to internships & job opportunities. The more effort you put into these assignments, the more you are showing yourself that you are committed to figuring out your life & making sure you avoid regret. In a minimum of 800 words, answer any or all of the following questions. The purpose of this assignment is to make connections and to understand how to reach out to those that can give you further guidance in realizing and actualizing your career goals. Ask them the most important questions that come to mind (and listed in the text) and reflect and answer the most relevant questions below in your essay. You can also use the questions listed here (Links to an external site.).How did you select the individual to interview?Through what source did you find them?How closely does their career match the career you are considering?What are some of the positives and negatives of their job?Do they see growth in their career? Opportunities for advancement?What advice or career insight did they give you overall?What majors do they recommend specific for that career?What activities or professional networking resources do they recommend?How does their work/life balance meet & match your expectations?What are some strategies, additional skills, or certifications that can help you get your foot in the door?What are the most important things to know about this career?How did they end up in their career?
Diablo Valley College Career Informational Interview Write Up

University of Nairobi Practical Paper Essay.

Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study. Requirements: Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection. Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited. Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course. Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment. You should NOT, provide an overview of the assignments assigned in the course. The assignment asks that you reflect how the knowledge and skills obtained through meeting course objectives were applied or could be applied in the workplace.Work and role: Software development Test Engineer for Insurance company
University of Nairobi Practical Paper Essay

The cause of the Six Day War

The immediate causes of war can be traced back to Soviet plotting. A large parade was planned for Israel Independence Day, but after some controversy, heavy weapons were not permitted in the capital. The Soviets took advantage of the situation and claimed that the reason was because Israel was amassing its army on the northern border with Syria. This information was quickly passed to the Egyptian president who declared a state of emergency and sent troops to the Sinai Peninsula. The claims were debunked but ignored and Egypt continues the troop buildup. In response Israel sent troops and tank companies to the southern border. On the morning of the May 16, the number of Egyptian and Palestinian troops in the Sinai had tripled overnight. Egyptian planes began a reconnaissance of the nuclear reactor in Dimona on May 17 prompting Israel to call up 18,000 reservists. War seemed imminent on May 18 as the Egyptian General in charge of the Sinai forces stated on Cairo radio “The Egyptian forces have taken up positions in accordance with our predetermined plans. The morale of our armed forces is very high; for this is the day they have so long been waiting for, for this holy war” (Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America). By May 20 more than 80,000 Israeli reservists had been called up to active duty. On May 22 Egypt committed an act of war by blocking Israeli shipping through the Strait of Tiran. Israel made several attempts at diplomacy for the rest of the month and appealed to the U.S. for support. The U.S. rejected a preemptive strike but offered aid in returning access to the Strait of Tiran. By the end of the month the surrounding Arab nations had made several alliances and defense pacts, Israel now surrounded by “500,000 troops, more than 5,000 tanks, and almost 1,000 fighter planes” (Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America). Israel received word that the U.S. could support a preemptive strike and the newly appointed defense minister, Moshe Dayan finalized the war plan. On June 4, the Israeli cabinet learned that France had issued an arms embargo on the region and once again the U.S. no longer supported a preemptive strike and also issued an arms embargo. The U.S. State department announced that “Our position is neutral in thought, word and deed” (Bard, The 1967 Six-Day War). Never the less, the cabinet voted 12-2 for a preemptive strike that would begin the following morning. WAR The Israelis faced a war on three battlefronts, the borders with Egypt, Jordan and Syria. On the Egyptian front the Israelis attacked with unexpected force. The attack was two-phased, phase one was a simultaneous air and ground attack designed to break into the country. Phase two was designed to exploit the success of phase one and attack the remaining forces in the Sinai. Phase one was a complete success, Israel attacked with 90% of its Air Force inventory, more than double what Egypt expected. Additionally the air attack began not at dawn as expected but strategically at 0745 when most of the Egyptian leadership was out of contact in traffic. The air attack first concentrated on disabling the enemy runways then concentrating on bombers and MiG fighter jets before expanding the attack to include all aircraft types and strategic missile and radar locations. The ground attack was a threefold attack coming from the north, east and west. The battles were fought the night before and the morning of June 6 and by mid-day all the Israeli targets were captured. Israel had successfully broken through Egyptian defenses in central Sinai and severely damaged the rest of Egypt’s defenses. Phase two’s purpose was to exploit the success of phase one but due to the rapid success of phase one many Egyptian citizens and even soldiers did not know the gravity of the situation. The Egyptian military chief, Marshal Amer was well aware of the disaster and was unable to maintain control. He began sending contradicting orders to the battlefront before he ordered a complete retreat. After a mere 96 hours the war in the Sinai was over (Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America). On the Jordanian front, Jordan had placed approximately 45,000 troops within the West Bank on 10 of 11 bridges into Israel. The morning of June 5 Jordan began an air attack on Israel and Jordan received false intelligence that Egypt had crippled 75 percent of the Israeli Air Force and began an invasion of Israel. Israel did not immediately respond but by mid-day it was clear that a war with Jordan could not be avoided and they began a counterattack. Israel began by recovering land lost that morning during the initial Jordanian attack and then began moving toward Jerusalem. At the end of the first day of fighting the Israel air and ground forces were successful in isolating Jerusalem. The next day Israel continued their assault on Jerusalem and by the morning of June 7 Israel took the last objective of the Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism. Israel continued into the West Bank and by that evening both sides agreed to a UN cease fire, ending the fighting and leaving Israel total control of Jerusalem and the West Bank. On the Syrian front, Syria had received false soviet intelligence claiming that Israel was preparing for an offensive. In response to the warning, Syria activated its mutual defense pact with Egypt and began deploying its troops along its 40 miles of border between Israel. On the first day of the war, Syria began air attacks on northern communities and attempted a strike on the Haifa oil refineries. The Israeli Air Force responded by attacking Syrian airbases. The next day Syria increased their attacks and sent two companies across the border. The attacking Syrians were held off by local defenses until the Israeli Air Force responded and pushed them back over the border. By the fourth day of the war on June 8, Syria accepted a UN cease fire but after only five hours they disregarded the cease fire. With a majority of Israeli forced currently in the Sinai and the West Bank, Israel had only taken defensive positions and had not begun an offensive with Syria. This gave Syria the false sense of security in their positions on the Golan Heights. After achieving victory in the Sinai, Israeli resources could turn their attention to the north. On June 9 the Israeli Air Force began bombing the Golan Heights. By mid-day Israeli ground forced had crossed into Syrian territory. By the next morning, Israeli forces were approximately 10 km out of Quneitra and Damascus radio announced the fall of the city hoping to enlist the aid of the Soviets. However, the tactic backfired and Syrian soldiers in the Golan panicked and fled. By nightfall the fighting in the Golan Heights ended and the Six-Day was over. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS Immediately after the war the Arab nations continued to reject Zionism and vowed to continue to oppose Israel, they demanded no peace deals and no negotiations with Israel. On June 9 U.S. President Johnson offered his five principles for peace in the region. Despite the opposition from the other nations in the region, Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol agrees to use the five principles for future negotiations. Five months later the United Nations Security Council delivered Resolution 242. The resolution was carefully worded to act as a guide for negotiating peace. Shortly after the resolution was passed, Jordan and Israel recognized the resolution. Later Egypt also recognized their own interpretation of it, and continued to state that they would not negotiate with or recognize Israel. Syria refused to accept the resolution and declared it was only “another form of occupation” (Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America). LONG TERM EFFECTS One of the biggest long term effects of the Six-Day War was the number of Arab refugees from the West Bank. Jordan’s decision to attack Israel caused many Arabs to flee the West Bank into the East Bank in Jordan. When Israel gained the West Bank many Arabs that fled were now homeless. Eventually most of the refugees were allowed to return and prospered due to increased economic growth. After the war Israel began to invest in the infrastructure of the West Bank and created policies that allowed Arabs to move freely over the border. Despite the economic prosperity in the region that lasted more than two decades, Palestinian leadership continued violent attacks that had led to increased Israeli security measures. Israel did eventually return the Sinai to Egypt, giving up many developed towns, strategic military positions and oil fields (Bard, Israel Makes Peace with Egypt). In return for returning the Sinai, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty that has been able to maintain peace for the last two decades. Despite progress with Egypt the other surrounding Arab nations continue hostilities with Israel, with the latest conflict beginning in 2008 along the Israeli-Lebanese border.

The Technological Change Of Frito Lay

assignment writing services The aim of this report is to perform a knowledge audit of Frito Lay, by gathering data, analyzing the findings and making suggestions for the best possibility of knowledge to be utilized in an organization. This report mainly highlights the main external factors that affect the organization, internal knowledge culture which builds an organization structure, technological change and some important points on knowledge workers and leaders. The major finding in this report is that the knowledge management is a key to achieving both scalability and business optimization. Knowledge management is an attractive concept to many organizations. It helps in understanding the needs and gaps in knowledge by simple analysis and helps in coping up with the globalization. Moreover, the knowledge leaders and workers will help to put the theories and ideas from papers to real world. Intoduction Scope This report mainly focuses on knowledge audit about the external influences on the organization and how knowledge culture enhances the organization structure. Moreover, this report mainly highlights about the technology and how it will revolutionize the company’s culture. Background Frito Lay sales force is facing an issue with finding and integration of organization data and customer sales account information. Mike Marino, vice president of customer development, stated that knowledge is trapped in files everywhere. Many sales people would ask the company’s marketing and operation staff the same information over and over. And the staff has to perform the same task for endless times. For this reason Mike Marino, integrated a Knowledge portal in corporate intranet. This portal opens gates to all sales staff with same information. This information can be shared and updated at the same time moreover it will be available to any one for any location. This portal was tested with a sales pilot team and passed with flying colors. This report does knowledge audit on the knowledge needs and gap in Frito Lay organization. Identified and provided few knowledge audit tools used to gather present knowledge from an organization. Even tools have been mentioned which could be helpful for the case study. Purpose The purpose of this report is to generate a knowledge report by studying the important external factors that influence the organization, internal knowledge culture in an organization, technology change in an organization and some highlights on knowledge workers and leaders. Current Knowledge position of the Frito Lay In current knowledge position of Frito Lay has no centralized system and its sales team is not able to merge data of the corporate and the customer account information. Purpose of the organization Frito Lay falls under a private sector enterprise. A private sector company mainly looks for profits for their stakeholders while long lasting sustainability in the commercial market. Their main aim is to take advantage of their opportunities and consider profits as the most important result. The main funding is done by the stakeholders, to enhance the development and growth of the company. The key goal for Private Sectors Company is to make a balance among long term sustainability and short term profits. The CEO of the company is mainly responsible for creating a vision to the organization; generally he/she would be a highly experienced person in field and is responsible in the success of the business (Debowski 2006). The purpose of the Frito Lay is to focus on one single mission; to become world’s leading products company for the consumer who focus on convenient foods. They try to offer better opportunities for growth and improvement to their employees, business and the in communities where they work. Moreover, whatever they do, they struggle for honesty and integrity. Frito lay’s main vision is to improve all their features in which they operate- environment, social and economic. They try to implement this vision by programs and concentrate on environmental stewardship, steps that benefit society and building a good relationship among stakeholders. Moreover, they not only focus on financial success of the company but also in reducing environmental footprint by protecting natural resources and using renewable energy in order to reduce toxic emissions. The knowledge environment in which the organization exists – external context When organizations are exposed to external environment, it will go through many changes. There are many factors like technological changes and globalization have brought many opportunities and caused threats in the marketplace (Debowski 2006). Globalization has provided an opportunity for businesses like Frito Lay to gain access all over the world but also brought international organizations to the home market which poses a threat to other companies. Globalization allows customers to check prices, services and reviews of the product from many providers before selecting their suppliers. Even if the supplier is at another end of the world could be located and contacted through telecommunications to meet customer requirements (Debowski 2006). Like discussed before, Globalization provides both opportunity and threat. The threat could be an increase number of competitions means customer are exposed to a wide range of products and services. Then we can assume that customer won’t stick to one supplier as there are many, so customer loyalty cannot be trusted. Since costumer is exposed to many varieties of products, it will in turn increase the stress on organizations like Frito Lay to be more creative plus more responsive to the costs set by the competitors (Debowski 2006). The other external factor that affects organization is the pressure from the stakeholder. Since the investment become global, there will be continuous demands from stakeholders to improve market shares, cost reductions and increase in profits. Even technological change is a main factor that effects on business and also helps developing quickly. In case of Frito lay, the Globalization is forcing business to update their technology in order to compete in the market (Wimmer 2004). Technology has become a foundation to many organizations and work tasks, and allows effective communication and management (Debowski 2006). The organizational structure including the internal knowledge culture According to the Oliver

Aberystwyth University Theories of Child Development process Discussion

Aberystwyth University Theories of Child Development process Discussion.

I’m working on a english Admission Essay and need support to help me learn.

In a 1 to 2-page paper, address the following:Briefly explain Piaget’s and Erikson’s theories of development. Who had a better theory of human development: Erikson or Piaget? Please offer detail to explain your choice.What tips would you give to someone who has just suffered a major loss, now that you know the stages of grief?Use references from this module and include APA in-text citations.Submit your completed assignment by following the directions below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.
Aberystwyth University Theories of Child Development process Discussion

Predicting Wind and Solar Generation from Weather Data Using Linear Regression

Introduction This project is basically concerned with predicting the winds and solar generation using simple linear regression method from the weather data. So in practice we will practice with many data science concepts and algorithms. So in order to implement this project firstly we have checked all the data algorithms from those areas where data sets for weather are clear and these data sets are just ready for machine learning implementation The second thing is that the data comes from winds, solar generation and weather is in hourly resolution means after each an hour solar and winds condition of the specific area has been checked regularly. That project allowed us to deal with time series in a real-world context. The other thing is that as we are not using some critical models or algorithms to predict the weather system but we are using the real and correct authentic data that has been previously observed in the specific areas where we are concerned to predict the solar generation and winds. It is not a good exercise to work with the data that is connected to energy which is renewable. We can image that it is most important predicting the future renewables generation of nature like wind and solar generation. Main Body The data that we have used in the analysis of predicting the solar generation and wind generation is come from a free source named Open Power System Data that is arranged by country wise and in time series Basically this platform contains data for many countries like about 37 to 40 countries by year or month wise but now in our project/prediction we will just use the weather data for Germany and moreover we will just concentrate on two of the parameters : Time series Weather data Time series with load, wind and solar prices in hourly resolution. The CSV file with data for all 37 countries from 2006 and 2017. Weather Data A greater amount of data has been provided with many parameters like wind speed temperature radiations solar heat raining water and many more measurements. Wind and solar generation Now we have the CSV file that the data with time series of more about 37 European countries of 12 years from the year 2006 to 2017 but as we have talk earlier about that we will just concern about the data of weather only Germany production = pd.read_csv(“data/time_series_60min_singleindex.csv”, usecols=(lambda s: s.startswith(‘utc’) | s.startswith(‘DE’)), parse_dates=[0], index_col=0) In the following code the function used optionare_dates=[0] with the index_col=0, this one of the function guarantee that in DatetimeIndex date and time with column will be stored. Finally we have just filters the rows of year 2016 for Germany and just got the data frames 8784 entries and just about the 48 column each of the row and column reates to the different quantries such as wind capacity and solar capacity. But as it is clear from the name of our project and the goal of our project that we just concerned with ofly two columns Wind generation and the solar generation ‘DE_solar_generation_actual’, ‘DE_wind_generation_actual’, Luckily we can make the plots for the data for wind generation and solar generation because there is no any missing value in the data that we have got so it will be the best practice. From the above plotted pattern for wind generation in the Germany it can be clearly says that there is no clear and understandable pattern so that from this plot we can’t predict or understand as many things as we have to understand. Secondly below another plot has been generated using the solar generation data in Germany in the MW. Now from the above plotted graph one main thing can be observed that the solar generation much greater in the middle Weather data weather = pd.read_csv(“data/weather_data_GER_2016.csv”, parse_dates=[0], index_col=0) If we check the info atribute of the weather DataFrame, we obtain: DatetimeIndex: 2248704 entries, 2016-01-01 00:00:00 to 2016-12-31 23:00:00 Data columns (total 14 columns): cumulated hours int64 lat float64 lon float64 v1 float64 v2 float64 v_50m float64 h1 int64 h2 int64 z0 float64 SWTDN float64 SWGDN float64 T float64 rho float64 p float64 dtypes: float64(11), int64(3) memory usage: 257.3 MB The other columns are as follows: Parameters of wind: v1: velocity [m/s] at height h1 (2 meters above displacement height); v2: velocity [m/s] at height h2 (10 meters above displacement height); v_50m: velocity [m/s] at 50 meters above ground; h1: height above ground [m] (h1 = displacement height 2m); h2: height above ground [m] (h2 = displacement height 10m); z0: roughness length [m]; Solar parameters: SWTDN: total top-of-the-atmosphere horizontal radiation [W/m²]; SWGDN: total ground horizontal radiation [W/m²]; Temperature data: T: Temperature [K] at 2 meters above displacement height (see h1); Air data: Rho: air density [kg/m³] at surface; p: air pressure [Pa] at surface. As we did not know the locations of winds panels and solar panels in the Germany so we have this one of the main limitation for analysis so simply we are just grouping the weather data for each of the hour and we will take the average over the chunks. Now firstly we have to check the average weather behavior with the help of plots in Germany 2016 In the plot of wind velocity generation that is given above it can be clearly observed that the speed of wind is not normally in all over the year but it is larger in the months February And November December As with the wind generation, we see that the wind velocity does not follow a specific pattern, although it was larger in February, November and December. In the summer/hot months like June July august the horizontal radiations at the level of ground expected to be larger than others. By all of the above plots that has been plotted for wind generations and solar generations from these plots somethings can be observed or understand like the correlation between the solar generation and wind generation. So further observation can also be obtained by the help of plots that is plotted below in which wind and solar generation by the function of some weather parameters has been shown. As we have talked earlier that there must exists a relation between solar generation and wind generation by means of some other weather quantities so from the above plots it has been cleared that the co relation between winds and solar generation is by the function of velocities like v1, v2, and v_50m So what is v1, v2 and v_50 it has been mentioned and described in details above in code. From the above plotted graphs it can be observed that there exists a linear relation between the top of the atmosphere ground radiations and solar generations By all of the observations now we are going to make linear regression algorithm to predict the solar generation and wind generation by means of some of the above quantities Predicting the wind and solar generation using linear regression Linear regression is a linear approach to modelling the relationship between a dependent variable and independent variables. The resulted output of a linear regression algorithm is a linear function of the input. The equation of linear regression is: The objective is to find the parameters which minimize the mean squared error: This can be achieved using Linear Regression from the scikit-learn library. Wind generation A feature matrix named X_wind with the following features v1, v2 and v_50m with the target named Y_wind with actual wind generation has been created in order to predict the wind generation from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score lr = LinearRegression() scores_wind = cross_val_score(lr, X_wind, y_wind, cv=5) print(scores_wind, “ average =”, np.mean(scores_wind)) we will analyse that what is going in the algorithm because we are familiar with this Frst of all our first job is to import the LinearRegression from sklearn.linear_model by which ordinary least square regression will be done. After applying the regression algorithm now the prime duty is evaluating the performance of the algorithm so for this purpose we divide the data using a specific procedure named cross validation. For the K folds of the cross validation the data must be divided into tiny sets and then the resulting model is validated on the remaining part of the data set as it can also be observed in the picture and concept will be clear The performance measure provided by the CV is then the average of the performance measure computed in each experiment. In the code above, we use cross_val_score from sklearn.model_selection, with number of folds cv=5 Example of 5-fold CV. Source: https://www.kaggle.com/dansbecker/cross-validation The performance measure that LinearRegression gives by default is the coefficient of determination R² of the prediction. It measures how well the predictions approximate the true values. A value close to 1 means that the regression makes predictions which are close to the true values. It is formally computed using the formula: The output of the code above for our case is: [0.88261401 0.88886305 0.83623262 0.88974363 0.85338174] average = 0.870167010172279 Now we have to give some idea about analyzing of this output means what is going on in this output or what this output represent/show. The one line contains the results of R² for each of the five sets, but the line 2 basically contains their average that has been resulted in line 1. Solar generation Here again the matrix X_solar with features SWTDN, SWGDN and the T has been constructed and the matrix Y_solar with the actual solar generation has been created after that this algorithm has been implemented scores_solar = cross_val_score(lr, X_solar, y_solar, cv=5) print(scores_solar, “ average =”, np.mean(scores_solar)) The output is: [0.8901974 0.95027431 0.95982151 0.95090201 0.8715077 ] average = 0.9245405855731855 Now again we have to give some idea about analyzing of this output means what is going on in this output or what this output represent/show. The one line contains the results of R² for each of the five sets, but the line 2 basically contains their average that has been resulted in line 1 As it has been concluded that we have done a better job using the real weather data of the world and used very simple algorithms for predicting the winds and solar generations of course more sophisticated and better performance algorithms and analysis can also be made but those will be beyond out scope. Conclusion So here through this code we predict wind and solar generation by using the ML technique of linear regression. The results of mean square value seems to be quite accurate as it comes out to be near to 1. We find out that it’s quite easy and impressive to predict the results using this simple regression technique and we get the accuracy of almost 85% for solar generation and 92% for wind generation. However we can use more complex models to improve the accuracy even more. References [1] https://towardsdatascience.com/introduction-to-machine-learning-algorithms-linear-regression-14c4e325882a?fbclid=IwAR3RCZ9w0QZJwNgRgGAPsfCfLNdlIwNIZphzuEqS_l8rfy_uwe0MevNwi-Y [2] https://medium.com/hugo-ferreiras-blog/predicting-wind-and-solar-generation-from-weather-data-using-machine-learning-998d7db8415e [3] https://towardsdatascience.com/introduction-to-machine-learning-algorithms-linear-regression-14c4e325882a [4] https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-linear-regression [5] https://datascience.stackexchange.com/questions/30465/tips-to-improve-linear-regression-model