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In vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model (IVPM) Analysis

In vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model (IVPM) Analysis. ‘Drug resistance follows the drug like a faithful shadow’ said by Paul Ehrlich. For the major classes of known antibiotics resistance has developed within few years from the time of clinical introduction of the drug. Sulphonamide resistance was reported in 1939, streptomycin resistance in 1946 and penicillin resistance in 1946 (G. J. Ebrahim, 2010). Bacterial resistance can be innate or acquired. In innate resistance, a bacterial species may be naturally resistant to a drug before its clinical introduction. Acquired resistance where bacteria that were initially sensitive to a drug become resistant which is more serious. The mechanisms include inactivating enzymes that destroy the drug e.g. β-lactamase produced by several Staphylococci inactivate most penicillins and many cephalosporins. More prominently, the genes for β-lactamases may be chromosomal borne on plasmids or on transposons. Hence, there is possibility for bacteria to share them. Another mechanism is alteration of binding sites an example of this is tetracycline resistance. In most resistant organisms, the binding sites may be altered so that they no longer have affinity for the drugs and most frequently acquisition of drug-resistant from plasmids or transposons. Such mobile genetic elements help to extend resistance rapidly among bacteria. The above list makes an interesting variety of mechanisms evolved by micro organism. It is becoming palpable that antimicrobial resistance needs to be viewed as an ecological problem. Little by little, yesterday’s possibly frank hopes and the early dream of omnipotent antibiotics have been eroded and progressively replaced with deep distrust. MRSA Resistance in INDIA Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen causing momentous morbidity and mortality. In India, the significance of MRSA had been recognized reasonably late and it appeared as a problem in the 80s and in the 90s. Recently epidemic strains of these MRSA are generally resistant to several other antibiotics (K. Rajaduraipandi et al, 2009) Antibiotics can no longer be seen as magic bullets. They have become a vital part of the problem of modern-day Hospital acquired infections. According to the National Staphylococcal Phage Typing Centre, New Delhi, there is an raise in the occurrence of Methicillin Resistant strains of S.aureus from 9.83% in 1992 to 45.44% in 1998. Thus, it is probable that the prevalence of methicillin resistance in community acquired S.aureus strains also varies in different regions (Rahul patil et al,2005) Introduction to in vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model (IVPM) Use of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is the popular technique for assessing the potential therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics, though it is generally agreed that the experimental procedure for MIC determination does not exactly mimic the in vivo situation. The MIC is usually assessed in static conditions, in which the antibiotic at unvarying concentration is in contact with the microorganism for a long time. But the in vivo situation is clearly different, because the antibiotic concentration frequently changes with time. After a single administration, the actual time of contact is reasonably short, particularly with antibiotics that are rapidly excreted from the body, such as cephalosporins, penicillins, and aminoglycosides. The development of in vitro kinetic models for evaluation of antibiotic activity has aroused interest because they offer the possibility of imitating the same pharmacokinetics as found in vivo. This would permit investigation into how pharmacokinetic parameters persuade antibacterial activity of Antibacterial agents. One of the first notable in vitro models to be described in the literature was that of the urinary bladder, developed to simulate conditions of uncomplicated cystitis by O’Grady, 1966, the model was used to study the effects of cycles of ‘dilution’ and ‘micturition’ on bacterial growth. The first kinetic model that reproduced plasma levels of antibiotics comparable to those observed in vivo was developed by SanfilippoIn vitro Pharmacodynamic Infection Model (IVPM) Analysis
Optimization of Pseudotype Virus to Characterize Equine Influenza Virus. 1 INTRODUCTION This literature review introduces Equine influenza virus (EIV) and Equine herpesvirus (EHV). Both diseases can be examined by the use of various methods such as virus culture testing, antigen detection, genome detection, to name a few. However, the method of pseudotyping is of particular interest as it facilitates the analysis of highly pathogenic viruses, without the need for high containment. The subject at hand signifies the benefit in utilizing the process of pseudotyping to characterize equine influenza and equine herpes virus. 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF EQUINE INFLUENZA VIRUS Equine influenza virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A can affect some animals, whereas influenza B and C viruses are limited to humans. The Equine Influenza A virus is enveloped and consists of the eight-segmented single-strand RNA genome. A nucleoprotein loosely encapsidates the eight-genome virus with polymerase complexes PB1, PB2, PA located on its ends. Furthermore, the capsids surrounded by a lipid bilayer envelope that consists of two surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) that carry out essential roles in virus entry and exit (Daly, et al., 1996). The HA is integrated as a precursor protein and divided by cellular serine proteases into the active proteins HA1 and HA2. HA is responsible for binding to host cell sialic acid receptors as it controls the entry of the virus into the cell by fusion. NA’s primary function is to facilitate the cell-to-cell spread of the virus by the removal of decoy receptors in the host’s respiratory tract. Moreover, HA is an essential target protein for neutralizing antibodies which is a necessary component of vaccinations. On the other hand, NA reduces the severity of illness as it is the target of second-generation anti-viral drugs to inhibit its function and therefore prevent virus proliferation (Rash, et al., 2017). In particular, influenza in horses results from infections with H7N7 and H3N8 flu A viruses. In the H and N genes of EIV, mutations occur giving rise to antigenic changes called antigenic drift which allows viruses to escape neutralization by antibody made to earlier infecting viruses (MaanenOptimization of Pseudotype Virus to Characterize Equine Influenza Virus
EDL 817 Walden University Week 5 Students in the School Community Discussion.

Week 5 DQ 1Students are typically consumers in the school community. To what extent, if at all, is it reasonable to expect students to go beyond being consumers to being contributors to and collaborators in the school community? How does knowledge of the groups with which some students identify shape or bias your view? Support your position.Week 5 DQ 2Is the construct of a professional learning community a valid theoretical foundation for creating and executing an action plan designed to enhance student engagement with the school community? Why or why not?
EDL 817 Walden University Week 5 Students in the School Community Discussion

Graham Kapowsin Biodiversity Biology Assignment.

WE LIVE IN the PACIFIC Northwest (SEATTLE ) SO WE HAVE NOTHING TROPICAL AT ALL PLEASE REMEMBER WHILE COMPLETING THIS ASSIGNMENTHow does biodiversity rank in different areas of your community?This assignment is designed to get you OUTSIDE ⛰️and thinking about biodiversity in your community.Begin by downloading this file right here, completing it in Notability, and then uploading it here when finished.Note:Take a screenshot of these instructions so you have them while outside and disconnected from Wifi.You can ignore Step #1 in the Procedure.. unless you never turned in your Science Safety Form. Then go here and do that right now (EAAAASY FIVE POINTS!).Pick three locations in your neighborhood that are separated. What I mean, is if you pick your front yard, don’t pick your next-door-neighbor’s front yard as your second location. Pick something that is geographically some decent distance apart.It might help to look up the definition for biodiversity before you begin. This will a) help you understand how to rank the locations, but then also b) help you answer Question #1.Spend about 5-10 min at each location. Do not walk by it, give it a quick glance, and keep going.. this will not help you. In fact, it will hurt your grade on this assignment.Don’t forget to include photos of each location (at least one photo PER location)! These will be added to pages 2, 3, and 4 of the document. Include a label/location for each photo and observations you made about the plant and animal life there (type and quantity).Please adhere by social distancing rules while out and about. Remember to stay at least 6 feet apart from others. I want this to be a chance for you to go outside and DO something, but I also want you to be safe and that comes first above all else
Graham Kapowsin Biodiversity Biology Assignment

New England College Nine Step Process in Neural Network Project Essay

New England College Nine Step Process in Neural Network Project Essay.

Please select a topic from the below list and create a one-page essay answering the question noted below. Please use at least one reference and ensure it’s in APA format (as well as the in-text citation). Also, ensure to NOT COPY DIRECTLY from any source (student or online source); rather rephrase the author’s work and use in-text citations were necessary.Name the basic constructs of an ensemble model. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ensemble models?List and briefly describe the nine-step process in conducting a neural network project.What is the main difference between classification and clustering? Explain using concrete examples.What is the relationship between Naïve Bayes and Bayesian networks? What is the process of developing a Bayesian networks model?** Please note you have minimal space and time to complete the assignment. Do NOT write an introduction, rather just answer the question noted above **Note: The essay should be one-page at most (double spaced) and should include an APA title page and at least one reference on a references page in APA format.
New England College Nine Step Process in Neural Network Project Essay

Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help

best essay writers Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help. Assignment 2: Facilities OperationsLean operations create more value for customers while using fewer resources than traditional operations. In this assignment, you will identify the business planning process for a lean management operation by implementing an information system in a service or manufacturing organization.Choose a company different from those evaluated in previous assignments. Examples of information systems that reduce waste in organizations could include the following:A new inventory tracking softwareAn electronic payment system for products and services (For example, aÿservice organizationÿsuch as a car wash that currently only accepts cash payments upgrades their systems to accept credit card and PayPal payments.)A Web site to receive personalized orders from customers for aÿmanufacturing organizationBased on your analysis of the company, address the following:Explain the current business model and discuss the benefits of incorporating the lean process. Describe a specific approach to acquiring and using the lean process.Justify the incorporation of a lean approach. Describe the potential effect of the business growth as related to supply chain management. Include safety and precautionary processes to protect the business from fraud.Examine the product components for the selected business operation. Include the business management aspects of the process, in addition to information on the following topics:Purchasing operationsOutsource deliveryLean tenetsThe push-pull systemCreate a 1-page, high-level flowchart of the process with a maximum of ten activities. The flowchart should be precise and look professional. If needed, you can download a trial version of visual or graphic design software such as SmartDraw.Write a 3?5-page paper, including the flowchart, in Word format. Use at least three scholarly articles to complete your research. Your writing should be clear, concise, and organized; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of resources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M6_A2.doc.ByÿWednesday, February 22, 2017, deliver your assignment to theÿM6: Assignment 2 Dropbox.Grading CriteriaDrama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help

Deliverable Length: 8 slides with 200 words of speaker notes per slide

Deliverable Length: 8 slides with 200 words of speaker notes per slide. Help me study for my Marketing class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Develop a PowerPoint presentation of 8–11 slides for a proposal, including 200–250 words of speaker notes per slide, covering the following:

The proposal should begin with a brief explanation of each separate technique (1–2 slides).
Present your evaluation of 3–4 of the technique’s strategic contributions to the e-business’s market leadership for MedEd/CHC (3–4 slides). The specific techniques that you should evaluate in your plan include the following:

Personalized customer interaction
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Customer experience management (CEM)
Interactive relationship marketing
Mass customization

Conclude with a proposed plan integrating at least 3–4 of the strategic techniques to achieve the e-business’s CRM and relationship marketing objectives for MedEd/CHC (4–5 slides).

Use the presentation’s Notes section to describe concept applications in detail.
For more information on creating PowerPoint presentations, please visit the Microsoft Office Applications Lab.
Please submit your assignment.
For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
Deliverable Length: 8 slides with 200 words of speaker notes per slide

History Question

History Question.

Chose ONE question from part B to answer.Your answers should be in complete sentences and be between two to three paragraphs.You may only use information provided to you from your textbook or a reading in the module. (…)Please use proper citation, and upload the document as a Microsoft Word attachment.Plagiarism policy: In the case of plagiarism, there will be no rewrites. At a minimum, you will receive a “0” for the assignment and a referral to the Dean of Students.Part BThe West Experienced tremendous growth after the Civil War. Write an essay on the consequences of population growth on the western landscape, looking at farming, livelihoods, impact of the railroad, growth of Native American reservations and the subjugation of the Native Americans.Analyze the various roles women played during the era, from social reformer, to feminist, to suffragette. How did various women define freedom? Be sure to distinguish between different types of women and use specific examples in your answer.By 1900, who was entitled to fully enjoy the blessings of American liberty? Be sure to include African-Americans, women, labor, and immigrants in your answer.
History Question