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“In Praise of Folly” by Desiderius Erasmus Literature Analysis Essay

Introduction Desiderius Erasmus was a Dutch theologist, catholic priest, and reformist. He was renowned critic of the hypocrisy in the church and among scholars who thought they knew too much. Erasmus was among the founders of the Christian Humanist Movement that was very popular during the Renaissance (Erasmus, 1876). This work discusses the central concerns in one of his works, In Praise of Folly. In Praise of Folly is a piece of satire that criticizes rampant folly among people who claim to be free from it. According to Erasmus, church leaders, lawyers, classical scholars, social classes and other people in society are all foolish, yet they claim to be enemies of folly. Folly narrates the story of her importance to a very huge crowd. She is with her allies Philautia, Kolakia, Lethe and Annoia. She begins her oration by stating her importance in the world. She argues that marriage and giving birth come from her. She also states that women struggle to attain beauty because of folly, and friendship entirely depends on the foolish belief that friends’ characters are the best in the world. She further insists that only folly can make people feel good. According to her, many people enjoy listening to stupid people than wise people (Erasmus, 1876). She criticizes scholars, celebrities, priests, and theologians for pretending to be wise when they are among the greatest fools. She asserts that scholars are silly and irrelevant in most of the things they do, yet they claim to be against folly. She satirizes the doctors of theology for complicating their speeches just to confuse their listeners and make them see them as wise. She considers such acts folly. Folly also accuses bishops and priests of living luxuriously at the expense of spreading the gospel (Erasmus, 1876). In the third part, Folly asserts that Christianity developed on folly. She refers to the contents of the Bible as nothing but folly. She also considers Christ’s decision to die for the sins of human beings a manifestation of folly. She ends her treatise by telling human beings to enjoy their lives because life is the greatest sign of folly (Erasmus, 1876). Major themes Folly among theologians Erasmus uses a very harsh tone while talking about the folly among theologians. She blames them of using elaborate philosophical terminologies with the purpose of confusing their listeners. She goes further to argue that the theologians are more concerned with their theses than God’s message. According to her, theologians coin biblical teachings in their favor, while bishops and popes live luxurious lives at the expense of simplicity. The dependence of relationships on folly Folly argues that without her, there could be no marriage, love, and friendship. She states that partners in marriage neglect each other’s faults because of stupidity. She adds that people retain friends after fooling themselves that their weaknesses are irrelevant. According to Folly, a woman conceives when her husband fools her that things will be well. Therefore, without folly, there could be many fights, divorces, and no woman could conceive. Folly among Christians Folly argues that Christianity developed on folly. She insists that Christianity relates to folly and avoids wisdom using all means. She cites Jesus’ teachings as examples of the folly in the bible. According to her, Jesus avoids wisdom in his teachings. He uses parables in teaching and answering questions to avoid wisdom. In fact, Folly considers Jesus as a perpetrator of folly because of taking people’s sins. His disciples were also foolish as they carried his teaching to the whole world without correcting anything. God himself also advocated folly when he denied Adam and Eve the right to wisdom. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Flattery and self-love Folly argues that many people usually condemn both flattery and self-love, yet they are very crucial in making people do good things for themselves. According to her, people should admire themselves before their friends can admire them. She goes further to argue that, flattery is capable of enlivening dejected people. She believes that pure truths are not always necessary as they may kill people’s esteem. Folly brags of being the source of both flattery and self-love. Human love for folly Folly observes that wisdom is not capable of making people as happy as folly can make them. She explains that a wise man talking to a group of people will not receive the attention of the audience as much as a foolish person will. She argues that folly can make old people forget the traumas of their old age and believe that they will always be young. The significance of philosophy Erasmus questions the significance of philosophy by classifying philosophers among foolish people. Through Folly, Erasmus argues that theologians waste their time coming up with complex ideas about God, yet the ideas do not help human beings in any way. Therefore, it is better to remain an ordinary human being than be a theologian who does not help other people. Conclusion In praise of Folly satirizes people who claim to be so learned and holy to be foolish, yet they are the greatest perpetrators of folly. Such people include church leaders, scholars, and celebrities. Church leaders live luxurious lives, contrary to the teachings of Jesus, and scholars complicate matters to favor them instead of serving the society. Christians, on the other hand, blindly follow Jesus’ teachings. Erasmus argues that it is better to live simplistic lives than to live luxuriously at the expense of faith in God. Reference Erasmus, D. (1876). In praise of folly. London: Reeves
Week 5 Communicating with Executives Discussion.

Discussion Week 5COMMUNICATING WITH EXECUTIVESRead the following articles before starting the discussionCOMMUNICATING WITH EXECUTIVESWeek 5.a: The necessary art of persuasionWeek 5.b: Communications guides WITH YOUR DIRECT REPOTS link provides you with what I believe is an essential addition to the e-library of every manager. You should keep it available for the rest of your career. Meanwhile I would like you to pick one article that especially appeals to you , read it and write a review for your classmates discussing not only the article but also the reasons why (or why not) they should take the time to read it. Be concise, be complete (what’s good and what’s bad in the article) and be persuasive in your recommendation..doc file | Discussion | 1 pages, Single spaced
Week 5 Communicating with Executives Discussion

6-2 Journal: Personality Tests

6-2 Journal: Personality Tests. I need an explanation for this Psychology question to help me study.

For this assignment, you will take a personality test, the IPIP-NEO (International Personality Item Pool Representation of the NEO PI-R).First, take either the original or short version of the IPIP-NEO. (My results are attached, I took the short version)Next, review the results provided from the MMPI-2 and MCMI-III in the Sample Personality Results Report. (attached)Finally, in your response, reflect on the experience of taking the IPIP-NEO. Consider the following questions in your reflection:

What do you think is the usefulness of knowing the results from the IPIP-NEO?
Did you agree with the results?
How would you feel if you received the feedback from the Sample Personality Results Report?
How do you think these results could inform treatment?

To complete this assignment, review the Module Six Journal Guidelines and Rubric document.
6-2 Journal: Personality Tests

Analysis Of The Burj Khalifa Tower Project

online assignment help The UAE, located in Middle East, is the third largest oil-producing country in the world. Currently, and over the past few years, a variety of construction projects have been taking place in the UAE, for which the main source of funding has been oil money. This is especially true of Dubai, one of the seven emirate states of the UAE. Dubai has become a significant emerging economy in recent years and has also become a popular tourist attraction for visitors to the Middle East. Dubai has also become famous for its many skyscrapers. One of the most impressive of those towers is the “Burj Khalifa”, which as built over a five-year period from 2004 to 2009 ( The “Burj Khalifa Town” was a construction programme envisioned as a multi-complex town. The programme included the construction of the Burj Khalifa Tower, nine residences, a shopping mall and entertainment facilities. This essay will focus especially on the Burj Khalifa Tower. Burj Khalifa tower received a lot of attention even before its construction, as it was designed to be the tallest building in the world. There are many constructions in the world but there are rarely instances where many people have a concern about the project from the beginning to end of construction. This is why I chose Burj Khalifa as my topic. This essay will evaluate the project of Burj Khalifa, and examine the success or failure of that project. The following recommendations are made as suggestions that might improve the result of the project. 2. The Burj Khalifa Project Projects are distinguished from routine business activities which usually follow regular procedures or policies. Generally, projects bring measurable outcomes and changes and these bring about other developments and opportunities (Tuner, 2009). According to Atkinson (1999) project management is the set of aims and methods in order to achieve a unique task that should be accomplishment within a given amount of time, within a certain budget, and at a certain standard or quality. The aim of Burj Khalifa was not just to build the tallest building. It was designed to be a milestone of ingenuity, inspiration and achievement. An architectural characteristic of the tower is that it represents a flower on the desert to express a sense of national characteristic and prosperity. Technically, the tower applied a mixed structure type between reinforced concrete and steel frame. Also, in order to increase safety and security against the strong winds from the coast, Burj Khalifa adopted a Y-typed plan shape. It provides a breakthrough in architectural possibilities (Baker, Korista and Novakm, 2007). Like this, the project tried to do something that has not been done before. In this sense, this construction can be seen as unique project. Frigenti and Comninos note (2002) that “uniqueness is important to project management. It helps identify new organisation risk area, enabling management to develop and implement timely risk management strategy.” From a functional point of view, the Burj Khalifa project has several features. It can be seen from figure 1 that the Burj Khalifa project was conducted from January 2004 to October 2009. This is the one of key factor of the project; definite date of start and finish (Kerzner, 2009). The whole construction period of the project was 57 months and there are key features at each stage as time advanced (Figure 1). The tower was made up of 160 stories and was scheduled to be completed within given periods. To this end, the project adopted a new construction technology called the “3-day cycle”, a method which aims to raise the entire construction one story per every three days (Abdelrazaq, 2008). As it described before, due to the exceptional efforts required for this construction, the project could be regarded as a technological innovation. Finally, it is important to examine the objectives of project. Projects are usually judged by two criteria: goal-oriented and ways to accomplish the projects (Kerzner, 2009). The Burj Khalifa project tried a combination of human ambition and hard science. Table 1. explains the goals and methods of the project. According to Tunner (2009), the concept of a project is a vision to use resources in order to meet a wished future. Burj Khalifa was planned by the Dubai government with the aim of becoming a hub for finance, trade and tourism in Middle East (Dubai eGovernment, 2010). Its facilities were designed not only for business purposes but also for tourism and local citizens (Table 1). It can be seen from table 1; tower has entertainment and leisure facilities for domestic people as a respect of contribute to society. Burj Khlifa set clear aims based on measurable outcomes. This is why Burj Khalifa can be defined as a project. 3. Success or failure of the project Dobson states (2007) that “the internal measure of project success may be whether the project accomplished what it was supposed to accomplish.” The important thing is that an evaluation of the project should focus on the whole process from the planning phase to the outcome (ibid). The prime criterion of success is what has been called the “Iron Triangle”, a criterion which measures the project based on three perspectives: cost, time and quality (Atkinsin 1999). This project evaluating criterion has continued in the last few decades as a basic way to measure a success of failure of project. In this sense, Burj Khalifa project also can be measured by the “Iron Triangle” method of evaluation. Before examining the project by Iron Triangle, It is possible to measure the cost and time variance in between initial plan and actual result by the earned value analysis to view the overview of project. The EVA uses measure the performance of project (Anbari, 2003). Figure 2 shows how the project worked. From the point of view of cost, the initial planned costs of the Burj Khalifa project was $876 million dollars. The final cost, however, was approximately $1.5 billion dollar [1] . It is important to find reasons why this increase in cost occurred. First of all, a rise in prices of raw materials had gone up significantly due to the downturn of the global economy in 2008. According to report of Global InformineI [2] (2008), the price of iron had increased by 75% within a year. Other materials such as aluminum and cement also increased (appendix 2). Increase of price of commodities caused a factor to increase construction cost. On the other hand, a change of design was also responsible for the cost increase. The Emaar property which is ordering company of project decided to change the final height of building: the final construction was 100 meters higher than the original design (Al abbar, 2008). Thus, unexpected costs were incurred. Moreover, changes in interior design planning were another reason for the increase in costs. The Burj Khalifa aimed at being the world’s best building and wished for that building to have the best facilities. Thus, Emaar made a contract with luxury hotel chain Armani. The Armani wanted to change the initial interior design of hotel. It is clear that the project spent more money in order to change the design of the lobby and to add more luxurious fittings and furnishings to the rooms. Due to the overrun of its budget, as it can be seen in fiure2, the project’s earned value is decreased compare to initial plan and cost. The project’s cost management did not perform well. Naturally, these cost factors are linked to time, which is another important criterion of the “Iron Triangle” method of evaluation. Originally, the duration of project was set for forty-seven months, starting from February 2005 to December 2008, although excluding excavation time. However, the Burj Khalifa project was completed nine months later, on September 2009. As examined above, a change of design influenced not only costs of project, but also the duration of the construction as, needless to say, additional work was required with respect to changes in the design planning. In addition to this, Dubai’s deteriorating economic condition caused a delay in construction. This was called the “Dubai shock”, and was caused by the bubble in real estate investment (Brach and Loewe 2010). As a result, this economical decline halted construction for four months in 2008. Figure 3 shows the comparison between original plan and actual duration of project. Finally, it is possible to use quality as a critical measure of the success or failure of a project. Jha and Iyer (2007) insist that the most significant factor is the project manager’s competence in order to achieve the stated goals. In this sense, resources management can be a one of key factors that could contribute depends on who build the building. The main constructor, Samsung engineering and Besix, introduced new technologies based on previous experiences with tall building construction. For example, Burj Khalifa was built using “mixed reinforced concrete” in order to stand against heavy wind and pressure. The bottom of the building receives massive amounts of pressure, thus the strength of the concrete is very important (Abdelrazaq, 2008). To achieve this successfully, the engineers did practice tests several times prior to the construction of the tower (ibid). The purpose of the tests was to see how the building would function under certain conditions. This testing phase was important because it allowed engineers to plan according to successful test-case studies. If these tests were not carried out, and problems were found later during the construction of the building, the cost of the project might have increased significantly. Also, from the service perspective, the facilities of tower met requirements of its stakeholders such as customers and interested parties. This fact is necessary to measure the quality of project as unfavourable project to stakeholders can cause the unexpected problems and uncertainty to the project that contribute to failure of project (Kalsen, 2002). As mentioned above, the reasons for delay were due to the Emaar wanting to change the exterior and interior design plans, and the unexpected economic costs that this incurred for the project. From the point of quality, the project is successful. Although the Burj Khalifa project spent more money and time that initially planned, this is not enough to assume that the project was a failure. For example, the Sydney opera house project spent 16 times more than the original budget estimated. Yet, it is still regarded as a successful project (Litsikakis, 2009). Thus, a more nuanced and sophisticated application of success and failure is required, one which goes beyond using basic standards such as time and cost. 4. Other performance indicators Success of a project should not be measured simply according to whether it finished on time and within the estimated budget. According to Wideman (1996) definition: “project success is seen as a strategic management concept where project efforts must be aligned with the strategic long-term goals of the organization” This means that the project can have a value when the project meets objectives from short-term to long-term. In this sense, the Burj Khalifa project can also be measured by the following criteria. Benefits over time remain an essential standard by which to measure the project. Wideman states (1996) that projects can be evaluated as time passes: short-term, medium-term and long-term (Table 2). Furthermore, it is crucial to define success who is the users of Burj Khalifa and what kind of benefits brought to its stakeholders. When the project evaluated in this aspect, firstly, the project achieved its initial functional objectives of design. There are no functional changes with respect to the project. The facilities of the tower, such as hotel or residences, are available for use by the customers. These benefits are not limited only to domestic people. Burj Khalifa has become the landmark of Dubai and plays a role as one of the most popular tourist attractions in Dubai. Many people come to see the tower and enjoy luxurious facilities. Secondly, the project just finished one year ago and thus it is hard to calculate exactly its success or failure in terms of the mid-term time-frame. However, the financial statements of Emaar could be the criterion for measuring its performance after the opening of the tower. The net profit increased about 10 times compared to 2009. Furthermore, the portion of revenue which came from external customers and sales of residence also dramatically increased (Appendix 3). When one considers the fact that there were no big constructions last year at Emaar, a large portion of the increased revenue can therefore be attributed to the Burj Khalifa project. It is true that the Burj Khalifa project did not successfully meet its schedule and budget in terms of the internal project objectives (table 2). However, from the perspective of the society level, Dubai has struggled with debts which were generated due to indiscriminate urban development planning and spending (Brach and Loewe, 2010). Many experts were concerned whether the project would be completed or not. Although the project was delayed by nine months, it was eventually completed. One of notable features of the project is that there are many constructions in a ‘suspended’ state in Dubai as a result of current economic situation. Thus, the fact that the Burj Khalifa project was completed can be a yardstick for measuring its success as a project. If construction was continually delayed, the possibility of the project failing (and incurring even more costs) would have been increased because risk also grows as well (Barkely, 2004). Consequently, in a number of respects, overall outcomes of Burj Khalifa met its objectives. Hence, the project can be regarded as a successfully completed project. 5. Contributions of project outcomes There are some reasons for believing that the Burj Khalifa project contributes to the Dubia society. The Burj Khalifa tower has value per se. People across the globe paid great attention to the building from the planning stage of construction, because it was known that the project would become the world’s tallest building. According to Lynch(1996) “landmark structures might be encouraged at significant locations.” This is why many countries and cities make efforts in building landmark constructions. For example, when people think about Paris they naturally imagine the tower Eiffel. Beautiful and significant architecture increases people’s pride in cities. It improves citizen’s moral and social development (ibid). In 2000s, Dubai had been described as an emerging economic power. People surged into Dubai to capitalize on this rapid economic growth. However, as stated previously, due to the excessive real estimate investment, the economy of Dubai deteriorated in 2008 (Brach and Loewe, 2010). In this situation, the successful completion of Burj Khalifa could boost the economy again as Burj Khalifa would be play an important role as a business hub of Dubai and as a tourist attraction. Many people already consider Burj Khalifa as the symbol of Dubai. Burj Khalifa has not only been an architectural feature of the city but has also had a socio-economical impact. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the internal business perspective of the organisation. In terms of the construction company, successful accomplishment of the project gave them competitiveness of market. For example, Samsung engineering, which is the main construction company of the Burj Kharifa project was able to involve itself in Dubai because of its previous construction experiences such as working on the world’s third and fifth tallest building’s construction (Taipei 101 and Petronas Tower respectively) ( The participating companies had important previous experiences and these experiences enhanced the organisation’s capabilities in specific areas. Like this, throughout the process of construction of Burj Khalifa, companies obtained a reputation as the main constructor of the world’s tallest building, a development which required the use of various cutting edge technologies 6. Recommendations Up to now, this essay examined the project according to its constituent’s purpose: individual level (in the short-term), organisation level (in the mid tem) and society level (long-term). And, project outcomes’ effects on society were also examined. Based on above analysis, some of following recommendations are proposed in order to enhance the outcomes of the project. This project did not meet its previous objectives in terms of time and costs. In other words, the project was not able to meet the expectations of the shareholders’. The project did not reach clear pre-negotiation commitments and understandings with their partner. As a result of a change in interior design, additional costs were incurred. Griffiths (1989) insists that even though the concept of project is right, if a planning and execution is not adequate, this can still diminish its profitability. Thus, fully negotiated planning is recommended because repeated changes of plan eventually increase risk to customers (Barkely, 2004). In contrast, a thoroughly reviewed plan can maximize the effectiveness of the project. It is a well known fact that increasing the duration of the project increases the probability of risk (ibid). There was a serious economical deterioration from 2008 in Dubai. In the case of the Burj Khalifa project, it is possible to estimate the downturn in the economy. However, this project’s priority was its scale of building. As a result of this, and because it did not consider the external situation, increases in costs were generated. There were no specific reasons to raise the height of the building as Burj Kharifa already reached the world’s tallest building at September 2007 and the original plan of 700 meters was reached at April 2008. Because the situation was that UAE’s economy was going steadily down, there was no need to increase the height and incur the additional costs. A much more pragmatic, and certainly much more affordable decision, would have been to stay with the original plan. Finally, to improve further outputs of the project, maintaining communication and cooperation with the Dubai people, especially the government and the local society, is most important. Someday, the title of ‘world’s tallest building’ will be surpassed by other buildings. Even then, to maintain its own sustainable competitiveness without the title, Burj Khalifa should have characteristics like the Empire State building. That is why cooperation with the outside society is important. To achieve this, it is recommended that Burj Khalifa offers a variety of benefits to citizens and tourists rather than entirely focus on the luxury of its customers. Cooperation between society and continued effort to develop a tourism programme is an essential factor for evaluating a successful project in the future. The Sydney Opera House used sixteen times more funding and took four months longer to complete than initially planned. But nowadays there is no one who says the Opera House was a failed project (Litsikakis, 2009). From this example, it is possible to know that the project review and the effort to learn from the past can be a success factor for long term strategy. Furthermore, Burj Khalifar, in order not to remain merely a tall building in Dubai, needs to emphasise that further investment can make Burj Khlifa town a citizens’ communal, leisure, and relaxation space. If citizens cannot use Burj Khlifa freely, it will be a place only for people who have money. As such, Burj Khalifa would become a huge building but without any direct links to the community and citizenry. 7. Conclusion This essay has evaluated the construction project: world tallest building Burj Khalifa. The project of Burj Khalifa was widely regarded as a project which would be cemented the aspiration of UAE to be a symbolic place of the Middle East. There are different opinions over whether this project was successful or not. At any rate, it seems too early to determine that the project was a complete success. But when we just think about the whole process of the project, one might say that this project was success in terms of the benefits that the stakeholders derive from using the facilities. Furthermore, this project’s impacts on society have also had positive outcomes. First, the methods in order to accomplish the project have had a great influence on construction technology. Second, world sheds new light on the Dubai thus further investment is expected. In this sense, it is possible to say that the tower was successful within certain parameters. If a successful operation is supported in Burj Khalifa, this project will bring a massive positive result to Dubai as a long-term.

GCC Explanation and Causes of Concussion Discussion

GCC Explanation and Causes of Concussion Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Watch Headgames in class or watch it hear (Links to an external site.)Answer the following questions.What is happening in the brain during a concussion? What are your attitudes/thoughts about sports-related head injuries? Were you affected or surprised by the information in this documentary? Reply to these two responses. Here is the first one you should reply toA concussion is usually caused by a blow to the head. It is considered a traumatic brain injury that affects your brain function. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and problems with concentration, memory, balance, and coordination. Traumatic brain injuries, like a concussion, can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves. The result is your brain doesn’t function as it should.In high school, I ran both cross country and track, so I experienced a fair amount of injuries while running. Although it is nothing compared to a concussion, I had severe shin splints throughout the season. I personally think that when you sign up to play a sport you should be fully aware and okay with some of the injuries you may endure. I had friends who played football and they always seemed to have concussions. When it comes to football I think that the sport, in particular, is very aggressive and needs to be less aggressive or the players should be better equipped with better headgear. Furthermore, I think football coaches should be more educated when it comes to the severity of the possible concussions their players can potentially get. After watching the documentary, it was a real eye-opener to hear everyone’s stories including how it personally affected them. I would say for the most part I was shocked to find out that coaches didn’t really value their players enough to let them sit out due to an injury. They were expected to simply play through the pain even if something was seriously wrong. I think there is a lot wrong when it comes to sports and that is one thing that needs to be addressed.Here is the second one you should reply to1. During a concussion, your brain starts to change shape very fast around the jelly like structure inside our brain. This traumatic injury will cause neurofibers to start stretching causing the neurofibers to not be able to process information like before. As the neurofibers get stretched out this causes a chemical destruction. This then will disrupt the brain and won’t be able to function like before. 2. I am a cross country and track runner and running is a mental sport. 25% can take training but when it comes to racing tough courses 75% relies on your mental toughness. Therefore, my thoughts on head-injuries is that you have to be careful with taking care of your brain because your brain is a vital thing when it comes to playing sports. Even so in some sports its very hard to protect your head like football. Most sports consist of being mentally strong and your brain has a lot to do with that. Head-injuries like a concussion are scary experiences as you might not be yourself ever again from this.3. I was really surprised since I knew already what head-injuries can do to athletes and its sad to see it happen to athletes since most of their time they spent countless hours in the field training to be win the next game. Even though the athletes know that there is a high chance they may undergo a head-injury they still undergo with it hoping that it may not happen to them but as always it happens unexpectedly. Therefore, seeing this documentary of families being impacted by head-injuries is sad to see and to think that their athlete might not be able to play again is just another heartbreaking experience to see.
GCC Explanation and Causes of Concussion Discussion

The Service Quality Of Kuala Lumpur Public Transports Tourism Essay

The definition of service quality means customer perception on how well does a service can meets or exceeds the expectation. As for the words “public transport” itself, it is being describes as a vehicle that caters the passenger to reach a destination and every usage of this particular public transportation will be charge with a minimum or a special fares to each passenger at the same times. In transport, there are a special word being known as mobility it is usually defined as the ability to move anything for example like people, goods and other living thing or non living thing from one place to another place and it is measured by the number of trips made by a person each day (Vasconcellos, 2001) whereas ‘personal mobility’ refers to the use of personal transport; it can be a car or a motorcycle or others. The term of “public” is widely used; this term is not considered as secret or private, the term itself open to or concerning the people as a whole, sharing their very own common interest with everybody. Based on Md Aftabuzzaman, Graham Currie, Majid Sarvi, the main urban public transport problem is the road traffic congestion and this is one of the reason why people do not switch to using public transport (Cervero 1991; Downs 1992). By having public transport system, efficient public transport (PT) can be regard as one of the potential solutions that can solve the problem of urban road traffic congestion (Hyman and Mayhew 2002,; Pucher et al. 2007; Vuchic 1999. The main public transport such as buses, taxis, trains was provided by the government towards the public’s use. For convenient of people who are staying in urban and rural areas ( White 2002), governments have provided a better service quality to people to make sure the service they provided are able to satisfy the consumer needs and expectation as well as to increase the level of service quality of public transport. In public transport, service quality can be focus in term of tangibles, reliability and responsiveness (Parasuraman et. al., 1985) and it has becomes a significant issues which is to have a better and comfortable environment. Mostly customers do not satisfy with the physical facilities in public transport. Cleanliness, comfortableness, frequencies, responsiveness of the driver and conductor of public transports are the major issues customer always complaints and disappointed on it. Besides that, buses mostly not provided convenience facilities such as wheelchair, which is needed for disable person. However, Malaysia Prime Minister himself dissatisfied with the current issues and problems after being experienced on using the LRT service. Problems for Light Rail Transit (LRT) and Keretanapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) are the time arrival always delays and not to forget, service likes punctuality, frequencies of train arrives on time and insufficient of space to carry passengers are also the main issues that caused congestion occurs (Utusan 2008). Even though the public transportation is modernized and has been updated in urban areas but with the lacking of service quality and well-implemented by the government, it will lead a negative perception tot the customers and they won’t satisfy of using public transport service that they provided which are insufficient and inefficiency ( Karen Thompson, Peter Schofield 2002). Despite the routing scheduled stating the bus would arrive on every 15 minutes but users has been waiting the half an hour and yet the bus still not arrives. This is one of the punctuality problems faced by the public buses in Malaysia (The Star 2008). Another incident occurred in urban area Kuala Lumpur, which are included LRT train and Rapid KL. The train and bus clashing with each other in 200 meter from Bukit Jalil Station (The Star 2008). This shows that the safety measurement of public transports become worst and action should be taken into consideration. Transit service quality and reliability is essential for transit passengers and it did shown that both factors do affect passenger satisfaction substantially (Tyrinopoulos, 2008). Furthermore, transit service reliability regard as one of the significant factor for commuters to decide on which types of public transportation they prefer to use the most (Benjamin, 1998). Due to inefficiency of system, buses did not arrive on time, departure delays, lacking of passenger seats, thus, these factors would cause passenger overloads. Commuters would more preferable to drive their own vehicles instead of using public transport to access to work, recreation, school during the peak service periods. It must be given extra attention on inefficiency system of buses in order to improving the reliability towards of passengers and commuters. However, service extension wouldn’t be necessary if the passenger loading was equally distributed and buses were regularly spaced enough. According to Margareta Friman and Markus Felleson, new services of public transport are being developed and old services are being improved or upgraded in order to meet the potential and present customer’s requirement. To encourage more people to use the public transport, services should be designed and performed in a way to meet the levels of service required by customers (Beirão and Sarsfield Cabral 2007). In addition, there are few factors of how customers perceive public transport. Factors such as frequency, reliability, travel time and fare level (Hensher et al. 2003, Tyrinopoulos and Aifadopoulou 2008), comfort and cleanliness (Eboli and Mazzulla 2007, Swanson et al. 1997), network coverage or distance to stop (Eriksson et al. 2009, Tyrinopoulos and Antoniou 2008), and safety issues (Smith and Clarke 2000, Fellesson and Friman 2008) are the main factors for users do not use the public transport and also customer express their points of view about services as well as to providing judgment of public transport according to the service quality. According to Tew Shi Yi, to enhance the percentage level of using public transportation, they managed to come up with a plan which is to offer an effective, accurate and user-friendly system for users especially for the citizens of Kuala Lumpur and it indeed bring the significant benefits to the public. Laura Eboli and Gabriella Mazzulla, one of the factors influencing the travel user choices to use the public transport is the transit service quality. Those customers who manage to use the transit service, they will probably use transit services again. In contrast, users may not use the transit services next time if they are not capable to use it well. However, improving the service quality is important for attracting new users. According to Che Rosmani Che Hassan, Mahar Diana Hamid, Norazlin Dzulkifly, Noor Zalina Mahmood, bus is one of the main alternatives of mass transportation as it is not only has better coverage areas such as Light Rail Transit (LRT) and commuter train but also cheaper for public to use it. Also, they found out that existing bus interchanges often inadequate to meet the growing needs of customers. There are thousands of people use the bus interchanges around Kuala Lumpur to reach their destination in a day. Such interchanges are Hentian Puduraya, Hentian Duta, Klang Bus Stand and more. Based on research made by the student from the University Malaya, the survey results happens to be true that, the reason why do most of the Malaysian used private cars instead of Public Transportation were mainly, they lack of knowledge about the availability of the public transportation around their area. Not familiar on how to use the public transportation. Although there are several types of public transport but yet people rather to drive their own car and stuck in the traffic jam for few hours than using with public transport that might somehow causes problems when it is less unpredicted. However, government has comes up with a plan which is to introduce a new set of traffic management policy measures to promote the use of public transport. To encourage the residents to use the public transport, several facilities has been provided by the government in public transport station such as extra parking spaces are added nearby the public transport station so that people can park their car and ride easily, bus shuttle from bus stop to the train station or add more bus or train frequencies in either neighborhood or the city area. Ng Choy Peng and Dadang Mohamed MA’SEOM, private vehicles have led to severe congestion and pollution. Kuala Lumpur first started to operate the light rail transit (LRT) in 1996 following by the STAR LRT and PUTRA LRT. These are the two LRT systems that operate in Kuala Lumpur after LRT. It has been found that most of the LRT stations in Kuala Lumpur areas provide inadequate parking space and this is one of the reason public do not switch to using public transport. However, to promote the use of public transport, the local authorities recommended improving the existing bus services like bus lane needs to develop even better and so on. As for the construction of the commuter train, it must be well-developed and to make sure light railway transit (LRT) is able to cater the need of residents from suburban area to urban area. Last but not least, it is also shown that the public transportation nowadays face a very big negative impact from all the consumer and passenger that travels around with the public transport, this proven a result that the public transportation has show a lot inefficiency services that provided by each company, poor connection from certain destination to a destination itself. 1.2 Research Problem The problem regarding to this proposal is the customer perception service quality towards public transport in Kuala Lumpur. This research is to find our factors that influencing customers not to use with the public transport. Researcher found out that private cars has become the main choice of traveler’s mode of transport is because they dissatisfied with the service quality such as reliability, cleanliness and comfortableness, facilities, travel fare and time of the public transport. There might have been frequent complaints from the commuters and passengers that the public transport did not provide a good service such as departure always delays, insufficient passenger’s seats and others. Most of them lack of knowledge about the availability of the public transportation around their area. Consumer does not know the exact traveling time and duration from the origin to the destination itself and not familiar on how to use the public transportation. So therefore most of them would not take the risk into taking public transportation as their mode of transport. Besides that, they are easily confused on what type of transport to use to reach their destination; slightly it is due to there are too many choices of public transportation to choose from in Kuala Lumpur. Furthermore, the consumer does not want to waste time waiting for the transportation with no exact arriving time everyday when they own a private car where they do not worries anything about the availability of the car, the traveling duration, and it is far more accessible from time to time. 1.3 Research Question What are the factors that affect public not to using public transport in Kuala Lumpur? How does the service and requirements can be improved? What is the extension level of the service attributes must be improved in the future? What is the overall satisfaction level of users to public transport? What is the item of service quality that leads to customer satisfaction? 1.4 Research Objectives The main purpose of the objective for this proposal is to measure the user’s global satisfaction with public transport as well as to examine the customer perception of using Kuala Lumpur public transport according to certain factors. The main point of this research is to find out what is the level of expectation perception of Kuala Lumpur customers about service of public transport delivered and what kind of services that affect most of the people do not use public transport. It is very important to find out how does the service and requirements can meet the customer’s satisfaction, any improvement for government to maintain the public transport, factors government would take into consideration in deciding to use public transport more or drive less in order to encourage and promote people, especially the citizens of Kuala Lumpur to use public transport services more often. Government should update the latest information such as possible routes coverage, departure and arrival time of the public transport and travel fare to the user. Suggested route will be giving out to the users to ensure users using public transport in a shortest time and cheapest way with a limited budget to reach the destination itself. Objectives of this research are: To determine the reason for public to choose to travel with private car but not using public transport in Kuala Lumpur. To identify the types of service and requirements to meet the customer’s satisfaction. To identify the extent gap of between the customer’s perception and expectation. To identify the best solution to improve the service quality of the public transportation, like more seats and comfortable seats. Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Framework Basically, the above diagram is the research shows how readers are to determine the factors that encourage car users’ switch from driving car to using public transportation in Kuala Lumpur more often. Factors that can encourage the car users to switch and use the public transportation are to upgrade and expand the service quality of that particular transportation. For example, KTMB need to put in a lot of effort into upgrading their services, especially during the peak time (working hours) so that the consumer can access to it with hassle free. Customer satisfactions are also an important aspect in the customer perception, in order to make the customer satisfied into using the transportation are to make sure that comfort are there, the warm service are they and accessibility are surrounding the public transport itself. Furthermore are the Reliability of Public Transport, in order to make the public transportation a reliable one, the management of the transportation company, must always upgrading their services and expand their services, so that the consumer can feel reliable towards the particular transportation. Diagram above is the model of conceptual framework, which is illustrating the relationship between service and quality development, customer satisfaction, responsiveness, route accessibilities of public transport, reliability of public transport (arriving on time), and the maintenance from time to time to public transport. 1.6 Significant of study This research helps to indentify existing problem of what factors encourage car user’s switch to use public transport which may lead to the satisfaction of car users. Through this research, the government has to put its effort to make an improvement on the public transport system such as development of an integrated and efficient public transport system. Action should be taken into consideration to upgrade the public transport to car users in order to meet the requirements and provide an efficiency services which will give customer a wide perspective of satisfaction especially focuses on the expansion of Light Rail Transit (LRT) and commuter train services. By doing this, it will not only helpful and useful at this time and future planning as well. The result of this research will improve the car user’s satisfaction. In the meantime, this planning will encourage more people to use public transport. Furthermore, it does helps to indentify additional changes that can be done to avoid further impacts to the current site emphasized in this study. Scope and Limitations The scope of study is the public perception towards Kuala Lumpur public transport. Due to the time constraint, the researcher might not able to gather sources of the information from journals, online journals, further details, and newspapers. Beside of this, the researcher also facing some difficulties on the research paper because of the short time provided on the research process. Obviously, it is caused by the lack of resource that provided in KDU library and the researcher also facing some difficulties on getting the further details information about public transport in Kuala Lumpur with a limitation of resources. It also caused by the data that provided in KDU library is not the latest and the data didn’t up to date regularly. Chapter 2 – Review of Related Literature 2.1. Factors influencing the customer perception service quality towards Public Transport in Kuala Lumpur This review indicates that efficient public transport (PT) considered as one of the potential solutions to the problem of urban road traffic congestion (Hyman and Mayhew 2002,;Pucher et al. 2007; Vuchic 1999).The factors that influencing the customer perception towards public transportation are mainly because of the times due to the seemingly break down and the delay of train all the time, the customer do not want to take the risk taking public transportation without taking the public transportation, it will helps reduced the time of travelling and can avoid the malfunction of the public transportation all the time The second factor that influence their perception are crowded and comfort, due to the public transportation are always crowded, there are some of the customer that afraid to take the public transportation, reason are because they have to be inside the public transport hot and stuffy, sometimes will occurred cases like sexual harassment towards the woman that travel using the public transportation. Not only that, when it is too crowded some of the customer unable to enjoy the seats due to lack of seats and also when there are too many people sometimes it will cause drowsiness when not enough air ventilate in the bus, train or taxi itself. The third factor that influence the customer into taking the public transportation are the desirable routes are not covered by the public transportation, it is only covers some part of the city, suburban areas and town but not to most of the places, it is hard for those customer to travel using public transportation when some of the destination that offers by the public transport itself need transfers and also need walking. The last factors that influence the customer perception are the infrequent public transportation. There are public transport that travels follow the time that set by the system, example like KTM there are a board stating that what time exactly will the train itself will arrive, but the train always reach late and never follow. So as the Monorail and also the Star LRT which provides the wrong information of time all the time? As for Putra LRT, is the only rail that shows the correct timing due to the, system will update its timing once the trains reach certain destination? Based on Apogee Research (1996), there are three main tools central to the assessment of public transport such as travel demand models, transport cost analysis techniques, transport sketch planning and impact spreadsheets and each of the tools will have their own benefits and disbenefits. 2.2. Service Quality Surprisingly, few studies have so far analyzed this relationship. The concept of service quality involved outcomes, satisfaction of the users, and other intangibles of public transport expectations. In addition, facilities and more tangible aspect of public transports physical elements are also one of the concept of service quality (Fodness