Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction This essay will consider the definition of nursing research, different types of research and design, and why research is important in nursing practice. It will also illustrate examples of research influencing practice, and make recommendations for current or future practice. Main Body Nursing research can be defined as any scientific (i.e. systematic) enquiry into the effectiveness or value of nursing practice (Parahoo, 1997; Sullivan, 1998; Polit
Below are some reasons why a person would like to set up his /her own business. Control If a person has its own business; it gives them more control over how much money they make and how much they will work to gain more. When a person starts his business it is solely dependent on the person how to start and maintain it in future. In short the control comes in the person’s hand and there is no one else’s control over him. Choice When a person starts his/her own business, it gives him/her freedom to whatever they want to do. For instance, it gives you a choice whether you want to do business and job together or deal in various products of your own choice. Moreover, being a freelancer or an independent contractor gives a person freedom regarding which jobs they choose to take. Business Decisions If a person has his own business the success or failure of the business solely depends on your business decisions. For example, having your own business means you make the choices instead of having them made for you by an employer and the choices made decides if u fail or succeed, which in turn tells whether your decision was worth for a business. It gives you motivation to improve yourself in future and makes you a better businessman. Satisfaction Some people start their own business for themselves because they have a skill or a product to offer. They enjoy being obsessive about what they do. Moreover, starting your own business gives a person satisfaction as whatever they do they do for themselves and they can work hard to earn as much money as they want and there is no fixed salary. Job loss When a person loses his job, he may take his work experience and professional contacts and start his own business to make him less vulnerable to risks. Get creative Starting up a new business, provides and entrepreneur to bring his creativity out. If a person has considered going it alone, he will have thought out how you would do things your way. Being an entrepreneur gives him the freedom to express himself and develop his concept in any way he chooses. Of course, there are always financial constraints, but the ability to be as creative as you like is far more appealing than a one-dimensional job. Very profitable If you think that it’s just large corporations that make big profits, you would be wrong. There are countless stories of entrepreneurs hitting on a great idea, exploiting it well and being well on their way to their first million by the end of the year. Although the start-up process can be tough, with long hours and little money not uncommon, if you run your business well, the rewards can be huge. And, from a purely selfish point of view, you will get most of the profits yourself. Unfortunately, many of the businesses are more likely to fail in its initial years because of the difficulties that commonly plague struggling companies suffer from. These difficulties occur in every business in its early years as the business is new to everyone even to the management itself. Some of these reasons are elucidated below. Insufficient Capital A common fatal mistake for many failed businesses is having insufficient operating funds. Business owners underestimate how much money is needed and they are forced to close before they even have had a fair chance to succeed. They also may have an unrealistic expectation of incoming revenues from sales. It is imperative to ascertain how much money your business will require; not only the costs of starting, but the costs of staying in business. It is important to take into consideration that many businesses take a year or two to get going. This means you will need enough funds to cover all costs until sales can eventually pay for these costs. Lack of planning Successful businesses just don not happen instead they need planning to make it happen. They are the outcome of deliberate and well-executed business plans. Many businessmen are so eager to get started that they neglect business planning and start a business with a dream and an idea. That might motivate you to get it started but not necessarily to succeed. If a person wants to setup his business it is necessary to have a business plan first and then start. Overspending Many startups spend their seed money before cash has begun to flow in at a positive rate. This often happens because of misconception about how business operates. If you’re just starting out in business, seek out seasoned veterans you can bounce your ideas off of prior to making big financial commitments. Inadequate funding Another common reason for small business failure is a absence of adequate funding, especially during the critical start-up period. Inadequate funding severely limits the capacity and looms the ability to grow beyond the initial stage of life. One should resist himself from the urge to start until he have attained all of the funding which they know they need to do it right. Bad marketing Quite often a person creates a business that sells the best product at the best price but still fails because no one knows it exists. Marketing about the product is critical if the business is going to have any chance of becoming the flourishing venture. Unreliable suppliers The ability to maintain proper levels of inventory is directly relative to the quality of a person’s relationships with reliable suppliers. Developing effective supply channels can take some time but it is quite necessary in a business as whatever you sell should be good enough to attract customers to buy it. Staffing imbalances Labour is the biggest expense for most businesses. Therefore, it only makes sense that it’s worth your time to make sure that your company employs the right amount of people. For example, employing too many employees will have a bad effect on the business capital and employing very few employees will result in performance will. Making the perfect balance is not easy, but the rewards are well worth the effort. Ineffective sales performance Sales are a key element in the success of any businesses. Poor sales, on the other hand, are an indication that your business might be in jeopardy. A person should maintain a close eye on sales patterns and trends, and hire the best sales staff, which they can afford to keep the money regularly coming in. 1.3 The important factors which are necessary to start up a business are:- Knowledge/Expertise Any business needs some amount of basic knowledge and experience. It is very essential that the owner is aware about the business he plans to start. Knowledge and expertise about the product or service are keys to a successful business. Moreover, if a person has limited knowledge the owner may not be able to sustain the business and can be fooled by the vendors, suppliers and competitors. Expert knowledge is especially required if the field of business is a niche field. For instance, the construction or software industry would require more knowledge as against a retail business selling a particular brand of clothes or shoes. Location Deciding an ideal location for the business is a strategic and an important one. A good location goes a long way in making the business successful. The location needs to be carefully chosen. Some places have advantages over the others. A location should be explored on the basis where the raw materials can be easily sourced, the manpower would be easily available and it is easy to save on transportation costs. Moreover, choosing a location depends upon the nature of the business. For instance, a retail business should to be located in a well-populated area and one which is easily accessible. Competition Before entering new business, information about market competition needs to be found out. In case a product is a monopoly then the competition will not matter. Otherwise the success of the business will depend upon the demand and supply gap. Thus if there is a huge demand then you can enter the business in spite of the market competition. Otherwise you will need to be stronger than the competitors to gain an entry. Normally existing firms will always have an advantage due to the experience they have and because they may be well equipped. The question which needs to be answered is “What is unique about the product / service which will be offered to survive the market competition”? Information such as who are the competitors, what is their market strategy and what factors are required to compete with them are important. Financing/Capital After identifying the initial costs required for starting the business, it is necessary to look for the sources of funding like bank loan or sponsors. It is very essential to have adequate funds to start a business as lack of funds will have a bad impact on the business which may lead to the failure of it. Laws, Rules,
This report on tailless aircraft presents the pros and cons of using such an aircraft design for commercial purposes. The report comprises 4 sections discussing the aerodynamics, structural innovations, engines and overall advantages and disadvantages of tailless aircraft. The aerodynamic study of a tailless aircraft highlights the importance of the wave drag and span loading distribution and different designs that can improve the aerodynamic performance effectively. In structural innovations, several existing tailless aircraft are examined to identify how the structures have been designed to create a successful aircraft. In particular, structures used in the control and stability of the aircraft are examined. As regards to engines, the positioning of the engine and the idea of using a Vertical Takeoff has been discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of a tailless aircraft have been detailed. Introduction Of the aircraft in use today, the vast majority use a tailplane to house rudder and elevators. Aircraft without such a system remain quite rare. However, the concept of tailless aircraft has long been considered by engineers and aviators as an aerodynamically ideal. In the history of the aircraft design several attempts were made to build an aircraft with reduced tail size which has sometimes resulted in smaller drag and weight but has added to controllability problems. Because of this, tailless designs have mostly been used in military applications. In this report we assess whether it is now possible to seriously use this concept in commercial aircraft. Methodology The information contained in this report was primarily gathered from textbooks and internet research. Four different aspects of the subject were identified and each aspect was researched and written up by one member of the group. Additionally, the group were able to examine a harrier jump jet which visited Perth on 7th May 2010. Results of findings The following table summarises what the research has revealed: Negative points Lower profile and interference drag Lift to drag ratio increases by 20-25% Engines can be positioned in the centre rear instead of a tail, providing the additional advantage of directional stability Roll control is more efficient due to large wingspan The tip of the wing aerofoil is not near the stall angle due to backward sweep along with twisted wing tip Vertical takeoff is not practical since a large commercial aircraft weighs too much for the thrust available from current engine technology to overcome Directional control is more difficult to achieve without adding a rudder assembly The triangular spanwise aerodynamic loading distribution does not give the best aerodynamic performance even though the wave drag is the reduced. Section 1: Aerodynamics This section of the report discusses the aerodynamics of a tailless aircraft and various factors affecting the same. A tailless a is a revolutionary conceptual change from the classical design that has been prevailing for the past 50 years i.e. a wing attached to a cylindrical fuselage with a tail to ensure the stability and manoeuvrability of the aircraft. Lower wetted area (area which is in contact with the external airflow) to volume ratio and lower interference drag is the main aerodynamic advantage of a tailless aircraft in comparison with the conventional aircraft. On the aerodynamic performance side, the maximum lift-to-drag ratio depends on the ratio of the aircraft span to the square root of the product of the induced drag factor and the zero-lift drag area, which is proportional to the wetted area of the aircraft. () max = Where Cf is the average friction co-efficient (mainly dependent on the Reynolds number) over the wetted area Swet and is the friction co-efficient. Since the tailless aircraft have a lower aspect ratio but also a lower friction co-efficient due to its larger chord, we always get smaller relative wetted area. This provides a substantial improvement in aerodynamic performance by increasing the lift-to-drag ratio of tailless aircraft in cruise to about 20-25% as compared to the conventional aircrafts. The BWB-450 and BWB-800 were designed to compare with the existing fleet of conventional aircrafts as Boeing 747 and Airbus 380. BWB-450 was presented with the span and the aspect ratio being reduced to 80 m and 7.55 respectively, thereby concluding a decrease in 30%fuel burn per seat for the BWB models as compared to other conventional aircrafts and thus requiring 3 instead of 4 engines. Moreover another such design project was successfully completed, which is based on a similar payload and performance as Airbus 380 with over 650 passengers. The configuration of the project is well suited for the application of laminar flow technology (which results in skin friction drag) to the engine Nacelle and potentially to the lifting surfaces. Also an increase in cruise Mach number increases the drag making the design of aircraft unfeasible.
Multisystemic Therapy Case Study/ Ashford Univ EDU644
Multisystemic Therapy Case Study/ Ashford Univ EDU644.
Multisystemic Therapy is based upon nine principles. Read Case Study: Multisystemic Therapy for Adolescents Who Engage in HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors(http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/2/120.full.pdf+html). In a two- to five- page paper, apply the principles of multisystemic therapy to the case study. Apply the case study to at least three of the nine principles outlined in Figure 3.1 of the text. Critique the article and its use of the nine principles of multisystemic therapy. What did the researcher do well? What principles may have been missing from the application? Support your rationale for the effectiveness of the principles with outside research from at least one peer reviewed article. The paper should be written according to APA guidelines
Multisystemic Therapy Case Study/ Ashford Univ EDU644
It’s a thought leadership authored paper on ‘Well-being by Design’ from the importance of well-being in the workplace. Things
essay writing help It’s a thought leadership authored paper on ‘Well-being by Design’ from the importance of well-being in the workplace. Things to include in the paper below: Importance of wellbeing at work – Effective strategy, actions, policies organisation should embrace to integrate wellbeing as part of the corporate culture – Role to leadership in inculcating wellbeing at work – How do you incorporate design features and amenities to prompt well-being and how do you embed it at ‘Work By Design’? – How should HR leaders partner with other departments to ensure that technologies, workflows and processes are designed in a way that enshrines worker well-being? – How would companies justify the business case — in terms of adaptability, innovation and employee experience, for investing in well-being?
Causes of Whooping Cough
Abstract Introduction The genus Bordetella contains species of bacteria which are related serologically each displaying similar characteristics such as morphology, size and staining reactions (Website 1). The Bordetella genus is responsible for respiratory infections that are common in both people and animals (journal 1); Bordetella pertussis was first isolated in pure culture in 1906 and was long considered the sole causing factor of whooping cough. However, further studies revealed that mild forms of whooping cough could be caused by Bordetella parapertussis and on occasions Bordetella bronchiseptica (website 1). Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory illness that affects humans caused by the gram negative bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. This particular pathogen is a strict human pathogen with no evidence of an impact on animals or the environment (journal 1). The disease can be characterised by bronchopneumonia, paroxysmal coughing and the distinctive ‘whooping’ intake of air. Pertussis is more prevelant in developing countries where essential medical care is often not available and disease (journal 2) Species Associated with Bordetella Bacteria that belong to the genus Bordetella are of importance to both paediatric and veterinary medicine due to their ability to colonise and multiply on the ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract (journal 4) Nine species have been identified within the Bordetella genus to date, only three additional members, B. bronchiseptica, B. parapertussis and b. homlessi (journal 3). B. pertussis and B. parapertussis are extremely closely related according to their genomes; B. bronchiseptica, which by DNA-DNA and DNA-rRNA hybridisation are also closely related to the two previous species. A more recent addition to the genus includes B. avium (formerly known as Alceligenes faecalis) (website 1) which is described as a bird pathogen causes turkey coryza and other respiratory infections in fowl (journal 2). Another late addition includes B. hinzii (formerly known as A. faecalis type II), which can lead to respiratory disease in poultry and is very rarely found in humans (website 1). B. trematum has recently been proposed for a novel species isolated from human wounds and ear infections; although none of the new species identified were associated with respiratory infections, they are phylogenetically similar to other members of the genus (journal 2). Transmission Infection typically begins with the bacterium entering the airways of the host via airborne droplets derived from the cough of an infected individual. The pathogen proceeds down the respiratory tract and adhering to ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea and nasopharnyx in the host. Once attachment has occurred, the pathogen proceeds to replicate and colonise any adjacent areas. As part of Bordetella’s extensive range of virulence factors, it secretes toxins that damage the epithelial cells, which results in the loss of ciliated cells; this process induces the characteristic coughing (journal 2). Virulence Factors The main objective of any pathogenic bacterium is to colonise and replicate by exploiting its environment to the fullest extent. This can be achieved by the bacterium controlling and producing specific factors that enable it to infect the host (journal 2). Many of the virulence factors characterised in the bordetellae are common across the three species (B. pertussis, B parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica). These include adhesions such as filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin tracheal colonisation factor and fimbriae, and toxins including adenylate cyclasehemolysin, dermonecrotic and tracheal cytotoxin. Other virulence factors are expressed by just one of the species, such as the pertussis toxin and serum resistant protein secreted by B. pertussis or a type III secretion system expressed by the species B. bronchiseptica (Journal 5) Bvg Regulation The majority of virulence factors displaced by this genus are controlled by BvgAS regulatory locus, a two-component regulatory system. BvgA is a 23 kDa (journal 9) DNA binding response regulator (journal 8). BvgS is a 135 kDa (journal 9) transmembrane sensor protein kinase (journal 8). This system assists the transition of B. pertussis between its virulent phase of Bvg and its Bvg– phase which is avirulent (JOURNAL 10). For both B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis, in order for sufficient respiratory tract colonisation the Bvg phase is necessary (journal 8), this phase can be demonstrated when bacteria is grown on a rich media at 37°C (journal 11) BvgAS undergoes a series of phosphorelay signal transduction events in response to an environmental stimulus that leads to differential transcriptions of target genes. This regulatory system has a distinct intermediate phase, Bvg1 that can be achieved with the growth of bacteria in that conditions are between Bvg and Bvg– phases (journal 11). BvgS undergoes autophosphorylation when there is an absence of modulators, after several steps the phosphate group is transferred to the amino terminal domain of the second component. The phosphorylation activates BvgA and binds to promoter regions located on B.pertussis virulence activated genes (Journal 12). Filamentous Haemagglutinin Many virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis are well characterised and any mutations in these factors causes significant reduction or complete loss of virulence. The bacteria adhere to ciliated cells of the epithelium in the upper section of the respiratory tract. The filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) is the major adhesion present across B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica (journal 6). This particular virulence factor is crucial in order for B. pertussis to attach the pathogen to the host cell. FHA is a 220-kDA surface associated protein that is secreted to the extracellular environment to assist the adherence to ciliated epithelial cells, therefore initiating the pathogenic cycle (Journal 2). However, in recent studies using the closely related species Bordetella bronchiseptica it has shown that other adhesions are just as important in initiating an infection; any deletion of any of the four adhesions (FHA, Pertactin, fimbriae, Brk A) results in the decreased ability of B. bronchiseptica to bind to host cells (Book 1) Pertactin Pertactin can also be known as aliases p.69 and OMP 68 due to its electrophoretic mobility in SDS-Page, pertactin is a 60-kDa outer membrane protein which assists bacterial adherence. Similar molecules are produced by other members of the same genus; B. parapertussis produces p.70 and p.68 in B. bronchiseptica (Journal 2). In a comparison of the prn gene sequences of B. bronchiseptica, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the precursors were found to be homologous (journal 6). The mechanism in which pertactin promotes the adherence to the ciliated epithelial cells is unknown and no receptor has been found, It has been demonstrated by a number of groups that pertactin can be described as an immunoprotective antigen (Journal 2). Adenylate cyclase toxin/haemolysin Adenylate cyclase toxin, a 177 kDa polypeptide (book 1) is a highly toxic potent repeats in toxin (RTX) family and is a substrate of T1SS. This particular toxin consists of two functional molecules; adenylate cyclase domain which binds calmodulin and catalyses unregulated conversion of ATP to cAMP, and an RTX haemolytic domain which is responsible for the binding to target cells and translocating adenylate domain into the cytosol (journal 7). Evidence suggests that the increasing levels of cAMP produced can lead to a decrease in phagocytosis as well as inhibition of chemotaxis; this therefore affects a major part of the innate immune response book 1). ACT has the potential to play a role in adhesion by modifying a carbohydrate binding domain of FHA leading to an increased ability to bind to host cells. However, the main function of ACT appears to be its ability to inhibit the function of neutrophils (book 1). Pertussis Toxin (PT) – Type IV Secretion Pertussis toxin is a member of the AB5 toxin family, indicating it consists of five different subunits (book 2), with two copies of the subunit 2 together with single copies of S 2, 3 and 5 forming a pentameric ring. This mediates host cell receptor binding and the translocation of the S 1 subunit (ADP ribosyltransferase) (BOOK 4), it is considered the most complex bacterial toxin. Pertussis toxin is essential for bacterial virulence; it interferes with the mechanism used by host cells to remain in communication with the rest of the host’s body. Other affects include weight loss, elevated igE production, and increased sensitivity to histamine, serotonin and cold. While the pertussis toxin alters the behaviour of both human and animal cells, its ability to inhibit activation of the immune system in response to infection best explains its role in human whooping cough (book 2). A full understanding of Type IV secretion is yet to be achieved; however, it does provide a good example of the ability of bacteria to adapt groups of proteins to its new needs (book 4). Epidemiology In terms of epidemiological quantities, there are two fundamental aspects: the transmission rate and the length of the infectious period; these values determine the basic reproductive rate R0 (journal 13). The mucous membranes of the human respiratory tract are the natural habitat for Bordetella bacteria, although B. pertussis can survive outside the body for up to a few days and can be transmitted via contaminated items. Majority of infectors occur through direct contact with an infected individual (website 1). Prior to the 20th century was considered a terrible childhood disease, in 2008 it still occurs for approximately 195,000 deaths worldwide. Of these fatal cases 95% occurred in developing countries. Outbreaks have been found to be linked with incomplete or reduced immunisation of individuals. The vaccine formerly used was known as DTP and included antibodies diphtheria toxin (D), tetanus toxin (T) and pertussis (P); however, this vaccine has been replaced with a safer DTaP vaccine, reducing the side effects (website 2). Discussion Although many advances have been made, much remains to be discovered as to how the adhesions and toxins produced by the Bordetella species establish and maintain infection and development of disease.in host cell organisms. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7813/ WEBSITE 1 http://www.who.int/immunization/topics/pertussis/en/index.html WEBSITE 2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1082800/ JOURNAL 1 JOURNAL 2 http://cmr.asm.org/content/18/2/326.full.pdf html JOURNAL 3 JOURNAL 4 JOURNAL 5 http://ac.els-cdn.com.ezproxy.tees.ac.uk/S1438422104700168/1-s2.0-S1438422104700168-main.pdf?_tid=39b13536-78ce-11e3-a0ea-00000aab0f6b
For this assignment, you will write a one-page statement that describes your classroom management philosophy. Throughout the semester we
For this assignment, you will write a one-page statement that describes your classroom management philosophy. Throughout the semester we learned about classroom management theories/theorists, strategies, and frameworks. Write about how these strategies and frameworks lay the basis for your management style. Your final reflection should relate your philosophy to the theories that will guide the development of the classroom management plan for your future classroom(s). Use this as a reference template: https://ssewell1.wordpress.com/philosophy-of-classroom-management/