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Importance of Political Theory

Importance of Political Theory. POLITICAL THEORY Political Theory is generating an endless debate about its comprehensive definition; there are several views by theorists in understanding the nature of the discipline. There is need to clarify the meaning of key political ideas such as freedom, equality, justice etc. in a systematic manner. There is need to examine the arguments put forward by various political think-tanks in the justification of these concepts. In examining arguments, there is also need to reflect upon our modern political experiences and spot out trends and expectation for the future. Political Theory “is the combination of two words, ‘politics’ and ‘theory’. The word ‘Politics’, here stands for an identification of that which is to be “theorized” or “ understood,” while ‘Theory’ comes from a Greek word called “theorema” which means what emerges from “theorizing.” ‘Theoros’ which means an intelligent observer, one who looks at what is going on, asking questions about it and tries to understand it. (LSE 1/1/54. Autograph).” John Plamenatz described political theory as the ‘systematic thinking about the purposes of government’ (Plamenatz, 1960: 37) and I think this definition is just as apt today as it was then. Political theory is, however, usually regarded as a distinctive approach to the subject, even though, particularly in the USA, it is seen as a subfield of political science involves the analytical study of ideas and doctrines that have been central to political thought (Heywood, A. 2004). Political theory According to Farrell C. (2004), Political theory is thus a normative discipline; it is primarily concerned with how things ought to be as opposed to how things actually are. Leftwitch (1994), points out that one of the main contribution of political philosophy to our understanding of politics, is the potential for developing consistency and clarity of thought and judgment and that this process of clarification is not about analytical or explanatory activity: it is also about listening. According to Leftwitch politics is about conflict and its resolution, and resolving conflicts of interest occurs in all societies at all levels. Philosophical questions such as the nature of truth, will, determinism, etc. play a crucial role in argumentation, but we prefer the term “theory” because it seems less daunting and abstract; however we don’t see any substantive difference between theory and philosophy (Hoffman, etal, 2009). Political theory is not a question of whether political animals follow theory, but a question of which theory or concept is supported when they present policies and undertake actions (Hoffman, etal, 2009). Theory and concept are tools used interchangeably for political analysis with which we think, criticize, argue, explain and analyze to guide and inform political action. To argue that something is true is not to cast out all doubt, if something is true this does not also mean that it is not also false. It simply means that on balance one proposition is truer or less false than the other. To argue otherwise is to assume that a phenomenon has to be one thing or another; philosophers call this dualistic approach (Hoffman, etal, 2009)”. Theorists are not only important to politicians: our notions of common sense and human nature are heavily infused with the views of thinkers we may never have heard of, for instance, Ben Barber tells us in his website that he was an informal advisor to President Bill Clinton between 1994 and 1999 because of his ability to bridge the “world of theory and practice.” I can contest as to whether the political leaders, acts according to the right political concepts, but it is irrefutable that their dealings are connected to theory. In relationship to what Hoffman says, to point out that “democracy” is good is both true or false, because even the true democrats would acknowledge some shortcomings of democracy and even the aggressive critics would agree that it has some positive component. According to Friedman, this vital freedom is found only in free market capitalist economies, in which ‘freedom’ in effect means the absence of government interference’. According to Mills (1859), “if all of mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one other person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would no more be justified in silencing that person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.” Thomas Hobbes for instance, described freedom as the ‘silence of the laws’. John Locke suggested that law does not restrict liberty as much as defend or enlarge it. Therefore I can argue that while I agree that individuals should be forced to be free on the other hand unconstrained freedom or liberty could amount to the infringement of other people’s rights. For example, people should be forced or encouraged to express their freedom of expression or movement or demonstration while taking into consideration the rights of others without infringing their rights. The idea of equality is perhaps the defining feature of modern political thought (Heywood, A. 2004). The most noticeable, and perhaps most imperative, manifestation of formal equality is the principle of legal equality, or ‘equality before the law’. In constructing his theory of ‘justice as fairness,’ Rawls appeals to the idea of the social contract. Cohen, portrayed legal equality as ‘market’ or ‘bourgeois’ equality, and argued that it operates as little more than a facade, serving to disguise the reality of exploitation and economic inequality. In constructing his theory of ‘justice as fairness,’ Rawls appeals to the idea of the social contract. A liberalist view, every person is blessed with reason or will, which hinges on individual rights, beliefs of rationality and self-interested. In true sense, however, equality does not mean the same treatment in as much as there can be no likeness of treatment as long as people differ in want, capacity and need etc. As Walzer argued, different principles of justice may therefore be appropriate in different spheres of life. Rawls’s theory of the difference principle does permit inequality it does so only when such inequalities benefit everyone, especially the least advantaged. Dworkin’s principle, (2000) of equal concern requires us to compensate those who have handicaps and little native (or non-marketable) talents, there is a difference between someone who is less advantaged as a result of circumstances beyond their control (for example, being born with a severe handicap) and someone who is less advantaged as a result of their own choice (for example, choosing to live off welfare payments instead of working). For instance, when the government distributes fertilizer-subsidy or food items to the disadvantaged- I slightly agree with Rawls difference principle on one hand I do not agree on the other, especially the identification of the least advantaged. It is a little bit tricky for someone to qualify as a genuine needy person because it could encourage laziness to those who pretend to be the poorest. It is better for anybody to sweat in order to get something rather than getting anything on silver tray. History is evidently important, as part of exploration into modern challenges. My view, ‘political theory,’ is the ability to inquire into the political activity by using analytical tools such as concept, model and theory to dissect by believing the answers to the questions examined to have an important impact of what goes on in the real world. It is important for political academics to develop the critical skills necessary to explore new experience and new knowledge through the analysis of political ideas and their relationship to political practice. This experience in-turn informs the future. I can argue that academic political theory should ascertain to enhance the quality of public political debate. BIBLIOGRAPHY Farrelly C. (2004). Introduction to Contemporary Political Theory. Heywood, A. (2004). Political Theory: An Introduction, 4th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Hoffman J and Graham P. (2009). Introduction to Political Theory. Leftwitch A. (1994). What is Politics? Importance of Political Theory
All students with special education needs. 1.0 Introduction: This paper explores an ongoing debate in the educational field; should all students with Special Educational Needs (SENs) be included in mainstream educational provisions? To fully understand the issues involved, the paper will begin with an introduction to SEN and historical developments that have shaped SEN as we know it today. An investigation into inclusion will follow evaluating current issues that will help to determine whether inclusion for all SEN is possible or not. An analysis of SEN pupils will highlight strategies that may allow teachers along with organisation to implement inclusion along with its limitations. A conclusion will finalise the paper evaluating key findings. 2.0 Special Educational Needs (SEN) – An Overview In order to assess whether students with SENs should be included in mainstream educational provisions, one must first understand what SEN means. Under the 1944 Education Act, children with special educational needs were categorised by their disability defined in medical terms. This meant that some children were considered to be ‘uneducable’ and pupils were labelled into categories such as ‘maladjusted’ or ‘educationally sub-normal’ and given ‘special educational treatment’ in separate schools. The Warnock Report in 1978, followed by the 1981 Educational Act, radically changed the conceptualisation of special educational needs. It introduced the idea of special educational needs (SEN), ‘statement’ of SEN, and an ‘Integrative’ – which later became known as ‘inclusive’ – an approach based on common educational goals for all children regardless of their ability or disabilities: namely independence, enjoyment and understanding. For purpose of this paper the definition proposed by The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (2002) is taken into account stating that children have SEN if they have a learning difficulty that calls for special educational provisions to be made for them. However, the difficulty with such definition, and the issue arising from The Warnock Report, was the unforeseen consequence that the term SEN has become to be the name of a single category which has led to some conflicting issues. Quarmby (2006) reiterates that government has been using it as if it is the same problem to include a child in a wheelchair and a child with Asperger’s, and this is conspicuously untrue This category within the SEN umbrella help to understand students with special needs, and ascertains the fact that certain students may need different special educational provisions to be made for them. But whose responsibility is it to provide the necessary provisions for students to learn? The paper asks a deliberate straight forward question – should all students with SENs be included in mainstream education? If yes, does this mean mainstream schools would be expected to include pupils with Cognitive and Learning Needs; Behaviour, Emotional and Social Development Needs; Communication and Interaction Needs and Sensory and/or physical needs? At what level do we need to include them? Is it just sharing time, socialising, sharing tasks or is it the active participation in-class activities following the same curriculum. This leads to the unenviable task of evaluating inclusion. 3.0 Inclusion Over the last 30 years, policies about ‘integration’ and subsequently about ‘inclusion’ have been the subject of much controversy. Much has been written about efforts to include pupils identified as having special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools and classrooms. Inclusion reflects the idea that it is not for SEN children to be somehow fitted in or integrated into the mainstream but that education as a whole should be fully inclusive of all children (House of Commons Report, 2006). Until the 1990’s the term inclusion was rarely used and instead we referred to ‘integration’ or ‘mainstreaming’ meaning the placement of pupils with disabilities or special needs in mainstream schools. Integration was the term first introduced in the 1978 Warnock Report referring to the concept of integrating children with SEN into a common educational framework. There were different integration, from full-time placement in a mainstream classroom (functional integration) to the placement of a pupil in a special class or unit attached to a mainstream school (locational) (Hegarty, 1991). The aim to end ‘segregation’ was gathering momentum and from a human rights approach, it was certainly a requirement. However, there was often little difference between locational integration and a traditional special school, which can be seen as equally segregating experiences (Jupp, 1992). Indeed, even pupils placed in mainstream class may be isolated from their peers, particularly if they work with a support worker in one-to-one sessions for the majority of each day. ‘Integrated’ placements, therefore, still leave many pupils ‘segregated’ (Harrower, 1999). Partly for this reason, the term ‘inclusion’ came to describe the extent to which a school or community welcomes pupils identified with special educational needs (SEN) as full members of the group and values them for the contribution which they make. Their diversity of interests, ability and attainment should be welcomed and be seen to enrich the life of the school. In this sense, as Ballard (1999) argues, inclusion is about valuing diversity rather than assimilation. This general movement towards inclusion was also (In addition to The Warnock Report) strongly influenced by the Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) which had a major impact on shaping policy developments in many different countries. In England this is evident in various government initiatives since the late 1990s including, for example, the statuary Inclusion Guidance (DfES, 2001a), the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (DfES, 2001b) and the ‘Removing Barriers to Achievement’ strategy (DfES, 2004) each providing a further impetus towards inclusion (Hick et al, 2009). Overall, after an extensive literature review it was evident that three main strands have developed relating to inclusion. One is about equal opportunities and right to education for all. It argues that any form of segregation on the basis of disability or learning difficulty is morally wrong (Jordan and Goodey, 1996; Lindsay, 2003). A second strand is based on a re-conceptualisation of the special needs issue as part of the process of school improvement (Ainscoq, 1999). This idea is based on the argument that it is the structure of schools as organisations rather than differences between individual pupils that creates special educational needs (Tomlinson, 1982). The third strand of literature has been concerned with questions of pedagogy. Though some have focused on the development of inclusive practice from the outset (Forest and Pearpoint, 1992), others have considered whether or not teaching practices and methods can be implemented in mainstream schools and classrooms in order to meet the challenge of inclusive education (Cook and Schrimer, 2003). Inclusive practice’ is therefore concerned with actions and activities that staffs in schools do that give meaning to the concept of inclusion. These 3 main strands will be used as a framework in deciding whether students with SEN should be included in mainstream education provision. In addition it is essential to understand and apply the SEN Code of Practice principles that support inclusive education as a framework in achieving inclusion. The five fundamental principles that support inclusive can be observed in Table 2: As with any change, the inclusion of all students with SENs in mainstream education provisions may bring both ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ impacts within schools and pupils. 3.1 The ‘Good’ and the ‘Evil’ Although inclusion is seen as a very positive strategy by some, it is considered idealistic and impractical by others. Some critics have argued that inclusion happens at the expense of good and appropriate education for the other children in the class; in other words, if a student with special needs is taught within a mainstream class, they might need extra attention from the teacher, or may be disruptive or difficult in class, and this could harm other children’s education. On the other hand it can be argued that the other children in the class benefit a great deal from working with students with special educational needs and that inclusive education helps to remove stereotypes and ignorance. It is also argued that children with SEN are better off in segregated classrooms as this enables them to gain social support from others with similar difficulties. It also allows opportunities to concentrate specialist teachers and resources in one place. The objection to this is that the disadvantage of keeping children with certain difficulties together is that it makes it harder for them to integrate fully into society once they leave school. 3.2 Inclusion in Practice The Government recognised the barriers to inclusion that exist in schools in its statement in 2004(DfES, 2004) and set out a proposal about how the barriers should be tackled. OFSTED, in its report in 2004, found that more mainstream schools saw themselves as inclusive, but only a minority met special educational needs very well. Members of the SENCo Forum responded to the Government’s Special Need Action Plan by stating that schools would have to provide much higher level of flexibility in the way that learning and teaching take place, if the aims of inclusive education are to be realised (SENCo Forum, 2003). In addition, MacBeath et al (2006) concluded that some of the problems in schools attempting to implement inclusion were that the current education system itself made it difficult to implement inclusion. Gillinson and Green (2008) argue that it is essential to regard children and young people themselves and their parents as normal practice. They conclude that the issue is not about treating everyone as the same- what is important is that everyone should be treated equally. Gross (2001) also comments that what young people most want is the right to belong. Belonging brings along a morale issue with regards to inclusion. It is therefore imperative to understand what characterises these pupils with SEN and understand better what makes them unique. 4.0 Special Educational Needs Pupils At heart of all the discussion are the actual pupils who suffer special needs. In light of the extensive research, proposals by government, frameworks and guideline and committee reports one inevitably raises the question of their effectiveness. Are mainstream schools performing? Are pupils experiencing inclusive education? Are these guidelines and proposals effective? Unfortunately the overall answer may be unsatisfactory. The Audit Commission found that the vast majority of permanent exclusions in the 22 local authorities surveyed related to pupils with SEN: 87% of exclusions in primary schools and 60% of exclusions in secondary. In addition, pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and mental health problems made up significant proportions of these pupils. At this stage one wants to highlight that it is not the purposeful intention to only focus on pupils with Autistic and Social, Emotional, and Behavioural Difficulties but data does demonstrate that with regards to inclusion of sensory and/or physical needs pupils, some success in mainstream education provisions are beginning to develop. The House of Commons Report (2006) cites the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) recognising, “there has been major progress in providing disabled children and young people with more equitable educational opportunities and a steady improvement in educational outcomes, which show a faster annual increase in achievement of GCSE grades A-grades, A-C and equivalent over the last six years by disabled people than non-disabled people” In addition, the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) highlights that not all disabled pupils and students have learning difficulties. Similarly, pupils and students deemed to have learning difficulties or SEN are not disabled. In light of the above finding, as well as the overwhelming data demonstrating that the majority of the of exclusion in primary and secondary are pupils suffering from ADHD and autism, specific effort has been given to address the inclusion of these in mainstream educational provisions. In addition, the Gibraltar Educational Schooling Structure limits the contact of mainstream teachers with pupils with severe/profound and multiple needs, as well as multi-sensory impairments. These pupils enrol in special school environment. Being exposed to pupils with ADHD and autism (in the organisation) will also aid in supporting some answers with research evidence. Increasing knowledge in these groups will also is beneficial for CPD purposes. 5.0 Behaviour, Emotional and Social Needs and Autism Young people with emotional and social development difficulties and autism are the fastest growing categories of SEN. This is having repercussions for schools, and more so for pupils. In addition as the parent representative group Network 81 describe: “the lack of understanding of conduct disorders, behavioural, and emotional needs is quite unbelievable. Many children are labelled as ‘naughty’, ‘badly brought up’, and ‘defiant’ by teaching staff who group all ‘bad’ behaviour together”. This serves to highlight a possible issue where pupils are being misunderstood and labelled by those who may impact significantly their future – teachers. Furthermore, The House of Commons Report (2006) states ‘it is widely recognised that there is a strong correlation between exclusions and children with SEN-particularly those with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and autistic behaviour’. The Committee finds it unacceptable that such a well known problem continues to occur and quite frankly from a teacher point of view, one can only agree. This indicates that schools need better guidance and staff training, particularly with Autistic and social, emotional, and behavioural difficulties. This leads to the inevitable argument on whether SEBD pupils should be included in mainstream educational provisions. In order not to fall into the generalisation trap, one has focused on the main groups of exclusion at the current moment. These are pupils suffering from ADHD and autism. An evaluation of the 3 strand mentioned prior will determine whether inclusion should be possible or not. 5.1 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD has been a topic of heated discussion within the educational world. For some, it is considered to be a medical condition, characterised by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity (APA, 2000). However, according to others (e.g. Humphrey, 2009) there has been no biological marker identified that can reliably distinguish between children with and without the condition. Estimates though suggest that between 2% and 6% of students are affected by ADHD (Cooper, 2005) and still growing. From a mainstream school provision, and more so from a teacher’s perspective, it is generally accepted that students with ADHD are considered among the most difficult to include effectively. Lack of knowledge about disorder end up with teacher’s frustration towards students (SCOtENS, 2008). It is therefore important to consider what we mean when we say we are helping to ‘include’ them. Mainstream teachers report a lack of appropriate training as a key barrier to success in this area (West et al, 2005). If inclusion means meeting the child’s needs in mainstream schools and settings, have the child views sought and taken into account and having full access to a broad, balanced and relevant education as suggested in The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice (2001), then it must go beyond general questions of the presence of children with SEN in such schools, and as Norwich and Lewis (2005:2) explain, ‘we need to address the question of classroom teaching and curriculum in considering inclusion and inclusive practices’. There is the suggestion that the needs of such learners dictate that they require distinct kinds of teaching in order to learn the same content as those without special needs. If not, pupils with ADHD are more likely than others to experience social isolation, with fewer reported friendships and greater levels of rejection (Bagwell et al, 2001) inevitably leading to disruptive behaviour. Norwich and Lewis (2005) argue that pedagogic needs can be addressed by thinking about the needs that are specific to all; thinking about those needs that are specific to a certain group (such as students with ADHD); and thinking about those needs that are unique to the individual. The strategies are based upon the principle that by creating a better fit between the school environment and the student, we are creating opportunities for pupils to succeed. The question now lies in determining whether these strategies can be implemented in mainstream provisions and whether they will conflict with good and appropriate educational strategies that other children in the class already experience. Students with ADHD often experience difficulties in mainstream classrooms and schools because the emphasis on meeting common needs mean that their specific group needs are not being addressed (Cooper, 2005). However, these common needs may come about due to the National Curriculum. One of the major concerns about the National Curriculum has been that it does not address the breadth of education necessary to meet children’s and young people’s educational needs. So is the curriculum in its present form a contributory cause of poor behaviour? A further concern about the National Curriculum is the current approach to assessment. Research from the perception of students themselves suggests that many experience ‘confusion, anxiety, blame and guilt’ (Hughes, 2005) in relation to their education, which is not exactly surprising considering the struggles they need to deal with. However, as a mainstream teacher, one is fully aware that change in the National Curriculum cannot be proposed and overcome easily therefore an alternative strategy must be investigated to create a better fit between school environment and the student. The strategy may lie in pedagogy. In achieving the necessary ‘learner aware pedagogy’, the problem for the classroom teacher concerned with the SENs of a pupil lies in identifying the ‘nature’ of the learning difficulty or disability, and assessing the implication for its consequences (Levine, 2002b). The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice refers to the ‘awareness’ as the point at which a teacher has a ‘concern’ about an individual pupil (DfES, 2001). A crucial prerequisite for any teacher’s subsequent decision for action is a clear understanding of the ‘nature’ and the ‘consequences’. It is important then to recognise that a given ‘learning difficulty’ or ‘disability’ may or not ‘prevent or hinder’ an individual from making use of ‘educational facilities of a kind provided in schools’ (Education Act, 1999). Once the teacher is aware action may take place to meet their needs. Pedagogy takes an important role as it represents the interaction between the learner and the teacher with respects to curricular aims and objectives. This issue therefore concerns the central operation in education, and, in principle, should specify the optimal circumstances in which successful learning and teaching can take place Research into the typical learning styles of students with ADHD suggests that they learn more effectively when they are able actively to experiment and are presented with concrete examples that are visual in nature (Cooper and Ideus, 1996). In addition, students with ADHD are said to be somewhat verbose, talking at inappropriate times; an aspect that can be exploited by designing lessons that allow increased opportunity for verbal participation. Research also shows that this kind of approach can lead to decreases in disruptive behaviour (Levine, 2002b). This strategy will welcome pupils with SEN as full members of the group and will help to value them for the contribution they make. This will develop their feeling of belonging and their ability to participate in a mainstream school environment. Better staff-student relationships and a positive classroom ethos is also said to be essential when dealing with pupils with ADHD. Such a change may be difficult to achieve but recent research by Ghanizadeh, Bahredar and Moeini (2006) demonstrated that more tolerant and positive attitudes towards students with ADHD are associated with levels of knowledge of ADHD among teachers. This suggests that training to increase teacher’s knowledge of ADHD may need to be a priority if inclusive practice is to consolidate. Breaking down tasks into small, manageable chunks will also facilitate to accommodate the shorter attention span of such students. In addition by highlighting key information where possible will help students who experience difficulties in selective attention (Levine, 2002a). Over time, students can be taught to practise drawing focus to key information themselves (Humphrey, 2009). These strategies are said to help to create a better fit between the class environment and the students and are things that staffs in school do that give meaning to the concept of inclusion. However, many of the strategies proposed are appropriate and should be an integral part of any lesson regardless whether children with SEN are present or not. Another approach as a tool to promote and achieve inclusive practice is what Humphrey (2009) refers to as Cognitive-behavioural approach. Cognitive-behavioural approaches emphasise the use of reinforcement principles to alter thoughts or cognitions related to ADHD behaviours. Simple examples of the application of such techniques in the classroom include teaching children to use self-testing strategies (e.g. when reading, students are encouraged to stop at key points and ask themselves questions about what they have just read) and use self-reinforcement (such as giving themselves praise for achieving targets, such as staying on task for a period of time). A review of cognitive-behavioural approaches by Ervin, Bankert and DuPaul (1996) concluded that they can be successful in achieving behaviour change, but they are more effective when combined with behavioural contingencies in the natural environment. Startling statistics show that up to 75% of students with ADHD are prescribed stimulant medication, with Ritalin being the most important commonly used drug (Department of Health, 2003). If specialist knowledge and understanding is important in promoting inclusive practice, teacher’s knowledge with regards to the use of medication within this group is essential. It is crucial for teachers to understand the role it plays in student’s lives, and the implications it may have for education. Teachers may take an active role here in monitoring the effects of medication observed in the classroom (Cooper and Ideus, 1996). Having an understanding of the effects of stimulant medication will enable the teacher to plan for specific pedagogical strategies in a way that takes these factors into account and allow full access to education. Stimulant medication takes effect very quickly, but its influences may not last throughout the school day. For instance, their effect on behaviour (in terms of activity levels) typically lasts longer than its effects on cognition (in terms of attention). As a result, even though students may not be up and out of their seats or blurting out answers, they may still not be accessing the curriculum because they are struggling to maintain their focus on the material presented. In addition, even though medication may be effective in managing the core difficulties experienced by those with ADHD, it is less useful in alleviating ‘secondary’ problems such as social isolation and academic underachievement (Dogett, 2004), therefore limiting the active participation of the child in both class and school environment. In addition, inflexible staff and lack of inventiveness in some schools have been reported by OFSTED (2004) as factors affecting the development towards effective inclusion. From a personal perceptive ine can concur with OFSTED;s statement. Within ones organisation, teachers overall consensus is one of frustration and guilt when dealing with pupils with SEN in not being able to help them. An SEN register is distributed to every teacher with pupils name and their areas of need well into the 1st term. This result with the teacher suddenly realising that pupil ‘X’ and pupil ‘Y’ might be experiencing a range of difficulties due to their needs not being taken into account, resulting in disruptive behaviour. In addition, an organisation where teacher’s SEN knowledge and understanding is limited brings in another issue. Teachers find themselves wondering what can be done to help these pupils with limited success. Within the organisation there is a SEN Coordinator position, but in the past, when approached and asked for am expert opinion, the answer was ‘you can look it up in the internet and find out further information’. This barrier is significant as Wedell (2008:131) rightly states “Consultation with the school’s SENCo may be required, and this may extend to the involvement of support services from outside school, as indicated in the successive stages of the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice’ all in effort to make sure the students actively belongs and participates in mainstream school settings. This is currently non existent within the organisation. Furthermore, learning support classes are timetabled for children with SEN, but these take form more as a homework club rather than a structured learning support session. Teachers have no influence in what get taught in these classes resulting in the possibility of pupils doing something that not necessarily links with what is being taught in mainstream class. The students find themselves in an inclusive mainstream setting in curriculum subjects and in a segregated setting with regards to learning support. This may result in confusion and frustration, especially with pupils who are said to benefit from being provided with a clear structure to each day lesson and task. With regards to medication, throughout the 4 year career in teaching, there have been a number of students diagnosed with ADHD. However, up until today, there is no awareness or knowledge whether they were on medication or not. Overall, within the organisation it is clear that it is unrealistic to expect teachers and other members to be able to properly fulfil requirements such as differentiating the curriculum for all children, including those with SEN, without receiving the appropriate support and training to enable them to do so. In some cases as mentioned above, the teacher may require a detailed knowledge of child development psychology to equip them to do so to the greatest effect and of equal importance, to understand why the pupil acts and behaves the way they do. 5.2 Autistic Spectrum Disorders According to Jordan (2008:1)’ education can be, and perhaps should be, an effective treatment’ for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the sense that, there is so much that individuals with ASD have to learn that is just intuitively grasped by the non-autistic, learning may best be enhanced through high-quality teaching.’ But education is more than just another treatment. It is the way that citizens are taught the values, understanding, knowledge and skills that will enable their full participation in their community in a way that welcomes full their values and contributions they make. The first battles for those with ASD were fought for the same purpose as the battles for any special educational need: the right to be included at all. As with SEN there was recognition that degree of autism can occur across the full ability range. ASD inclusion has been based on the entitlement view of education as the only way of becoming a full member of society. The bases of most programmes for inclusion for pupils with ASD were not inclusion at all, but form of integration (Jordan and Powell, 1994). As previous research demonstrates (Ainscoq, 1999) the issue with regards to ASD pupils has been that the content and the teaching approaches of the National Curriculum in mainstream schools were not changed to accommodate children with ASD It was assumed that the content was of equal relevance to all children, requiring modification and ‘breaking down’ curriculum content into smaller steps (which is often effective for some children with learning difficulties) is not appropriate for children with ASD, where the development and learning patterns are different. There is even problem with the main purpose of mainstream education, which in terms of inclusion, is surely to gain from co-operative and collaboration with typical peers. Yet many of the supports to enable inclusion of children with ASD serve to make the child more isolated from peers, and support assistance are seldom given training (or a role) in enabling such children to have positive contact with their peers (Jordan, 2008), thus being more an organisational constraint rather than a pupil’s. Jordan (2008) also state that is a child is different, or has ‘special needs’, extra resources are provided to enable the child to have access to other children, even though the success of those resources in bringing that about has never been tested. So is inclusion possible for pupils with ASD? In order to include ASD students there needs to be a flexible education system. Teachers must know about learning and teaching and about the diversity that exists in teaching. If educators teach in a way that attains diversity, then more children with different SEN will be able to manage in mainstream settings becoming full members of the group. This will also benefit disruptive students and those with ADHD, dyslexia and so on. Once again the statement made by OFSTED (2004) that effective inclusion was frustrated by rigid timetabling and inflexible staffing is relevant. Rigid class grouping is associated with high pupil-teacher rations, which clearly make it difficult to give personal attention to individual pupils. In addition, successful learning opportunities in inclusive settings will require radical school reform, changing the existing system and rethinking the entire curriculum of the school to meet the needs of all children (Mittler 1994), what Norwich and Lewis (2005) explain as the curriculum dilemma. In addition, and similar to ADHD, the current approach to assessment needs to be addressed if inclusion is to prosper as the House of Commons Report for Children, Schools and Families (2008:3) reports that: “we find that the use of national test results for the purpose of school accountability has resulted in some schools emphasizing the maximization of test results at the expense of a more rounded educational for their pupils” Inevitably, one must be aware that there will be some individuals with ASD whose autism is so severe that they will need specialist support, but that does not need to be in a segregated setting if inclusion is desired. Resources based are the best model (Hesmonghalgh and Breakley, 2001), where the child with ASD belongs to his peer group teacher but has support staff with expertise and a ‘haven’ in which to recover when needed (Jordan, 2008). This is a perfect example on how a child with SENs may have their needs met in a mainstream provision (following point 1 of the SEN Code of Practice) and is not segregated. Pupils with severe ASD will need special support and it is here where there is a role for specialist schools. Special schools should be seen as centres of excellence, pioneering new ways of working with ASD and dealing with the most extre All students with special education needs
UMUC Experience in Developments Discussion.

Reflective Journal: Design and Analysis During your course of study in the M.Ed. program you have examined the importance of designing content that is aligned with organizational standards and organizational structure.In this journal, you will reflect on these Master’s of Education program learning outcomes:Design: Construct theory-based instructional content in accordance with organizational requirements and regulatory standards.Analysis: Analyze organizational structure, curricula, policies, procedures, standards, and assessment strategies of educational organizations, and determine effective means of compliance or innovation, problem solving, communication, and community building.RequirementsWrite a 1–2 page paper in which you:Reflect on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Examine how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Attach one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis (e.g., workshop documents of a presentation prepared and delivered to colleagues, documentation to show improved student scores or trainee performance, pictures of you using a pertinent form of technology in the classroom, and so on).If you do not have any workplace artifacts, reflect upon your strengths and weakness for achieving the identified standard. Determine the main ways in which you might implement the standard and analyze the means by which you would assess the effectiveness of its implementation. (This will become your artifact submission.)Note: When incorporating information from the workplace, be sure to remove all identifying information such as the name of the organization, the names of individual affiliates, and sensitive or proprietary information. Check with your supervisor before you share information from your workplaceReflect on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Points:(0.00%)Did not submit or reflect on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Points:(22.50%)Partially reflected on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Points:(25.50%)Satisfactorily reflected on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Points:(30.00%)Thoroughly reflected on how you have grown in your ability to design instruction to align with a particular organizational structure.Examine how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Points:(0.00%)Did not submit or insufficiently examined how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Points:(22.50%)Partially examined how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Points:(25.50%)Satisfactorily examined how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Points:(30.00%)Thoroughly examined how your coursework in the M.Ed. program and your work experience have helped you to grow in the areas of design and analysis and how you have used or will use these competencies in your current or future position.Attach one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your previous coursework or work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis.Points:(0.00%)Did not submit or insufficiently attached one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your previous coursework or work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis.Points:(22.50%)Partially attached one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your previous coursework or work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis.Points:(25.50%)Satisfactorily attached one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your previous coursework or work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis.Points:(30.00%)Thoroughly attached one to three pieces of evidence or artifacts from your previous coursework or work environment to demonstrate your competencies in the areas of design and analysis.Clarity, writing mechanics, and formatting requirements.Points:(0.00%)More than 6 errors present.Points:(7.50%)5–6 errors present.Points:(8.50%)3–4 errors present.Points:(10.00%)0–2 errors present.
UMUC Experience in Developments Discussion

​Assignment SOAP Note.

Assignment SOAP Note Purpose Documenting, using the standard SOAP note for clinical encounters, ensures that the patient is fully assessed. The SOAP note is a best practice and is universally accepted as the documentation method for clinical encounters. Directions For this Assignment, you are to complete a SOAP note for a patient that you have assessed in clinical. Please include a heart exam and lung exam on all clients regardless of the reason for seeking care. So, if someone presented with cough and cold symptoms, you would examine the general appearance, HEENT, neck, heart, and lungs for a focused/episodic exam. The pertinent positive and negative findings should be relevant to the chief complaint and health history data. This template is a great example of information documented in a real chart in clinical practice. The only section that will not be included in a real chart is differential diagnosis. Remember that the differential diagnosis list includes the diagnosis you are considering. The term “Rule Out…” cannot be used as a diagnosis. Assignment Requirements Before finalizing your work, you should: be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.Your writing Assignment should:follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);be well ordered , logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; anduse APA 6th Editionreferences less than 5 years old at least 3-5See attach file
​Assignment SOAP Note

IVC The Events that Began to Divide England and Its American Colonies Discussion

IVC The Events that Began to Divide England and Its American Colonies Discussion.

Respond to one of the following In at least 400 words. Responses to classmates should be at least 125 words. Discuss some of the events that begin to divide England and its Americancolonies from 1775 through July 1776.orCompare British and American strategies for fighting the AmericanRevolutionary War. Why did the Americans win?The Stamp and Tea Acts Acts
IVC The Events that Began to Divide England and Its American Colonies Discussion

MIS 201 UBT Amazon Management of Information System & IT Infrastructure Case Study

research paper help MIS 201 UBT Amazon Management of Information System & IT Infrastructure Case Study.

The project involves studying the IT infrastructure of a relevant information system (IS)/ information technology (IT) used by selecting any organization of your choice locally or internationally The idea is to investigate the selected organization using the main components of IT (Hardware, software, services, data management and networking). Infrastructure Investigation, which is in a selected industry, should be carried out by using articles, websites, books and journal papers and /or interviews– Special requirementsWORD format only.All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.Avoid plagiarism or matching ratios.Unique answersThe minimum number of required references is 5.( APA style)Your project report length Part 1 & Part 2 should be between 2500 to 3000 words in total.
MIS 201 UBT Amazon Management of Information System & IT Infrastructure Case Study

Los Angeles Pierce College United States History Document Dated 1865 1928 Essay

Los Angeles Pierce College United States History Document Dated 1865 1928 Essay.

I’m working on a history writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Los Angeles Pierce College United States History Document Dated 1865 1928 Essay

Marriage and Family Therapy Report (Assessment)

Presenting problem Marceline is a frustrated female aged 19 years of age and she needs counseling because she has become indecisive. She is the person to interview in this therapy because she presents high level of stress (Sprenkle, 2003, p. 85). The woman has been facing challenging times first having lost her first love to another woman. Her boyfriend Leon lost his job and her working hours were reduced. She and her boyfriend even had to leave their house and move to a one room studio apartment. She says she feels that her boyfriend Leon is acting weird because of his drinking habits and that is threatening. She also admits she has been seeing her ex boyfriend Michael who is the father to her son, Michael Jr. They have even been intimate with each other. Besides, she and Leon have been drinking a lot though they claim it is just meant to calm their nerves. She also says that her son is not just normal because of the way he acts, throwing tantrums, crying and not talking. Family background Marceline is still married to her high-school sweetheart, Michael. The two got married in Las Vegas when they learnt that she was pregnant with Michael’s child. Michael was her first love involvement. The two eloped because they thought that things were alright that way. And they were for their first year of marriage. However, things changed and Michael eloped with another woman. Now he has come back and he feels that they should get back together and move in with their son. Michael Junior is so hyper active according to Marceline and she usually takes her to his Grandmother’s day care whenever she can. Grace’s Junior’s grandmother runs a day care. Currently Marceline lives with her boyfriend Leon whom she wants to leave for Michael. Significant counseling history This is a very important section. Basically this is set to interview the person who initiated the session (Sprenkle, 2003, p. 85). The strategy is designed to ask the individual why they feel the family needs therapy. Marceline feels that Leon needs to be taken through the therapy so that he can understand the reasons why she is probably going to make certain decision. According to her, Leon is losing his personality or the zeal to survive. He drinks a lot and his behavior is violent. This is probably because of losing his job at the grocery. For this cause, Marceline suggests Leon be taken through therapy so that he can get back on his feet and begin living life as he ought. He needs to find another job to earn a living because even paying the rent is a problem as they delay all the time for the four months they have been in one room apartment. Marceline states that she very confused with what she is going. She is undecided on whether she should just stay with Leon or get back with the father of her child, Michael. She’s pretty angry with Michael thought because of infidelity and leaving her and their son Junior. Marceline denies that she has been talking with Michael. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, from the session with Marceline, it’s evident that she has even been intimate with him. This has been causing depression to her up to a level of making her to have some suicidal thoughts. Worse of it is that she takes alcohol. The drinking is excess even though she says that she and her boy friend wait until late to avoid affecting Michael Jr. Now she thinks that Michael nicer than to her than Leon. Substance abuse Marceline states that she only drinks because she needs to release her stress and she does it later than five. Using alcohol and other stuffs is quite a dangerous habit because it can create dependence on these substances and their use can get out of control and risk the user’s health, (Sprenkle, 2003, p. 85). Many cardiovascular diseases are as a result of alcohol abuse. More immediate effects include effect on the job performance and other daily activities. However, Marceline counters this by saying that she is always gets up with early enough and take Junior to Grace’s day care by 9:00 am. After she gets the baby back and starts dinner for the family, she will drink to calm her nerves. Vocation Marceline is working at a grocery though her working hours were cut down. Her boyfriend was laid off and now they have to survive on her little income for survival. Having reduced income, the two were forced to leave the house the used to stay in and move to a cheaper apartment, a one room studio. Due to this situation, she feels she is not satisfied with her relationship with Leon. She feels like her boyfriend whom she thinks that he is not doing enough to solve it. She perceives things are getting worse at their home and this could the things that are driving her away (Sprenkle, 2003, p. 92). They have lived in the studio for 4 months and previously in a home that they thought they could buy but walked away from because of escalating expenses and job cuts. In fact she admits that she is desperate … ‘I am miserable and so is he. What can we do?” Other critical data Marceline has actually shown that she is still interested in Michael and they talk a lot, in fact they have been intimate lately. This means that she is not sure whether she wants to stay with Leon or leave him. However, she claims she is still better at Michael for what she did to her. She does not show any appreciation for Leon for being there for her when Michael took off. Such are symptoms of lack of commitment in a relationship. Even though legally she is still married to Michael, Leon is still a very crucial factor in her life because they live together and they have been through so much. They even had plans of buying a home before things fell out of hand. Her mother in-law thinks that she and Michael should get back and move in with their son. We will write a custom Assessment on Marriage and Family Therapy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leon on the other hand is not aware that his girlfriend could be seeing her former husband. Basically, the problem here could be financial because of what she says that she and Leon always pay their rent late they have to pay with the lateness fee imposed by their landlord (Sprenkle, 2003, p. 92). Bill collectors are calling but the phone number has been changed now. Mental status Marceline’s mental state is complex as she states she is torn between moving out to be with Michael or stay with Leon. However, it’s clear that she is experiencing financial problems, depression, stress and she is now taking alcohol more than usual (Neukrug