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Importance Of Motivation In The Workplace Business Essay

Importance Of Motivation In The Workplace Business Essay. Motivation in the workplace is one of the most important aspects within an organization. The following study defines motivation and analyzes needs and drives which is the starting point of motivation. It also analyzes five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation and those are; Maslow’s need – hierarchy theory, Herzberg’s two factor theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory, Adam’s equity theory and Skinner’s reinforcement theory. The following paper also outlines the role of motivation and how important is for an organization to have motivated employees. Furthermore, this study addresses several motivating factors responsible for employee motivation. In doing so, this paper intends to analyze of what employee motivation is and also to clarify the importance of motivated employees in our rapidly changing workplaces. Introduction In the past, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What may changed this way of thinking about employees was research, known to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. This study found out that employees are not motivated only by money and employee behaviour is linked to their attitudes. The Hawthorn Studies were the starting point of the Human Relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary function off all functions managers perform. ( Wikipedia). A motivated workforce is an important aspect of an organization’s successfulness and competitiveness therefore this issue is underlined on the minds of corporate leaders. However, in recent years an engaged workforce has become more challenging for three reasons. First, several changes such as globalization, information technology etc, have altered the employment relationship. Second, the reduction of the numbers of supervisors in the organizations in order to reduce their cost resulted a bigger number of employee supervision for each supervisor and the last can’t keep a watchful eye out of laggards. The third factor is that the new generation brought different expectations to the workplace than the past generations as McShane and Von Glinow (2008: 134) state. Furthermore, when people join an organization, they bring with them certain needs that affect job performance. Some of these needs are psychological and others are bind to psychological and social values. The last are much more difficult to identify and satisfy and they vary from one person to another. This study begins with the definition of motivation and continues by analyzing the core motivation theories in organizational settings. Motivation defined Motivation can be defined in a number of ways. For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour. Motivated employees are disposed to exert a particular level of effort (intensity) for a certain period of time (persistence) toward a particular goal, as McShane and Von Glinow state (2008: 134). Further, motivation can be separated in to three concepts: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and self control which is also known as self motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity it self, for example the enjoyment of a puzzle or even the love of playing. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside the performer. For example in sports the crowd may cheer the performer on and this motivates him or her to do well. Also for the employees of an organization, money is the most obvious example but also coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations. The self control motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence. In other words, a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition, yet unmotivated to use this intelligence to certain tasks. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory, which is going to be analyzed in this paper, provides an account of when people decide whether to exert self control to pursue a certain goal. McShane and Von Gilnow (2008: 135) state that motivation starts with individual needs and their underlying drives. Needs can be described as deficiencies that activate or trigger behaviours to satisfy those needs. The stronger your needs are, the more motivated you are to fulfil them. Contrariwise, a satisfied need doesn’t motivate. Drives can be defined as the instinctive or innate tendencies to seek specific goals or maintain internal stability. Every human being has the same drives and they most likely exist to support the species survive. Needs are created by drives, but they may also be strengthened through knowledge and social forces such as culture and childhood upbringing. Last but not least, motivation is essential to be successful in any endeavour you undertake. It can be positive or negative, subtle or obvious, tangible or intangible. It is crucial in organizations as it plays a vital role in the effective performance of employees. Also motivation in recent years has become more challenging due to the fact of an increasingly turbulent environment in the workplace, the endistancement of direct supervision as a motivational instrument, and the confusion or even better the luck of understanding about what motivates the youth entering the workforce. Motivation theories 4.1 Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory In 1943, Dr. Abraham Maslow, at his article: “A Theory of Human Motivation ” and with further expansion at his book: ” Toward a Psychology of Being”, he attempted to formulate a needs based framework of human motivation and based upon his clinical experiences upon human. His motivation theory remains valid until today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Abraham Maslow’s book “Motivation and Personality”, published in 1954, formally introduced The Hierarchy of Needs. (Businessballs.com) According to Maslow’s theory of motivation, there are five levels of human needs, which employees need to have fulfilled at work. Those needs are structured into a hierarchy and that lower level need had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. For example, an employee how has no money to buy food, she or he will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying if she or he is having a secure job. As per his theory those needs are: i) Physiological needs: These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, air, sleep, shelter, warmth, medicine, education, etc, are the basic physiological needs which are included in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow argued that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can operate. ii) Safety needs: Once physiological needs are fulfilled, one’s attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of a physical or emotional harm. Such needs might be satisfied by living in a safe area, job security, financial reserves, medical insurance, etc. According to Maslow’s beliefs, if a person feels that he or she is in danger of getting harmed, higher needs will not be emerged. iii) Social needs: Once a human being has satisfied the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become significant, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include both giving and receiving love and affection, the sense of belonging, the need for friends, etc. iv) Esteem needs: Once the first three classes of needs satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self esteem such as achievement and self respect. External esteem needs include needs such as recognition and social status. When these needs are satisfied the person feels self confident and valuable as a human being in the world. v) Self Actualization needs: When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied then the needs of self actualization are emerged. Self Actualization is the summit of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Unlike lower level needs, this need cannot be ever fully satisfied. Maslow describes Self Actualization as a person’s need to be and do that which a person was born to do. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, etc. Self Actualized people tend to have needs such as truth, wisdom, justice, meaning. Maslow argues that only a very small percentage of human beings reach this level. Therefore, it is important that leadership in organizations should offer different incentives to employees in order to help them satisfy each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy. However, not all human beings are driven by the same needs. It is important to understand and clarify the needs that each employee wants to fulfil. To motivate an employee, the manager must recognize the needs stage at which an employee is operating and use those needs as levers of motivation. 4.2 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory To better comprehend employee attitudes and motivation, Frederic Herzberg performed studies to assess which factors in an employee’s workplace caused satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He published his findings in the 1959 book “The Motivation to Work”.( Wikipedia) Herzberg’s studies included interviews of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA in which employees where asked what satisfied and what dissatisfied them about their work. Herzberg’s findings were that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the Motivation Hygiene Theory to explain these results. He named the satisfiers motivators and the disenchanted hygiene factors, using the term hygiene with the meaning that they considered maintenance factors that are needful to avoid dissatisfaction but at themselves do not provide satisfaction. Essentially Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They don’t lead to higher levels of motivation but without these factors there is dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include: Company policy and administration Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration Quality of supervision Quality of interpersonal relationships Working conditions Feelings of job security Motivator factors are based on an individual’s need for personal growth. When they occur, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective they motivate an employee into higher performance. Motivator factors include: Status Opportunity for advancement Gaining recognition Responsibility Challenging / stimulating work Sense of a personal achievement and personal growth in a job According to Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory, leadership in organizations must provide both hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction and factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be pleased with their work. (wikipedia) Herzberg stated that job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation, and that it is a continuous management process. According to Herzberg: 4 The job should have significant challenge to utilize the full capability of the employee. 5 Employees who show increasing levels of ableness should be given increasing levels of responsibility. 6 If a job cannot be designed in such way in order to use an employee’s full ability, then the organization should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has lower level abilities. If an employee cannot be fully utilized then there will be a motivation problem. 4.3 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Whereas Maslow and Herzberg mainly explain the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom separates effort which arises from motivation, performance and outcomes. Vroom’s expectancy theory is based on the idea that work effort is leaded toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desire outcomes. Through experience, we develop expectations about whether we can accomplish several levels of job performance. We also develop expectations about whether job performance and work behaviors direct to severally outcomes. Finally, by nature we direct our effort toward outcomes that support as satisfy our needs. ( McShane and Von Glinow, 2008: 143) Victor H. Vroom introduces three variables at his theory which they are Valence (V), Expectancy (E) and Instrumentality (I). The three variables are significant behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort performance expectancy (E>P expectancy), performance outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). E>P expectancy means our assessment of the probability our efforts will direct to the required outcome. P>O expectancy means that our assessment of the probability our successful performance will direct to assured outcomes. (wikipedia). Vroom’s Expectancy theory is based on three concepts: Valence which is the expected satisfaction or dissatisfaction that a person feels toward an outcome. Management must find out what employees value. Expectancy means that employees have different expectations and levels of dependence about what they are able to do. Leadership must discover what resources, training or supervision employees needed. Instrumentality refers to the perception of employees as to whether they will finally receive what they wish even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must make sure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that. (Hew Richards, www.ifm.uk) As McShane and Von Glinow (2008: 146) state, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory remains, until present, among the better for motivation and predicting work effort. It has been applied to a wide variety of studies and research shows that this theory can predict employee motivation in different cultures. 4.4 Adam’s Equity Theory Equity Theory developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, and like other motivational theories, Adam’s Equity theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors influence an employee’s assessment and cognizance of their relationship with their work and their employer. In other words, Adam’s equity theory proposes that employees strive for equity among themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs. Inputs may include: Effort Loyalty Skill Hard work Commitment Ability Adaptability Flexibility Tolerance Determination Enthusiasm Personal sacrifice Trust in superiors Support from co workers and colleagues Outcomes include any of the following: Job security Esteem Salary Employee benefit Expenses Sense of advancement/growth Recognition Reputation Responsibility Sense of achievement Praise Stimuli While many of the points mentioned above cannot be quantified and perfectly compared, Adam’s theory states that management should seek to find a fair balance between the inputs an employee gives, and the outputs received. Furthermore employees should be content where they perceive these to be in balance. 4.5 Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Theory developed by B.F Skinner and his theory states that those employees’ behaviors that direct to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated. Skinner’s theory is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behaviour. Skinner also stated that reinforcers are defined by a change in response strength, and that which is a reinforcer to one person might not be the same to another. (wikipedia) Therefore, according to this theory, managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that direct to positive outcomes. Also management should negatively reinforce employee behaviour that leads to negative outcomes. Types of reinforcement: Positive reinforcement: This is an increase in the future frequency of behaviour because of the addition of a stimulus directly following a response. Negative reinforcement: is an augment in the future frequency of behaviour when the consequence is the removal of an abhorrence stimulus. The Role of Motivation Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival. Every person has different reasons for working. Some people work for personal fulfilment while others work for love of what they do or to accomplish goals and to feel as if they are contributing in something larger than themselves. Therefore, the reasons for working are as individual as the person. But we all work because we obtain something that we need from work, and that thing obtained from work impacts morale, employee motivation and quality of life. Therefore managers need to understand what motivates employees within the framework of the roles they perform because motivated employees are significant in our swiftly changing work environment. Motivated employees help organizations survive, be productive and more competitive. Also employees in any organizations need something to keep them working and that thing is motivation. If there isn’t any motivation in employees, then these employees’s quality of work will demoted. Of all the tasks a manager performs, employee motivation is the most complex. But keeping an employee working at full faculty is the paramount goal of employee motivation and therefore the ultimate goal of organizations too because employees are the greatest asset and no matter how efficient a technology or the equipment of organizations may be, it is no match for the effectiveness and efficiency of their employees. (wikipedia) Motivating Factors There are several factors leading to employee’s motivation and ten of these factors are mentioned below: Job security Sympathetic help with personal problems Personal loyalty to employees Interesting work Good working conditions Tactful discipline Good wages Promotion and growth in the organization Feeling of being in on things Full appreciation of work done Conclusion Motivating employees is one of the most important tasks that managers perform within their organizations, as work motivation plays an important role for the company’s success. As McShane and Von Glinow state, motivation is one of the four cardinal drivers of individual behaviour and efficiency, and therefore is an integral component of employee engagement. An engaged workforce is a significant predictor of a company’s competitiveness, consequently, it’s easy to understand why employee motivation is constantly the focal point of corporate leaders. In this paper they have been mentioned, a definition of motivation and some of the most important theories of motivation such as Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory, Adam’s Equity Theory, and Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Hereupon, it has been an allusion to the role of motivation and to several factors that lead to employee motivation. Without dispute employee motivation has plenty of positive effects on organizations, therefore managers need to understand the importance and effects of motivation by identifying key factors that determine the rate of motivation in their employees. Importance Of Motivation In The Workplace Business Essay
The Bad Seed by Maxwell Anderson is a dramatic play taken place in 1954 in the urban part of New York City. The Penmark’s house is a well furnished and expensive home. With a good size kitchen, several bedrooms and a spacious backyard it is perfect for eight year old Rhoda Penmark and her mother Christine. Christine Penmark keeps her house clean and Rhoda too makes sure everything is in order especially when it comes to her bedroom. They also have a gardener, Leroy who lives in the basement and through out the day he tends to the garden and other things required. Although the house is big, it has only two occupants with occasionally Mr. Penmark coming home for a few days when off military duty, the house seems quite empty and forlorn. The play opens with Mr. Penmark leaving again on military duty. He has just received orders to come back immediately and he must leave. There is a feeling of sadness as Rhoda bounces into the room to bid her father farewell, asking when he’ll come back. Not sure when he’ll be back he hugs Christine and affectionately pulls Rhoda’s pigtails. That same day, young Rhoda expresses her disappointment in losing the penmanship medal to a classmate, Claude Daigle to Monica the Penmark’s landlord. Monica is also Christine’s best friend and absolutely loves Rhoda and admires her angelic ways. She gives Rhoda a necklace. It is a special day for Rhoda as there is going to be a school picnic near the wharf and she leaves for school. While Rhoda is at school Christine has guest over by the name of Reginald Tasker at the house and they talk about Bessie Denker the famous serial killer. He also informs Christine that her Bessie’s youngest daughter is the only one surviving. During the conversation the radio is turned on and the host announces the drowning of a child at the wharf. Christine is panic-stricken thinking it could be Rhoda, however the worst passes and she hears it is a young boy named Claude Daigle. Mrs. Penmark worries Rhoda will be affected deeply by the death of one of her classmates however when Rhoda returns home she shrugs the news off and acts quite strangely, puzzling her mother. Christine tries to explain to her daughter that death is a part of life but Rhoda quickly changes the topic asking for a peanut butter sandwich. Alarmed, still Mrs. Penmark allows her to go outside and skate while she eats her snack. At this point it is obvious that Rhoda has no remorse and the gardener Leroy asks her how she could be happy when somebody as young as her drowned. Rhoda replies with a cutting remark and skates off leaving Leroy disgusted with her behavior. Upon returning from her skating, Rhoda sits down in front of the piano and practices when there is a knock at the door. It is a lady from Rhoda’s school who wishes to speak to Mrs. Penmark alone. With Rhoda asked to leave Christine finds out that Rhoda was the last one to see Claude Daigle alive and she was seen snatching the penmanship medal from him. Christine is shocked to hear this and wonders why Rhoda didn’t mention that she was the last to see Claude alive. After the lady leaves, Monica arrives at Christine’s house asking to see the necklace again so she can get it polished from a store nearby. Mrs. Penmark goes to Rhoda’s room and opens her “treasure drawer” to get the necklace but to her surprise she finds the penmanship medal in the drawer. After giving the necklace to Monica she calls Rhoda to her and asks about the medal. At first Rhoda is surprised to find that her mother has found the medal and Christine demands and explanation. Rhoda says that she had a bet with Claude Daigle and since she won, she got the penmanship medal. She gives a convincing answer to her mother and is then sent to her room. Later that night, Rhoda sneaks out of her room with a small paper bag behind her back. Her mother catches her and asks her what it is. When Rhoda refuses, Christine wrestles Rhoda and grabs it out of her hand. She finds Rhoda’s shoes with blood on it and then Christine puts the pieces together. She finds out that Rhoda lied about the bet and Rhoda admits to hitting Claude with her shoes and snatching the medal. Mrs. Penmark is utterly shocked and realizes her daughter has not only killed Claude but she also killed an old neighbor they had. Rhoda is frightened that something will happen to her and Mrs. Penmark promises nothing will and she asks Rhoda to throw the shoes down the incinerator. Still not being able to come to terms with what her daughter has done, Christine bitterly cries in the kitchen. Rhoda goes about her usual business and has no emotion in her. Later, Christine is excited to hear that her father is in town and is coming to visit her and Rhoda. Her father is Richard Bravo who also worked on the Bessie Denker case. Richard Bravo arrives one night and Christine is extremely excited to see him and in return she is showered with hugs and kisses. However the night takes its own course, relieving secrets that were too painful to be secrets anymore. Christine learns she is adopted and she tells her father that she keeps having the same dream over and over again. It’s a dream where she is alone and she keeps hearing the name Denker repeatedly. Mrs. Penmark learns that her mother was Bessie Denker and Bessie was Rhoda’s grandmother. Richard apologizes for not letting her know earlier and tells her that Christine was irresistible to leave alone. Mrs. Penmark finally figures out that Rhoda’s behavior crimes are genetic. She still is not able to tell anyone what her daughter has done. After the departure of Richard Bravo, Rhoda plays outside in the backyard enjoying her self. Leroy continuously taunts her saying that he knows she killed Claude Daigle with her shoes and that Leroy will report Rhoda to the police. Leroy also mentions that he has the shoes. Frightened and scared, Rhoda demands that he gives back the shoes. She screams at him and Leroy tries to calm her down by saying he was only taunting her and that he doesn’t have the shoes. But still Rhoda yells at him demanding the shoes and at this point Leroy starts to believe that Rhoda really did kill Claude. Mrs. Penmark walks into the backyard at the time when Rhoda is yelling at Leroy. She questions Rhoda about what is happening and Rhoda mentions that Leroy has the shoes that she used to kill Claude. Christine quickly rushes Rhoda up the front steps and into in the house and tells Leroy to never talk to Rhoda again. Leroy goes back to his basement and opens the incinerator and sees that the shoes are there with blood stains on it. He is shocked thinking that he was only making a joke when he said that Rhoda had killed her classmate. Upstairs in the house Mrs. Daigle arrives drunk, asking if she could talk to Rhoda. Christine tries to calm Mrs. Daigle down and asks Monica to take Rhoda away. Mrs. Daigle knows that Rhoda was the last one to see her boy and only wishes to ask her what happened. Mr. Daigle then arrives to pick up his wife and apologizes for his wife’s behavior. Monica visits Christine at her home and Rhoda starts to leave the house with a box of matches in her house. However Christine sees this and asks Rhoda to leave the matches behind and Rhoda obeys. She leaves the box of matches on the table but sneaks three matches. All of a sudden Monica and Christine hear screaming and smoke coming from the basement. They realize that Leroy has been burned alive and it was his screams that were heard. Rhoda returns and Christine immediately realizes that her daughter had killed him. Monica leaves and later that night Rhoda tells her mother that burned Leroy because he threatened to tell the police about her shoes, being scared of getting caught she killed him. At night Mrs. Penmark tells Rhoda that she dropped the medal in the lake and she also asks her to take some “new” vitamins. Rhoda first asks to look at them and then she gulps it down. What she doesn’t know is that her mother has given her sleeping pills. Christine continues to read to Rhoda and slowly Rhoda falls asleep on the living room couch. Before carrying Rhoda to her bedroom Christine whispers that she loves her daughter and she must save her even though she committed terrible crimes. Mrs. Penmark then goes into her own bedroom and shoots herself. At the hospital Mr. Penmark is anxious to know why Christine would do such a thing and he breaks down. Monica and her husband wait at the hospital and urge Mr. Penmark to take Rhoda home as she must be tired. Mr. Penmark tucks Rhoda into bed but what he doesn’t know is that she won’t be in there for long. After Rhoda’s father leaves her room she quickly gets dressed, grabs a flashlight and runs to the lake to find the penmanship medal. Outside there is a strong storm with loud thunder and bright lightning. Rhoda arrives at the lake looking for the medal when a flash of lightning hits her. She dies as Christine is recovering in a local hospital. The theme of the play revolved around Rhoda being a sociopath and that her behavior was genetic. She had no repentance or emotion for any of the crimes she committed and was oblivious to her own actions. The main conflict in the play is that she felt that she deserved the penmanship medal and when it is given to Claude Daigle, a classmate, Rhoda feels angry. She will do anything to get that medal, even kill. The conflict is resolved when Rhoda goes on a school trip, she hits Claude Daigle with her shoes repeatedly on the head and snatches the medal from him. She feels no shame in her excessive greediness and what she has to do to achieve her goal. The two main characters in the play are Rhoda Penmark and her mother Christine Penmark. Rhoda was a young girl of eight years old. She had developed maturity at a much faster rate than her peers. Rhoda was able to manipulate her mother and make convincing arguments and explanations for her actions. She loved being read bed time stories from her mother. However Rhoda was also very cunning and had an answer for everything. Her dressing style consisted of dresses and pinned up hair in braids. She had certain ways of charming everyone especially Monica, the landlord lady. Christine Penmark was the mother of Rhoda and a young woman under her thirties. She was lonesome at times when her husband would be gone for military duties. Christine was a calm and gentle person. She was very much devoted to her family and always thought of Rhoda before herself. In other words she was a very selfless lady especially when she was able to give herself up so nobody would hurt Rhoda. The character that really touched my emotion was Christine Penmark, Rhoda’s mother. This is because she is a woman who is strong internally and externally. She battles with the fact that her daughter is a killer but her own child. Though she is hopeless with her daughter being a sociopath she still accepts her and loves her all the same. Christine is also courageous in trying to take her own life to save her daughter’s. Rhoda is also reminded that she will not be hurt even though Christine really does fear for her life. If I could play any character from this play it would be Rhoda’s character. Rhoda’s character experiences a lot of emotions and mood swings. It would be a difficult and challenging character to play as I am the total opposite of her. She has an interesting twist of traits. Rhoda also shifts into different personalities especially when in tricky situations. One of the good points in the play was that it was a convincing play. It really showed the love for a daughter who committed terrible crimes but was still accepted. It showed the emotions of a struggling and lonesome mother. Mothers around the world could relate to situations like Christine Penmark was in. Rhoda was also a convincing character which portrays that she is a sociopath. Today in this world there are many like her who too can understand to what she was going through. The bad point in this story was that the father was not around at all to find out about the situation at home. Maybe if he was around then they could have gotten Rhoda help and she wouldn’t have taken the lives of others. The play definitely kept my interest because it was a dramatic one with high emotions. It was one that you could understand and realize that things like that happen even today in real life. It was also awareness to the audience that sociopaths are also caused by genes. It would be nice to see ‘The Bad Seed’ performed and see how well somebody can play Rhoda’s and Christine’s character. It also would be interesting to find out if the actors would leave out any parts of the real play or if they would use the exact dialogue Maxwell Anderson used when writing the play.

Beaver’s Self-Report Family Inventory | Evaluation

Contents (Jump to) Introduction Literature Review Psychological Test Beaver’s Self-Report Family Inventory Administration of SRFI Scoring and Interpretation of SRFI Validity and Reliability Strengths Limitations Conclusion References Introduction This write up is to analyze the effectiveness of an instrument used as a psychological test to gather information. The chosen instrument is Beaver’s Self-Report Family Inventory – Version II (SRFI). Parents and family environment or more appropriately family relationship plays a very important role in the well-being of children. (Lambert,M., 2010) In Malaysian context, discipline problem is an increasing phenomenon in primary schools as well as secondary schools. The root cause or the first and foremost reason behind those discipline problems is the family environment and relationship. SRFI is considered to be an instrument that can help the counselors and other helping professionals to identify the family functioning so that further plans can be done in order to help the children. Literature Review Previous literature on family assessment instruments for use in child welfare includes descriptions of instruments (Pinsof, 2009) and guides for developing comprehensive assessment strategies as part of community-based child welfare services reform (Pinsof, 2010). This structured literature review builds on these efforts by identifying the most valid and reliable instruments that address the following four federally-defined domains of family assessment: (1) patterns of social interaction, including the nature of contact and involvement with others, and the presence or absence of social support networks and relationships; (2) parenting practices, including methods of discipline, patterns of supervision, understanding of child development and/or of the emotional needs of children; (3) background and history of the parents or caregivers, including the history of abuse and neglect; and (4) problems in access to basic necessities such as income, employment, adequate housing, child care, transportation, and other needed services and supports (US, HHS, 2006). Several additional behaviors and conditions have been associated with child maltreatment, such as domestic violence, mental illness, poor physical health, disabilities, and alcohol and drug use. Ideally, a comprehensive family assessment instrument will address these conditions and indicate whether a need for more specialized assessment exists. An objective of this review was to identify measures that addressed these behaviors and conditions as part of a comprehensive family assessment strategy. However, the review of specialized instruments for these conditions and various disabilities was outside the scope of this review. A structured review on the assessment of children and youth in the child welfare system is the focus of a separate review. These major theoretical and disciplinary influences have given rise to several practical issues when considering the appropriateness of a family assessment measure and method. While there are many approaches, family assessment methods typically fall into three categories: client self-report, observation, and interviews. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. A key distinction is the degree to which the method is formalized. Formal methods, such as self-report questionnaires, tend to have procedures that are clearly outlined to facilitate consistently repeated administrations. By contrast, informal methods such as interviews may be less clear in their specification and more variable in terms of administration. Family assessment measures also vary in terms of the perspective obtained. Typically, child welfare practitioners will consider the perspectives of multiple individuals during the family assessment process, including “insider” reports from family members and children as well as “outsider” reports from school personnel, extended family members, and others that may be involved with the case. Integration of the assessment of multiple reporters with insider and outsider perspectives is reflected in the “multisystem-multi method” (MS-MM) approach (Greenberger, 2000) Self-report questionnaires provide a unique insider view of family life as well as reliable methods, simplified administration and scoring, and a measurable link between an individual’s perceptions or attitudes and behaviors. Given these advantages, they are by far the most commonly used method in research as well as in practice. Observation rating scales provide another cost-effective method of generating outsider information regarding family interaction patterns that can also be evaluated for reliability and validity. However, rating scales can also be limited in their usefulness by the competence of the rater and the psychometric quality of the scale. Raters must have a clear understanding of the concepts that are measured and the behaviors that represent the concepts in practice. They must also possess adequate knowledge of different populations in order to place observed behavior on a continuum, a concern that adequate training and clinical supervision can begin to address. However, as with self-report measures, evidence of the validity and reliability of an observational rating scale is critical in the instrument selection process, particularly with regard to specific stages of assessment. Psychological test Psychological tests are administered by many different professionals to many different individuals, and the results of these tests are used in ways that significantly affect us and those around us. Psychological test is something that requires us to perform behaviour to measure some personal attribute, trait, or characteristic or to predict an outcome. Psychological tests can differ in terms of how they are administered and their format. A test can be administered in paper-and-pencil format (individually or in a group setting), on a computer, or verbally. Similarly, a psychological test may consist of multiple-choice items; agree/disagree items, true/false items, open-ended questions, or some mix of these. There are also tests that ask respondents to perform some behaviour such as sorting cards, playing a role, or writing an essay. Psychological tests can differ in terms of how they are scored and interpreted. Some tests are completed on scan able sheets and are computer scored. Some are hand-scored by the person administering the test. Others are scored by the test takers themselves. In terms of interpretation, some tests generate results that can be interpreted easily by the test taker, and others require a knowledgeable professional to explain the results to the test taker. Psychological tests have various similarities and many differences. All psychological tests require an individual to perform one or more behaviours, and these behaviours are used to measure some personal attribute, trait, or characteristic thought to be important in describing or understanding behaviour or to predict an outcome. However, psychological tests can and do differ in terms of the behaviours they require individuals to perform, the attributes they measure, their content, how they are administered and formatted, how they are scored and interpreted, and their psychometric quality. All good tests have three defining characteristics in common. First, they include a representative sample of behaviours. Second, they collect the sample under standardized conditions. Third, they have rules for scoring. When using psychological tests, we must make some assumptions. We must assume that a test measures what it says it measures, that any inferences that are drawn about test takers from their scores on the test are appropriate, that an individual’s behaviour (and therefore test scores) will remain stable over time, that individuals understand test items similarly, that individuals can and will report accurately about their thoughts and feelings, and that the test score an individual receives is equal to his or her true behaviour/ability in the real world plus some error. Testing professionals refer to psychological tests in various ways. Sometimes they refer to them as tests of maximal performance, behaviour observations, or self-report. Sometimes they refer to them as standardized or non-standardized. Other times they refer to them as objective or projective. Professionals also refer to tests based on the dimensions they measure. It is important to remember the distinctions among four commonly misunderstood terms: psychological assessment, psychological test, measurement, and survey. First, although both psychological assessments and psychological tests are used to gather information, a psychological test is only one of many tools in the psychological assessment process. Second, a psychological test can be considered to be a measurement when the sampled behaviour can be expressed in a derived score. Third, psychological tests are different from surveys in that psychological tests focus on individual differences and often report one overall derived score (or scaled scores), and surveys focus on group similarities and typically report results at the question or item level. Beaver’s Self-Report Family Inventory (SRFI) Version II The Self-Report Family Inventory: Version II (SRFI) is a 36-item measure of perceptions of family functioning in five domains: Health/Competence, Conflict, Cohesion, Leadership, and Expressiveness. The instrument is a screening device to assess a family member’s view of overall family competence, based on the Beavers Systems Model of family functioning. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale; for the first 34 items, the scale descriptors are 1 = YES: Fits our family very well, 3 = SOME: Fits our family some, and 5 = NO: Does not fit our family. The last two items have response scales specific to the items. Lower scores represent greater family competence. Administration of SRFI It is a paper pencil method of administration for children aged 12 and above and also for the adults in the family. Interview also can be done for those who are illiterate or have reading and writing problem. Time given is within 5 to 10 minutes. Scoring and Interpretation of SRFI Summary scores for each of the five subscales can be obtained as follows: (An “R” refers to an item score that must be reversed prior to summing). To reverse score, change all numbers where indicated to their opposite. For example, five becomes a one, four becomes a two, three stays the same, two becomes a four, and one becomes a five. Health/Competence: Items 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18R, 19R, 20, 21, 24R, 25R, 27R, 28, 33, 35, and 36 Conflict: Items 5R, 6, 7, 8R, 10R, 14R, 18R, 24R, 25R, 30R, 31R, and 34 Cohesion: Items 2, 15, 19R, 27R, and 36 Expressiveness: Items 1, 9, 13R, 20, and 22 Leadership: Items 8R, 16, and 32 For each numbered item, fill in the score from the SFI. For items , reverse the score and enter the reversed score on the score sheet. HEALTH/ COMPETENCE COHESION CONFLICT LEADERSHIP EXPRESSIVENESS 2 ________ 3 ________ 4 ________ 6 ________ 12 ________ 15 ________ 16 ________ 17 ________ ________ ________ 20 ________ 21 ________ ________ ________ ________ 28 ________ 33 ________ 35 ________ 36 ________ SUM : ________ 2 ________ 15 ________ ________ ________ 36 ________ SUM : ________ ______ 6 ______ 7 ______ ______ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 34 _____ SUM:_____ ______ 16 ______ 32 ______ SUM:_____ 1 ______ 9 ______ ______ 20 ______ 22 ______ SUM:_____ Lower scores represent greater competence and higher scores indicate greater problems within the system. Validity and Reliability of SRFI Validity was measured by correlating the SRFI with the observational scales of the Beavers System Model. The results indicate a high degree of convergence of family constructs across the two methods at .62 or above (Beavers

PMJ 3301 Colorado State University Engineer Customize Hardware Discussion

custom writing service PMJ 3301 Colorado State University Engineer Customize Hardware Discussion.

Download and examine the project task list from the link provided in the module. Based on this task list, you will create a PERT chart and write a paper that discusses the following:Identify which set of tasks create the critical path.Determine which task would be best to crash to reduce the critical path.Determine if there is a change to the critical path by crashing the task. Is there a new critical path?What other information would be beneficial to know to see if the selected task was the best option for crashing?Your paper should be 2-to-3-pages, well written and in conformity with the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.) for style and writing expectations. Your PERT chart is part of your page requirements. Include a title page and a reference page that includes at least two outside references (in addition to your textbook) to support your analysis. Task Task Description Days to Complete Cost Days after Crash Cost after Crash Days Reduced Crash Cost Cost Per Day Reduced AB Develop plans for product 5 $ 1,500.00 3 $ 1,900.00 BC Have programmers customize software 7 $ 2,500.00 4 $ 3,300.00 BD Have engineer customize hardware 6 $ 1,800.00 5 $ 2,200.00 CE Have quality officer test software 4 $ 2,200.00 3 $ 2,800.00 DE Place hardware within casing 3 $ 1,400.00 2 $ 1,900.00 EF Install software onto hardware 7 $ 1,900.00 5 $ 2,200.00 Tasks are in (START) (STOP) formats. So, task AB starts at point A and ends at point B. For tasks BC and BD, they both start when tasks AB ends (point B). Consider this your “dependency” for the project. While most traditional PERT charts have a weighted average, consider the days to complete and crash as the established weighted averages. You must create a PERT chart for both pre- and post-crashing.
PMJ 3301 Colorado State University Engineer Customize Hardware Discussion

FIN 320 SNHU AT&T Inc Vs. Comcast Corp Financial Computation and Analysis

FIN 320 SNHU AT&T Inc Vs. Comcast Corp Financial Computation and Analysis.

For this part of the final project, you will be given a scenario in which you are asked to illustrate your financial computation and analysis skills.This part of the assessment addresses the following course outcomes: Compute financial ratios, time value, variables, and returns using industry standard tools for optimizing financial success Analyze corporate financial data for multiple companies in evaluating past and future financial performancesPart II PromptFor this section of your employment exam, you will select two companies. The first company needs to come from your TDAU thinkorswim portfolio. The second needs to be a competitor of the first company from the same industry. You will be responsible for collecting, synthesizing, and making decisions regarding both companies. After evaluating these companies’ financial data, you will then decide which company’s stock is the better investment.This section of your employment examination must be submitted in two parts. Part A will contain the workbooks that house all of your quantitative data and formulas, along with any of the information that is relevant for your chosen companies. Part B will contain your answers to the questions asked below, composed in a cohesive manner. If you are referring to data that is found within the workbooks in Part A, be sure to include a citation—for example, “rate of return is 3.570 USD (E64, WB2),” where E64 is the cell that the calculation took place in and WB2 is designating “workbook 2.” This ensures that your instructor can quickly and accurately check data entry, formula use, and financial calculations.Your submission must address the following critical elements:I. Preparing the WorkbooksA. Download the annual income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements for the last three completed fiscal years for your chosen companies. This information must be included in your final submission.B. Prepare a worksheet for each of the companies to display their financial data for the last three fiscal years. Ensure your data is accurate and organized. Include these worksheets as a workbook in your final submission.C. Find historical stock prices for both companies and add this information to the respective spreadsheets. Consider the appropriate date range you should use.II. Three-Year ReturnsA. What is the three-year return on the stock price of the first company (Company A)? How is the stock performing? Ensure that you use the appropriate formula in your spreadsheets to calculate the three-year return on the given company’s stock price.B. What is the three-year return on the stock price of the second company (Company B)? How is this stock performing? Ensure that you use the appropriate formula in your spreadsheets to calculate the three-year return on your chosen company’s stock price.C. How do these two stocks compare in terms of three-year returns? What does this indicate about these two companies?III. Financial CalculationsA. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the price-to-earnings ratio for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.B. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the debt-to-equity ratios for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.C. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the return-on-equity ratios for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.D. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the earnings per share for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.E. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the profit margins for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.F. Using the appropriate spreadsheets, which are to be included in the workbooks, calculate the free cash flows for the last three fiscal years of the given and your chosen companies. Be sure that you are entering and using the correct formula.IV. Industry AveragesA. Obtain current industry averages of three of the financial calculations above for both companies and add this information to your spreadsheet for comparison. Ensure the accuracy and organization of your data.B. In this context, how is each company’s financial health? How do these two companies compare to one another? Consider the appropriate date range you should use.V. Performance Over TimeA. Analyze the performance of the Company A over time. What financial strengths and weaknesses does this company have? Consider addressing the free cash flows and ratios you calculated earlier.B. Analyze the performance of your Company B over time. What financial strengths and weaknesses does this company have? Consider addressing the free cash flows and ratios you calculated earlier.C. Analyze how the data differ between these two companies. Why do you think this is? Consider addressing the free cash flows and ratios you calculated earlier.VI. InvestmentA. Are the companies considered growth or value companies? Why?B. Which company’s stock is the better investment? Consider supporting your answer with data.Final Project Part II RubricGuidelines for Submission: This part of the final project will be submitted in two parts. Part A will contain the workbooks that house all of your quantitative data and formulas, along with any of the information that is relevant for your chosen company. Part B will contain your answers to the prompts, composed in a cohesive manner. Part B should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Citations should be formatted according to APA style.The two companies I am choosing are Comcast and AT&T
FIN 320 SNHU AT&T Inc Vs. Comcast Corp Financial Computation and Analysis

Walden University Social Worker Strategies in Today World Responses

Walden University Social Worker Strategies in Today World Responses.

I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ posts.Respond to at least two colleagues in one of the following ways:Expand upon your analysis of the skills the administrator demonstrated.Describe a strategy your colleague might use to address the aspect of the case study he or she identified as the most challenging.Be sure to use references in your response DB1—KylieSkills ImplementedIn the case study, the social worker used appropriate crisis-intervention skills. When Carla did not show up to work and missed an appointment with a client, the social worker attempted to reach Carla via phone first, then instructed the staff to either schedule the client with another staff member or to reschedule with Carla at a later date. The social worker remained calm and collected and followed protocol for such situations (Plummer et al, 2014, p 7-9). Conflict Resolution SkillsThe social worker in this case study demonstrated effective communication to address the conflict at hand (Northouse, 2021, p 348). After attempts of contacting Carla, the social worker communicated with staff and the authorities. In addition, the social worker took steps to meet the client’s needs and ensure their needs were being met when the appointment with Carla was disrupted. Relationship dimension was also used in this case (Northouse, 2021, p 349). The agency created a memorial for Carla that allowed them to connect their personal relationships with her and display them to gain a sense of healing.ChallengeAs the administrator, I might find it difficult to dictate whether a welfare check was necessary. Everyone has off days that may lead them to oversleeping and missing work. I have personally worked in a variety of settings where this scenario occurred. However, I believe in gut instincts and following agency protocol. If something seems out of character, the best course of action would be to call for a welfare check for peace of mind rather than wonder if the individual is safe.ReferencesNorthouse, P. G. (2021). Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Sage.Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing [Vital Source e-reader].DB2—EmilioPost an explanation of the types of skills the social work administrator demonstrated as she addressed the problem of Carla’s absence at work and the trauma-related events that followed. Carla is a therapist at a multiservice agency providing mental health. When Carla failed to show up to work, which was unusual for her, the Program Coordinator decided to conduct a welfare check by the local police. Carla was eventually found dead and was labeled a suspicious death (Plummer & Brocksen, 2014). The skills demonstrated by Carla’s supervisor were superb. As a supervisor facing unexpected situations such as the unexpected death of a subordinate, one needs to have several things in mind. They include but are not limited to how the clients in the facility react to the tragic and possibly violent death of a person they knew and treated. These individuals may be fragile in their present condition, and news such as Carla’s death could worsen their mental stability. In addition, the supervisor has to take into account how Carla’s co-workers will react to the news as well.In Carla’s case, the supervisor acted a methodical manner, taking into account HIPAA by protecting the client’s information when questioned by the police. The supervisor also had a plan when notifying the current facility clients by having mental health specialists work as a team if any person required or requested further assistance to the tragic news. The supervisor took some challenging tasks that needed to be done and directed people on advising folks in need and when to do it. Northhouse states that when faced with obstacles, the person should take a “directive leadership” approach. Be sure to include an analysis of the administrator’s use of conflict resolution skills. When analyzing the supervisor’s skills in resolving conflict, one has to review his actions. The supervisor’s communicative skills stand out. The way the supervisor was able to direct the individuals at the facility in directing any unforeseen conflicts caused by the mental health specialist’s death was a perfect example of resolving conflict. By properly and clearly communicating how they will relay the information of the tragic incident, the supervisor was able to diffuse any other situation that could have made matters worse. Especially if the clients being treated have mental issues. Finally, identify one aspect of the case study that would be most challenging to you if you were the administrator, and explain why.As a supervisor, one may want to follow the rules and figures of authority. Police officers are such people. As a supervisor, if questioned and directed to do or provide something, one should always seek counsel; if not, go to a higher person to make sure it is the correct thing to do. The supervisor asked the police for a subpoena which is the correct thing to say, especially if one may violate the patient’s confidentiality. Going against police orders may be difficult to do. However, one needs to always keep in mind the client and not the facility. Doing so may buy a person time to take a second look at any request by a person of authority and change the way one will handle those requests. ReferenceNorthouse, P. G. (2021). Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Sage.Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing [Vital Source e-reader].“Social Work Supervision: Trauma Within Agencies” (pp. 7–9)
Walden University Social Worker Strategies in Today World Responses

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